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23 mei

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2006 23:24    Onderwerp: 23 mei Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Heftige Kämpfe vor Ort und Festung Douaumont

Großes Hauptquartier, 23. Mai.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Absicht eines Gegenangriffs der Engländer südwestlich von Givenchy-en-Gohelle wurde erkannt, die Ausführung durch Sperrfeuer verhindert. Kleinere englische Vorstöße in Gegend von Roclincourt wurden abgewiesen.
Im Maasgebiet war die Gefechtstätigkeit infolge ausgedehnter Gegenstoßversuche des Feindes besonders lebhaft.
Links des Flusses nahmen wir südlich des Camardwaldes ein französisches Blockhaus. Feindliche Angriffe östlich der Höhe 304 und am Südhange des "Toten Mannes" scheiterten. Rechts des Flusses kam es auf der Front nördlich des Gehöftes Thiaumont bis in den Caillettewald zu heftigen Infanteriekämpfen. Im Anschluß an starke Feuervorbereitung drangen die Franzosen in unsere vordersten Stellungen ein. Unsere Gegenstöße warfen sie auf den Flügeln des Angriffsabschnitts wieder zurück. Südlich des Dorfes und südlich der ehemaligen Feste Douaumont, die übrigens fest in unserer Hand blieb, ist der Kampf noch nicht abgeschlossen. Nordwestlich der Feste Vaux wurde ein vorgestern vorübergehend in Feindeshand gefallener Sappenkopf zurückerobert.
Durch Sprengung zerstörten wir auf der Combreshöhe die erste und zweite französische Linie in erheblicher Ausdehnung.
Bei Vaux-les-Palamair und Seuzey (auf den Maashöhen südöstlich von Verdun) brachen feindliche Angriffe in der Hauptsache im Sperrfeuer zusammen. Kleine in unsere Gräben eingedrungene Abteilungen wurden dort niedergekämpft.
Ein feindliches Flugzeug wurde südwestlich von Vailly abgeschossen.
Östlicher und Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)



Der 1. Weltkrieg: Die südöstliche Ecke des eroberten italienischen Panzerwerks Monte Verena
Die südöstliche Ecke des eroberten italienischen Panzerwerks Monte Verena
Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Flucht der Italiener aus dem Suganatal

Wien, 23. Mai.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Unsere Truppen rücken nun auch beiderseits des Suganatals vor. Burgen (Borgo) wurde vom Feind fluchtartig verlassen; reiche Beute fiel in unsere Hand. Das Grazer Korps überschritt die Grenze und verfolgt den geschlagenen Gegner. Das italienische Werk Monte Verena ist bereits in unserem Besitz. Im Brandtal ist der Angriff auf die feindlichen Stellungen bei Chiesa im Gange.
Die Zahl der seit 15. Mai erbeuteten Geschütze hat sich auf 188 erhöht.
Unsere Seeflugzeuge belegten die Eisenbahnstrecke San Dona di Piave-Porto Gruaro mit zahlreichen Bomben.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:
Luftangriff auf Port Said

Konstantinopel, 23. Mai.
Irakfront:
Da den Bedürfnissen der neuen Lage entsprechend, die sich infolge der Einnahme von Kut el Amara zu unseren Gunsten ergeben hatte, eine Änderung in unserem Verteidigungsplan notwendig geworden war, hatten wir vor drei Tagen unsere auf dem rechten Tigrisufer stehenden Truppen ein wenig zurückgezogen. Der Feind erkannte dies erst nach zwei Tagen. Wir stellten fest, daß der Gegner gegen unsere Stellungen auf dem genannten Ufer nur einen Teil seiner Kavallerie vorwarf, und zwar mit dem einzigen Zweck der Aufklärung.
Kaukasusfront:
Auf dem rechten Flügel verlief der 21. Mai ruhig. Im Zentrum fanden örtliche Infanteriekämpfe statt. Auf dem linken Flügel unternahm der Feind in der Nacht vom 19. zum 20. Mai zwei Überfälle auf unsere Vorposten, die jedoch alle beide abgeschlagen wurden.
In der Nacht vom 19. Mai erschienen acht feindliche Flieger in der Gegend der Dardanellenstraße. Sie warfen ungefähr 70 Bomben ohne jede Wirkung. Einer unserer Kampfflieger griff die feindlichen Flieger zweimal an und eröffnete auf sie wirksam Maschinengewehrfeuer. In derselben Nacht unternahm eins unserer Wasserflugzeuge auf der Verfolgung der feindlichen Flieger einen Flug nach Imbros, wo es aus 600 Meter Höhe nenn Bomben auf die feindlichen Flugzeugschuppen warf. Gute Wirkung wurde festgestellt. Von der Höhe von Imbros aus schleuderte ein feindlicher Monitor am 20. Mai wirkungslos einige Geschosse gegen Sed ül Bahr. Auf einem feindlichen Kreuzer, welcher zwei Barkassen schleppte, wurde durch unser Artilleriefeuer der Schornstein beschädigt und der große Mast gebrochen, in dem Augenblicke, als er sich der Küste südlich von Kusche Ada in den Gewässern von Smyrna näherte. Vor unserem Feuer mußte sich der erwähnte Kreuzer in der Richtung auf Samos entfernen, nachdem er nur vier Schüsse abgegeben hatte.
Als Erwiderung auf die Beschießung von El Arisch griff eines unserer Fliegergeschwader in der Nacht vom 20. zum 21. Mai Port Said an und warf zahlreiche Bomben auf die an der Küste und im Hafen verankerten feindlichen Schiffe, sowie auf Militärposten der Stadt. Wir stellten fest, daß durch diese Bomben große Brände hervorgerufen wurden. Trotz heftigen Feuers seitens der Truppen und feindlichen Schiffe sind unsere Flieger sämtlich wohlbehalten zurückgekehrt.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Italian Entry into the War, 23 May 1915

Having declared a policy of neutrality at the outset of the war on 2 August 1914, the Italian government was eventually persuaded to enter the war on the side of the Allies in May 1915.

Italy's decision to enter the war was largely driven by the terms of the secret 1915 Treaty of London under which she had been promised large territorial gains at the close of the war at Austria-Hungary's expense.

On 23 May 1915, the day Italy joined the war, the Italian Prime Minister, Antonio Salandra, issued the following declaration of support for the Allies.

I address myself to Italy and to the civilized world in order to show not by violent words, but by exact facts and documents, how the fury of our enemies has vainly attempted to diminish the high moral and political dignity of the cause which our arms will make prevail.

I shall speak with the calm of which the King of Italy has given a noble example, when he called his land and sea forces to arms. I shall speak with the respect due to my position and to the place in which I speak.

I can afford to ignore the insults written in Imperial, Royal, and Archducal proclamations. Since I speak from the Capitol, and represent in this solemn hour the people and the Government of Italy, I, a modest citizen, feel that I am far nobler than the head of the house of the Hapsburgs.

The commonplace statesmen who, in rash frivolity of mind and mistaken in all their calculations, set fire last July to the whole of Europe and even to their own hearths and homes, have now noticed their fresh colossal mistake, and in the Parliaments of Budapest and Berlin have poured forth brutal invective of Italy and her Government with the obvious design of securing the forgiveness of their fellow citizens and intoxicating them with cruel visions of hatred and blood.

The German Chancellor said he was imbued not with hatred, but with anger, and he spoke the truth, because he reasoned badly, as is usually the case in fits of rage. I could not, even if I chose, imitate their language. An atavistic throwback to primitive barbarism is more difficult for us who have twenty centuries behind us more than they have.

The fundamental thesis of the statesmen of Central Europe is to be found in the words "treason and surprise on the part of Italy toward her faithful allies." It would be easy to ask if he has any right to speak of alliance and respect for treaties who, representing with infinitely less genius, but with equal moral indifference, the tradition of Frederick the Great and Bismarck proclaimed that necessity knows no law, and consented to his country trampling under foot and burying at the bottom of the ocean all the documents and all the customs of civilization and international law.

But that would be too easy an argument. Let us examine, on the contrary, positively and calmly, if our former allies are entitled to say that they were betrayed and surprised by us.

Our aspirations had long been known, as was also our judgment on the act of criminal madness by which they shook the world and robbed the alliance itself of its closest raison d'etre. The "Green Book" prepared by Baron Sonnino, with whom it is the pride of my life to stand united in entire harmony in this solemn hour after thirty years of friendship, shows the long, difficult, and useless negotiations that took place between December and May.

But it is not true, as has been asserted without a shadow of foundation, that the Ministry reconstituted last November made a change in the direction of our international policy. The Italian Government, whose policy has never changed, severely condemned, at the very moment when it learned of it, the aggression of Austria against Serbia, and foresaw the consequences of that aggression, consequences which had not been foreseen by those who had premeditated the stroke with such lack of conscience.

In effect, Austria, in consequence of the terms in which her note was couched, and in consequence of the things demanded, which, while of little effect against the Pan-Serbian danger, were profoundly offensive to Serbia, and indirectly so to Russia, had clearly shown that she wished to provoke war.

Hence we declared to von Flotow that, in consequence of this procedure on the part of Austria and in consequence of the defensive and conservative character of the Triple Alliance Treaty, Italy was under no obligation to assist Austria if, as the result of this demarche, she found herself at war with Russia, because any European war would in such an event be the consequence of the act of provocation and aggression committed by Austria.

The Italian Government on July 27th and 28th emphasized in clear and unmistakable language to Berlin and Vienna the question of the cession of the Italian provinces subject to Austria, and we declared that if we did not obtain adequate compensation the Triple Alliance would have been irreparably broken. Impartial history will say that Austria, having found Italy in July, 1913, and in October, 1913, hostile to her intentions of aggression against Serbia, attempted last summer, in agreement with Germany, the method of surprise and the fait accompli.

The horrible crime of Sarajevo was exploited as a pretext a month after it happened - this was proved by the refusal of Austria to accept the very extensive offers of Serbia - nor at the moment of the general conflagration would Austria have been satisfied with the unconditional acceptance of the ultimatum.

Count Berchtold on July 3rst declared to the Duke of Avarna that, if there had been a possibility of mediation being exercised, it could not have interrupted hostilities, which had already begun with Serbia. This was the mediation for which Great Britain and Italy were working. In any case, Count Berchtold was not disposed to accept mediation tending to weaken the conditions indicated in the Austrian note, which, naturally, would have been increased at the end of the war.

If, moreover, Serbia had decided meanwhile to accept the aforementioned note in its entirety, declaring herself ready to agree to the conditions imposed on her, that would not have persuaded Austria to cease hostilities. It is not true, as Count Tisza declared, that Austria did not undertake to make territorial acquisitions to the detriment of Serbia, who, moreover, by accepting all the conditions imposed upon her, would have become a subject State.

The Austrian Ambassador, Herr Merey von Kapos-Mere, on July 30th, stated to the Marquis di San Giuliano that Austria could not make a binding declaration on this subject, because she could not foresee whether, during the war, she might not be obliged, against her will, to keep Serbian territory.

On July 29th Count Berchtold stated to the Duke of Avarna that he was not inclined to enter into any engagement concerning the eventual conduct of Austria in the case of a conflict with Serbia.

Where is, then, the treason, the iniquity, the surprise, if, after nine months of vain efforts to reach an honourable understanding which recognized in equitable measure our rights and our liberties, we resumed liberty of action? The truth is that Austria and Germany believed until the last days that they had to deal with an Italy weak, blustering, but not acting, capable of trying blackmail, but not enforcing by arms her good right, with an Italy which could be paralyzed by spending a few millions, and which by dealings which she could not avow was placing herself between the country and the Government.

I will not deny the benefits of the alliance; benefits, however, not one-sided, but accruing to all the contracting parties, and perhaps not more to us than to the others. The continued suspicions and the aggressive intentions of Austria against Italy are notorious and are authentically proved.

The Chief of the General Staff, Baron Conrad von Holtzendorff, always maintained that war against Italy was inevitable, either on the question of the irredentist provinces or from jealousy, that Italy intended to aggrandize herself as soon as she was prepared, and meanwhile opposed everything that Austria wished to undertake in the Balkans, and consequently it was necessary to humiliate her in order that Austria might have her hands free, and he deplored that Italy had not been attacked in 1907.

Even the Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs recognized that in the military party the opinion was prevalent that Italy must be suppressed by war because from the Kingdom of Italy came the attractive force of the Italian provinces of the empire, and consequently by a victory over the kingdom and its political annihilation all hope for the irredentists would cease.

We see now on the basis of documents how our allies aided us in the Libyan undertaking. The operations brilliantly begun by the Duke of the Abruzzi against the Turkish torpedo boats encountered at Preveza were stopped by Austria in a sudden and absolute manner.

Count Aehrenthal on October 1st informed our Ambassador at Vienna that our operations had made a painful impression upon him and that he could not allow them to be continued. It was urgently necessary, he said, to put an end to them and to give orders to prevent them from being renewed, either in Adriatic or in Ionian waters.

The following day the German Ambassador at Vienna, in a still more threatening manner, confidentially informed our Ambassador that Count Aehrenthal had requested him to telegraph to his Government to give the Italian Government to understand that if it continued its naval operations in the Adriatic and in the Ionian Seas it would have to deal directly with Austria-Hungary.

And it was not only in the Adriatic and in the Ionian Seas that Austria paralyzed our actions. On November 5th Count Aehrenthal informed the Duke of Avarna that he had learned that Italian warships had been reported off Salonika, where they had used electric searchlights - and declared that our action on the Ottoman coasts of European Turkey, as well as on the Aegean Islands, could not have been allowed either by Austria-Hungary or by Germany, because it was contrary to the Triple Alliance Treaty.

In March, 1912, Count Berchtold, who had in the meantime succeeded Count Aehrenthal, declared to the German Ambassador in Vienna that, in regard to our operations against the coasts of European Turkey and the Aegean Islands, he adhered to the point of view of Count Aehrenthal, according to which these operations were considered by the Austro-Hungarian Government contrary to the engagement entered into by us by Article VII. of the Triple Alliance Treaty.

As for our operations against the Dardanelles, he considered it opposed, first, to the promise made by us not to proceed to any act which might endanger the status quo in the Balkans, and, secondly, to the spirit of the same treaty, which was based on the maintenance of the status quo.

Afterward, when our squadron at the entrance to the Dardanelles was bombarded by Fort Kumkalessi and replied, damaging that fort, Count Berchtold complained of what had happened, considering it contrary to the promises we had made, and declared that if the Italian Government desired to resume its liberty of action, the Austro-Hungarian Government could have done the same.

He added that lie could not have allowed us to undertake in the future similar operations or operations in any way opposed to this point of view. In the same way our projected occupation of Chios was prevented. It is superfluous to remark how many lives of Italian soldiers and how many millions were sacrificed through the persistent vetoing of our actions against Turkey, who knew that she was protected by our allies against all attacks on her vital parts.

We were bitterly reproached for not having accepted the offers made toward the end of May, but were these offers made in good faith? Certain documents indicate that they were not. Franz Josef said that Italy was regarding the patrimony of his house with greedy eyes. Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg said that the aim of these concessions was to purchase our neutrality, and, therefore, gentlemen, you may applaud us for not having accepted them.

Moreover, these concessions, even in their last and belated edition, in no way responded to the objectives of Italian policy, which are, first, the defence of Italianism, the greatest of our duties; secondly, a secure military frontier, replacing that which was imposed upon us in 1866, by which all the gates of Italy are open to our adversaries; thirdly, a strategical situation in the Adriatic less dangerous and unfortunate than that which we have, and of which you have seen the effects in the last few days. All these essential advantages were substantially denied us.

To our minimum demand for the granting of independence to Trieste the reply was to offer Trieste administrative autonomy. Also the question of fulfilling the promises was very important. We were told not to doubt that they would be fulfilled, because we should have Germany's guarantee, but if at the end of the war Germany had not been able to keep it, what would our position have been? And in any case, after this agreement, the Triple Alliance would have been renewed, but in much less favourable conditions, for there would have been one sovereign State and two subject States.

On the day when one of the clauses of the treaty was not fulfilled, or on the day when the municipal autonomy of Trieste was violated by an imperial decree or by a lieutenant's orders, to whom should we have addressed ourselves? To our common superior - to Germany? I do not wish to speak of Germany to you without admiration and respect. I am the Italian Prime Minister, not the German Chancellor, and I do not lose my head. But with all respect for the learned, powerful, and great Germany, an admirable example of organization and resistance, in the name of Italy I declare for no subjection and no protectorate over any one.

The dream of a universal hegemony is shattered. The world has risen. The peace and civilization of future humanity must be founded on respect for existing national autonomies. Among these Germany will have to sit as an equal, and not as a master.

But a more remarkable example of the unmeasured pride with which the directors of German policy regard other nations is given in the picture which Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg drew of the Italian political world.

I do not know if it was the intention of this man, blinded by rage, personally to insult my colleagues and me. If that was the case, I should not mention it. We are men whose life you know, men who have served the State to an advanced age, men of spotless renown, men who have given the lives of their children for their country.

The information on which this judgment was based is attributed by the German Chancellor to him whom he calls the best judge of Italian affairs. Perhaps he alludes to Prince von Billow, with the brotherly desire to shoulder responsibilities upon him. Now, I do not wish you to entertain an erroneous idea of Prince von Billow's intentions. I believe that he had sympathies for Italy, and did all he could to bring about an agreement.

But how great and how numerous were the mistakes he made in translating his good intentions into action! He thought that Italy could be diverted from her path by a few millions ill-spent and by the influence of a few persons who have lost touch with the soul of the nation - by contact, attempted, but, I hope, not accomplished, with certain politicians.

The effect was the contrary. An immense outburst of indignation was kindled throughout Italy, and not among the populace, but among the noblest and most educated classes and among all the youth of the country, which is ready to shed its blood for the nation.

This outburst of indignation was kindled as the result of the suspicion that a foreign Ambassador was interfering between the Italian Government, the Parliament, and the country.

In the blaze thus kindled internal discussions melted away, and the whole nation was joined in a wonderful moral union, which will prove our greatest source of strength in the severe struggle which faces us, and which must lead us by our own virtue, and not by benevolent concessions from others, to the accomplishment of the highest destinies of the country.


Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/italiandeclaration.htm
Zie ook http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Italy's_Declaration_for_the_Allies
Achtergrondinformatie: http://timelines.com/perspectives/f75e9a35067a5b6d97cea112cb853c65
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Mei 2010 15:24, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Emperor Franz Josef on the Italian Declaration of War, 23 May 1915

Reproduced below is the formal reaction of Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Josef - that is, the official Austrian proclamation of war - to news that Italy had finally abandoned her policy of neutrality and entered the war against the Central Powers on 23 May 1915.

Given Italy's earlier alliance with both Germany and Austria-Hungary an indignant reaction from both countries was to be expected; in the event Italy had also negotiated a secret treaty with the Allies in London in April 1915 which promised sizeable territorial gains for Italy were she to join the Allied cause.

Emperor Franz Josef on the Italian Declaration of War

The King of Italy has declared war on me.

Perfidy whose like history does not know was committed by the Kingdom of Italy against both allies. After an alliance of more than thirty years' duration, during which it was able to increase its territorial possessions and develop itself to an un-thought of flourishing condition, Italy abandoned us in our hour of danger and went over with flying colours into the camp of our enemies.

We did not menace Italy; did not curtail her authority; did not attack her honour or interests. We always responded loyally to the duties of our alliance and afforded her our protection - then she took the field.

We have done more. When Italy directed covetous glances across our frontier we, in order to maintain peace and our alliance relation, were resolved on great and painful sacrifices which particularly grieved our paternal heart. But the covetousness of Italy, which believed the moment should be used, was not to be appeased, so fate must be accommodated.

My armies have victoriously withstood mighty armies in the north in ten months of this gigantic conflict in most loyal comradeship of arms with our illustrious ally. A new and treacherous enemy in the south is to you no new enemy.

Great memories of Novara, Mortaro, and Lissa, which constituted the pride of my youth; the spirit of Radetzky, Archduke Albrecht, and Tegetthoff, which continues to live in my land and sea forces, guarantee that in the south also we shall successfully defend the frontiers of the monarchy.

I salute my battle-tried troops, who are inured to victory. I rely on them and their leaders. I rely on my people for whose unexampled spirit of sacrifice my most paternal thanks are due. I pray the Almighty to bless our colours and take tinder His gracious protection our just cause.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/italywardec_franzjosef.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg on the Italian Declaration of War, 23 May 1915

Reproduced below is the formal reaction of German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg to news that Italy had finally abandoned her policy of neutrality and entered the war against the Central Powers on 23 May 1915.

Given Italy's earlier alliance with both Germany and Austria-Hungary an indignant reaction from both countries was to be expected; in the event Italy had also negotiated a secret treaty with the Allies in London in April 1915 which promised sizeable territorial gains for Italy were she to join the Allied cause.

Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg on the Italian Declaration of War

When I last spoke there was still a glimpse of hope that Italy's participation in the war could be avoided.

That hope proved fallacious. German feeling strove against the belief in the possibility of such a change. Italy has now inscribed in the book of the world's history, in letters of blood which will never fade, her violation of faith.

I believe Machiavelli once said that a war which is necessary is also just. Viewed from this sober, practical, political standpoint, which leaves out of account all moral considerations, has this war been necessary? Is it not, indeed, directly mad?

Nobody threatened Italy; neither Austria-Hungary nor Germany. Whether the Triple Entente was content with blandishments alone history will show later. Without a drop of blood flowing, and without the life of a single Italian being endangered, Italy could have secured the long list of concessions which I recently read to the House - territory in Tyrol and on the Isonzo as far as the Italian speech is heard, satisfaction of the national aspirations in Trieste, a free hand in Albania, and the valuable port of Valona.

Why have they not taken it? Do they, perhaps, wish to conquer the German Tyrol? Hands off! Did Italy wish to provoke Germany, to whom she owes so much in her upward growth of a great power, and from whom she is not separated by any conflict of interests?

We left Rome in no doubt that an Italian attack on Austro-Hungarian troops would also strike the German troops. Why did Rome refuse so light-heartedly the proposals of Vienna? The Italian manifesto of war, which conceals an uneasy conscience behind vain phrases, does not give us any explanation. They were too shy, perhaps, to say openly what was spread abroad as a pretext by the press and by gossip in the lobbies of the Chamber, namely, that Austria's offer came too late and could not be trusted.

What are the facts? Italian statesmen have no right to measure the trustworthiness of other nations in the same proportion as they measured their own loyalty to a treaty. Germany, by her word, guaranteed that the concessions would be carried through. There was no occasion for distrust. Why too late? On May 4th the Trentino was the same territory as it was in February, and a whole series of concessions had been added to the Trentino of which nobody had thought in the winter.

It was, perhaps, too late for this reason, that while the Triple Alliance, the existence of which the King and the Government had expressly acknowledged after the outbreak of war, was still alive, Italian statesmen had long before engaged themselves so deeply with the Triple Entente that they could not disentangle themselves.

There were indications of fluctuations in the Rome Cabinet as far back as December. To have two irons in the fire is always useful. Before this Italy had shown her predilection for extra dances, but this is no ballroom. This is a bloody battlefield upon which Germany and Austria-Hungary are fighting for their lives against a world of enemies. The statesmen of Rome have played against their own people the same game as they played against us.

It is true that the Italian-speaking territory on the northern frontier has always been the dream and the desire of every Italian, but the great majority of the Italian people, as well as the majority in Parliament, did not want to know anything of war. According to the observation of the best judge of the situation in Italy, in the first days of May 4th-5th of the Senate and two-thirds of the Chamber were against war, and in that majority were the most responsible and important statesmen.

But common sense had no say. The mob alone ruled. Under the kindly disposed toleration and with the assistance of the leading statesmen of a Cabinet fed with the gold of the Triple Entente, the mob, under the guidance of unscrupulous war instigators, was roused to a frenzy of blood which threatened the King with revolution and all moderate men with murder if they did not join in the war delirium.

The Italian people were intentionally kept in the dark with regard to the course of the Austrian negotiations and the extent of the Austrian concessions, and so it came about that after the resignation of the Salandra Cabinet nobody could be found who had the courage to undertake the formation of a new Cabinet, and that in the decisive debate no member of the Constitutional Party in the Senate or Chamber even attempted to estimate the value of the far-reaching Austrian concessions.

In the frenzy of war honest politicians grew dumb, but when, as the result of military events (as we hope and desire), the Italian people become sober again it will recognize how frivolously it was instigated to take part in this world war.

We did everything possible to avoid the alienation of Italy from the Triple Alliance. The ungrateful role fell to us of requiring from our loyal ally, Austria, with whose armies our troops share daily wounds, death, and victory, the purchase of the loyalty of the third party to the alliance by the cession of old-inherited territory.

That Austria-Hungary went to the utmost limit possible is known. Prince von Bulow, who again entered into the active service of the empire, tried by every means, his diplomatic ability, his most thorough knowledge of the Italian situation and of Italian personages, to come to an understanding.

Though his work has been in vain, the entire people are grateful to him. Also this storm we shall endure. From month to month we grow more intimate with our ally. From the Pilitza to the Bukowina we tenaciously withstood with our Austro-Hungarian comrades for months the gigantic superiority of the enemy. Then we victoriously advanced.

So our new enemies will perish through the spirit of loyalty and the friendship and bravery of the central powers. In this war Turkey is celebrating a brilliant regeneration. The whole German people follow with enthusiasm the different phases of the obstinate, victorious resistance with which the loyal Turkish Army and fleet repulse the attacks of their enemies with heavy blows. Against the living wall of our warriors in the west our enemies up till now have vainly stormed.

If in some places fighting fluctuates, if here or there a trench or a village is lost or won, the great attempt of our adversaries to break through, which they announced five months ago, did not succeed, and will not succeed. They will perish through the heroic bravery of our soldiers.

Up till now our enemies have summoned in vain against us all the forces of the world and a gigantic coalition of brave soldiers. We will not despise our enemies, as our adversaries like to do. At the moment when the mob in English towns is dancing around the stake at which the property of defenceless Germans is burning, the English Government dared to publish a document, with the evidence of unarmed witnesses, on the alleged cruelties in Belgium, which are of so monstrous a character that only mad brains could believe them.

But while the English press does not permit itself to be deprived of news, the terror of the censorship reigns in Paris. No casualty lists appear, and no German or Austrian communiqués may be printed. Severely wounded invalids are kept away from their relations, and real fear of the truth appears to be the motive of the Government.

Thus it comes about, according to trustworthy observation, that there is no knowledge of the heavy defeats which the Russians have sustained, and the belief continues in the Russian "steam-roller" advancing on Berlin, which is "perishing from starvation and misery," and confidence exists in the great offensive in the west, which for months has not progressed.

If the Governments of hostile States believe that by the deception of the people and by unchaining blind hatred they can shift the blame for the crime of this war and postpone the day of awakening, we, relying on our good conscience, a just cause, and a victorious sword, will not allow ourselves to be forced by a hair's breadth from the path which we have always recognized as right. Amid this confusion of minds on the other side, the German people goes on its own way, calm and sure.

Not in hatred do we wage this war, but in anger - in holy anger. The greater the danger we have to confront, surrounded on all sides by enemies, the more deeply does the love of home grip our hearts, the more must we care for our children and grandchildren, and the more must we endure until we have conquered and have secured every possible real guarantee and assurance that no enemy alone or combined will dare again a trial of arms.

The more wildly the storm rages around us the more firmly must we build our own house. For this consciousness of united strength, unshaken courage, and boundless devotion, which inspire the whole people, and for the loyal cooperation which you, gentlemen, from the first day have given to the Fatherland, I bring you, as the representatives of the entire people, the warm thanks of the Emperor.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923,
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/italywardec_bethmann.htm
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23 May 1915 Declaration by British Government

[From Foreign Office press office for publication in Monday morning papers (23 May 1915)]

H.M. Government, in common with the Governments of France and Russia, make the following public declaration:-

For about the last month Kurds and the Turkish population of Armenia have been engaged in massacring Armenians with connivance and often help of Ottoman Authorities. Such massacres took place about the middle of April, at Erzroum, Dertchan, Egin, Bitlis, Sassoun, Moush, Zeitun, and in all Cilicia.

Inhabitants of about 100 villages near Van were all assassinated. In town itself Armenians’ quarter is besieged by Kurds. At the same time Ottoman Government at Constantinople is raging against inoffensive Armenian population.

In face of these fresh crimes committed by Turkey the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold all the members of the Ottoman Government, as well as such of their agents as are implicated, personally responsible for Armenian massacres.”

http://www.gomidas.org/NOTES_AND_STUDIES/23_May_1915_Declaration.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Festubert, 15 - 25 May 1915

20-22 May 1915 - The Divisional reliefs take place, without incident. 3rd Canadian Brigade gradually pushes forward and occupies the Orchard (known thereafter as the Canadian Orchard). The Canadian troops report many problems with their standard Ross rifle, which exhibits a tendency to jam.

23 May 1915 - A First Army commanders conference concludes by agreeing to launch the 47th (their first major assault) and Canadian Divisions into a further attack. The artillery begins a bombardment during the evening.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat11A.html
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23 May 1916, Commons Sitting

WELSH LANGUAGE (SOLDIERS' LETTERS).


HC Deb 23 May 1916 vol 82 cc1954-5 1954

Sir HERBERT ROBERTS asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether he is aware of the action taken by the military censors in France in regard to letters written in the Welsh language by Welsh soldiers serving at the front; whether his attention has been drawn to the particular case of a letter written by Private D. A. Jones, 35,250, in Welsh, to a relative in Wales, which was censored upon the ground that a letter written in Welsh is not allowable; and whether he will give an assurance that arrangements will be made which will prevent the censoring of such correspondence in future?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for WAR (Mr. Tennant) The Regulations with regard to censorship of letters written in the Welsh language are quite clear and satisfactory. They are as follows:

All ranks in France have been informed that letters are permitted to be written in the Welsh language and this privilege has been made known in Wales through the vernacular Press.

1955 Letters written in Welsh do not differ from letters in any other language in regard to liability to censorship. They may be censored either regimentally or, if contained in the green envelope, at the Base. In case of difficulty they may be transferred to the London Censorship for examination.

The action of the military censors in France is governed by the censorship regulations for troops in the field. It is there laid down that letters in Welsh which cannot be censored regimentally should be sent under cover to the Chief Postal Censor, War Office. There are censors both at the Base in France and at the War Office, who are able to read letters written in Welsh.

I am obtaining a report upon the particular case to which my hon. Friend draws attention in the question. It will thus be seen that letters written in Welsh are not exempt from censorship, and it is certainly not the case that there is a prohibition against letters being written in Welsh.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/may/23/welsh-language-soldiers-letters
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Lafayette Escadrille

After about a month of service at Luxeuil, the new squadron was transferred into the Verdun sector to the Behonne Aerodrome near the village of Bar-le-Duc.

During this period, Clyde Balsley, Dudley Hill, Charles Johnson, Raoul Lufbery, Didier Masson, Paul Pavelka, and Laurence Rumsey joined the squadron.

The squadron was very active flying 146 sorties from the Behonne Airfield. Bert Hall scored the squadron’s second victory and his first on 23 May, and he scored his second on 23 July. Lufbery shot down a two-seater on 31 July.

During this tour, Rockwell and Thaw were wounded and on 23 June, Victor Chapman was shot down over the Verdun sector after being attacked by three German fighters.

For a week in July, the French Air Force pilot, Lieutenant Charles Nungesser flew with the Lafayette Escadrille. Nungesser went on to become one of France’s great aces with 45 victories.

By mid-September when it was reassigned to Luxeuil, the squadron could claim 13 victories.

http://www.neam.org/lafescweb/conflict2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1st Middlesex Regiment: War Diary: May 1916

22nd May 1916 - 23rd May 1916 - In billets ANNEQUIN NORTH. During the afternoon of the 23rd our artillery carried out a heavy bombardment of the enemy's trenches astride the LA BASSEE RD and at night followed this up by three short bombardments at intervals of about 2 hours with the object of catching hostile working parties in the act of repairing the damage to their trenches.

http://www.resthepast.co.uk/army/wardiaries/middlesex/1btn/May1916.html
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T. E. Lawrence, report, 23 May 1917

IN SHERIF ABDULLAH'S CAMP
[Arab Bulletin, 23 May 1917]

Captain T. E. Lawrence, whose report on his journeys to and from Sherif Abdullah's camp, as well as on the two chief raids in which he took part, have appeared separately, sent also an account of his stay in the camp itself. From this we take the following notes:-

Abdullah had a force of about 3,000 men, mostly Ateibah. These Capt. Lawrence thought very inferior as fighting men to the Harb and Juheinah, being unadulterated Bedouins. Their Sheikhs are ignorant men, lacking in influence and character, and they appear to be without interest in the campaign. They also knew nothing of the country they are in. Abdullah himself was leading rather an irresponsible hedonistic existence. His tastes appear to be pronouncedly literary. He takes great interest in the war in Europe and follows the operations on the Somme and the general course of European politics most closely (through Arabic newspapers which he spends most of the day in reading). [Stayed Abdulla's camp March 15 to March 20. 1st boils: 2nd dysentery: 3rd 10 days malaria.] 'I was surprised to find', says Capt. Lawrence, 'that he knew the family relationships of the Royal Houses of Europe and the names and characters of their ministers.' He believes that he could make him­self supreme in Yemen. If he succeeded, 'it would transform the Sherif's state from a loose hegemony of Bedouin tribes into a populous, wealthy and vigorous kingdom of villagers and townspeople'. Capt. Lawrence adds, with justice, that all past movements of importance in Arabia have been the work of the settled peoples, not of the tribes.

Sheikhs Shakir and Dakhilallah el-Gadhi were the two outstanding personalities in the camp. Both are men of action, and the first has an authority hardly inferior to that of the King or his sons. The Ateibah worship him. Dakhilallah is hereditary lawman of the Juheinah and possesses some science, speaking Turkish well. In fact, he was with the Turks up to December last and came down with them to Nakhl Mubarak. He seems to be a man of energy, resolution and persistence.


In regard to railway raids, Capt. Lawrence gives a rough list of those carried out during his stay from March 24 to April 6.

'March 24. Bueir.
Sixty rails dynamited and telegraph cut.

" 25. Abu el-Naam.
Twenty-five rails dynamited, watertower, two
station buildings seriously damaged by shell fire,
seven box-wagons and wood store and tents
destroyed by fire, telegraph cut, engine and bogie
damaged.

" 26. Istabl Antar.
Fifteen rails dynamited and telegraph cut.

" 29. Jedahah.
Ten rails dynamited, telegraph cut, five Turks
killed.

" 31. Bueir.
Five rails dynamited, telegraph cut.

April 3. Hadiyah.
Eleven rails dynamited, telegraph cut.

" 5. Mudahrij.
200 rails blown up, four-arched bridge destroyed,
telegraph cut.

" 6. "
Locomotive mined and put out of action
temporarily.

" 6. Bueir.
Twenty-two rails cut, culvert blown up,
telegraph cut.

The Turks lost about thirty-six killed, and we took some seventy prisoners and deserters during the operations.

From April 7 a regular service of dynamiters was begun, from Ain Turaa, working against the Mudahrij-Abu el-Naam section, and from Bueir against the Istabl Antar-Bowat section. Dynamiters have been ordered to blow up not more than five rails per night and do something every night. The result of the first three nights' work was satisfactory, but no later details have reached me.'


In conclusion, Capt. Lawrence pays a tribute to Abdullah's sincerity and earnestness, while he thinks him not a military commander or a man of action in any way. He is too fond of pleasure and, in a sense, evidently too civilized for his present wild work. Capt. Lawrence, however, got him to do a good deal - to pay up the Ateibah (whose allowances were in arrears), to take an interest in his guns and machine - guns, to send out his dynamite parties, and to begin to prepare for a general move towards the railway. The report ends with an optimistic forecast.

'As regards the situation at Medina, I think the great bulk of the troops and practically all stores have been evacuated northward in small parties by rail. The programme for a route-march of the main body to el-Ula has (wisely, I think, for the Turks) been abandoned, and the fall of Medina is now merely a question of when the Arabs like to put an end to the affair. The Turks have little food, but so small a garrison that the question has less importance. No food is going in from the north, so that sooner or later starvation will ensue. Till it does, the Arabs will probably not enter the town, since the Emirs are all anxious to avoid warlike action against the place itself, for religious reasons.'

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170523_in_sherif_abdullah's_camp.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Casualty Lists - May 16, 1918

86 Casualties Reported from Overseas; 14 Killed in Action, 12 Dead from Wounds

Washington, May 23. - The War Department today gave out a list of 86 casualties in the American army abroad, bringing the total to 6,194. The list included the names of 14 killed in action, 12 died of wounds, 1 missing in action, 39 severely wounded, 9 slightly wounded, and 11 died of disease.

Three commissioned officers are included. Lieutenant James Palache died of wounds. Lieutenants John T. Maguire and Hugh L. Sutherland were severely wounded. This is the second time Lieutenant Maguire has been reported wounded. On Feb. 15 last the War Department announced that Lieutenant Maguire had been slightly wounded in action on Feb. 6. He is now reported as having been severely wounded.

Lees verder op http://distantcousin.com/military/wwi/nytcasualties/1918/may/23.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

University of California

May 23 [1919] – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 15:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Paul B Hendrickson to Miss Cecil Rife, 23 May 1919

May 23- 1919
Camp Merritt N.Y.

My dear Cecil-

Today I rec. your letters of May 4th and 18th. Also mothers letter of May 3- if you don't mind telling her so. I just wrote and mailed her letter just before I received the one mentioned.

Well from what you and mother say - they must have a pretty good phonograph. I know I will enjoy it, and as you say - little did I think of them getting one, sure came as a surprise.

You speak of having my camera & some music & a book. I know you will take good care of it, so I would not worry if you had the rest of the stuff, so far as its being taken care of is concerned. So don't worry, for I'm not.

I've had a hundred times, more reasons for worry and never did, so I won't begin now.

There are a few times in our lives when we look back over them, seems just like either a wonderful dream or a terrible one. Our intense service in the front, seems like a night mare as I remember it once in a while, and the trip to Nice just the reverse. A wonderful romantic fairy tale. Also the one nite of all my life - when I met all of you folks at the Depot on my way accross - the one instance you mentioned. That nite never has seemed real to me yet. It was so little anticipated, for it was more than I had any possible grounds to hope for, and came as one of the most pleasant and needed experiences of my life, for I left U.S. with more peace of mind than any things else on earth could have given me. I am sure it had practically the same effect on mother, if not others, if I may claim so much.

Again - I am living in a constant dream right now. I am in the most wonderful country on earth, so why should it not seem like a dream to me. This is realy, honest to God - America, the only place on earth worth while. People here in Civilian life, speak the same language I do. that fact has not yet lost its novelty. It was a dream come true as I stood on one of the high points of the Old Leviathans forward deck, the greatest ship in the world, and watched the Statue of Liberty come into view and, standing there a manifestation of the greatest principle of our country, a great and silent welcome to all who comes this way - we stood there watching with a reverential silence, until over come by our emotions we burst into one wild roar of cheering, as the great ship, slipped noislesly by into the harbor. That incident lives as a picture in my mind, or as a dream and I can hardly make myself realy believe I lived it. Yet its so.

I've experienced some of the most varied emotions and sensations in the past few months, I believe it possible for a human to experience in so short a time, for coming out of the battle field, after having made up my mind for the worst, is as near experiencing a ressurection as any thing I could describe it as being.

I know the last 25 months - nearly 26 it is - has made some change in me. I hope most of it has been for the better and will be a credit to me - but I know it hasn't all been for the betterment of me, and I do hope this percentage is very small - but time will tell. I can't judge myself as you and others will do. so it all waits to be seen if I've stood the test; for its been a test of the rawest kind imaginable.

This is a fine camp. Everything here a soldier could expect in a camp. So different from anything I've seen in the last year. It's been a fine war for the soldiers who were priveleged to fight it over here.

Well on May 23, 1918 I landed in France, and on May 22, 1919 I landed in U.S. Comes very near being a year to the day.

Cecil, I was not kidding you, in any thing I said about the picture. You've had no reasons to doubt me in the past and I'm glad you're not now, I only want you to feel more safe on the subject.

So you're no judge of your looks, and I'll have to judge for myself. Well I will, and I have a sneaking feeling I won't be dissapointed. But I'll be honest with on the subject, and if you ever want to know just what I think of it, I'd advise you to come right out and ask for what you want to know.

I will close, as I've spent quite a bit of time, paper & energy and have said very little of news or of importance, write if you wish, for I won't be home too soon, even yet. With love as ever-

Paul Hendrickson

http://www.jimgill.net/wwipages/letter19/p190523c.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 11:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Vrijdag 23 Mei 1919.

Dommelen. Eergister reed hier een auto van den heer D. uit Eindhoven in een sloot. De as van de auto werd zwaar beschadigd doch kon hier hersteld worden. De inzittenden kwamen met den schrik vrij.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS TRANSYLVANIA

Launched: Saturday, 23/05/1914
Built: 1914
Ship Type: Passenger Vessel

Commisioned as a troopship in May 1915 with accommodation for 200 officers and 2860 men. On 04/05/1917 torpedoed by U63 off Cape Noli (40 miles from Genoa) sank with heavy loss of life.

http://www.clydesite.co.uk/clydebuilt/viewship.asp?id=19107
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Standard Club Liégeois.

Na een mooie vijfde plaats het eerste seizoen, eindigde Standard meestal onderin de rangschikking. In het seizoen 1913/1914 eindigde men met 13 punten op een gedeelde voorlaatste plaats. Op 23 Mei 1914 moest een testmatch beslissen wie voorlaatste zou worden. Standard verloor met 2-0 en degradeerde. De Eerste Wereldoorlog brak echter uit en gedurende vijf jaar werd geen officiële competitie ingericht. Pas vanaf 1919 ging men weer van start. Standard eindigde meteen tweede in de Eerste Afdeling, na streekgenoot Tilleur FC. Het seizoen erop pakte de club al meteen weer de titel, sinds deze promotie in 1921 zou Standard onafgebroken op het hoogste niveau blijven spelen.

http://standardfans.be/geschiedenis
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kruis voor Oorlogsverdienste (Reuss Jongere Linie)

Het Kruis voor Oorlogsverdienste (Duits "Kriegs-Verdienstkreuz") werd op 23 mei 1915 door Hendrik XXVII (Reuss Jongere Linie, vorst van Reuss jongere linie, ook wel Reuss-Schleiz-Gera genoemd) gesticht voor verdienste in de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

De twee staatjes, Reuss oudere en Reuss jongere linie, werden apart bestuurd en hadden een eigen parlement en eigen onderscheidingen. Hendrik XXVII Reuss van Schleiz (Gera 10 november 1858 - aldaar 21 november 1928) was van 1908 tot 1918 regent van het vorstendom Reuss oudere linie omdat zijn verwant zwakzinnig was. Zo moest hij in beide staten onderscheidingen instellen toen de Eerste Wereldoorlog uitbrak. De vorst en vorst-regent koos ervoor om een en dezelfde onderscheiding in beide staten te verlenen.

Het kruis is een diep donkerrood, bijna zwart, geëmailleerd kruis patée waarop een lauwerkrans met kleine groene bladeren is gelegd. op de armen staat het jaartal "1914". Een dergelijk steckkreuz is een veelvoorkomende Duitse onderscheiding en werd meestal aan officieren verleend. Het kruis is een Reussische navolging van het IJzeren Kruis Ie Klasse en om met het Kruis voor Oorlogsverdienste gedecoreerd te kunnen worden moest men al met het IJzeren Kruis Ie Klasse zijn onderscheiden. In eerste instantie was het kruis alleen voor de troepen uit Reuss die ook in een van de regimenten uit Reuss vochten. Later werden ook die onderdanen van de beide vorsten van Reuss die elders in de strijdkrachten, bijvoorbeeld bij de marine, vochten onderscheiden.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kruis_voor_Oorlogsverdienste_(Reuss_Jongere_Linie)
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Walther Ulbricht

Op 30 juni 1893 is Walther Ulbricht in Leipzig geboren. Vader, Ernst August Ulbricht, was sympathisant van de socialisten. Toch maakt hij later de omwenteling naar de communisten van de KPD en besloot ook lid te worden van die partij.

In 1907 verlaat Walther de school en moet een ambacht leren, net zoals zijn ouders dat ook hebben gedaan. Hij begint in dat jaar dan ook met een opleiding tot meubelmaker. Door zijn werkdag van tien uur, houdt hij maar weinig tijd over om zich met politiek te bemoeien. Hij gebruikt zijn tijd liever om te sporten bij de arbeidersturnvereniging.
In 1911 rondt hij zijn opleiding tot meubelmaker af. Hij trekt tot ongeveer zomer 1912 door: België, Nederland, Oostenrijk, Zwitserland en Italië. Bij terugkomst wordt hij al snel lid van de socialistische SPD.

Bij het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog deelt hij pamfletten uit. De pamfletten bevatten een oproep om de oorlog te stoppen. Op 23 mei 1915 wordt hij echter zelf opgeroepen om te gaan vechten voor de Duitse keizer.
In 1917 loopt hij malaria op en na een aantal maanden wordt hij uit het ziekenhuis ontslagen. Na de overwinning van Duitsland op Rusland wordt zijn eenheid naar het Westfront gestuurd. Op de reis naar het Westfront is zo’n tweederde van zijn eenheid gedeserteerd. Zo ook Walther Ulbricht, die bij Leipzig uit de trein springt. Na een aantal dagen wordt hij opgepakt en moet naar de gevangenis toe.
Na zijn straf, moet hij wederom naar het Westfront toe gaan. In zijn bepakking zitten verscheidene politieke pamfletten. Op het bij dragen van politieke pamfletten staat een gevangenisstraf. Walther Ulbricht moet, na de ontdekking van de pamfletten, wederom de gevangenis in.
Het lukt hem al snel om de gevangenis te ontvluchten. Hij bedenkt zich geen twee keer en vlucht naar zijn geboortestad.
In Leipzig profileert hij zich als revolutionair. Hij spreekt in uniform groepen soldaten en burgers toe. Zij waren echter weinig geïnteresseerd in Ulbricht.
In 1920 wordt hij lid van de communistische KPD. Hij werkt dag en nacht voor de partij. Ulbrichts taak is het maken van propagandamateriaal.Nadat hij verschillende keren is opgepakt door de politie, o.a. voor wapenleveranties aan de KPD, houdt hij zich vaker aan de wet. Dit mogelijk om verdere vervolging tegen te gaan.

http://www.achterdemuur.nl/Walther_Ulbricht.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Van sigarenverkoper tot meester-spion

Het prachtige verhaal van Elisa Verhoeven heeft mij zelf geïnspireerd het wedervaren van een Mechelaar die tijdens de Grote Oorlog wel in de stad is gebleven, met jullie te delen.

Mechelen was tijdens die oorlog een belangrijk knooppunt voor de Duitse oorlogsmachine, denk maar aan het Arsenaal, en daarom ook een interessant doelwit voor spionageactiviteiten. In totaal hebben 45 stadsgenoten gespioneerd voor Britse of Belgische inlichtingendiensten. Elk van die spionnen heeft een eigen verhaal. Vandaag wil ik er één met jullie delen, dat van Théodore Fisch, wellicht de allereerste Mechelaar die het spionagepad in 1914 heeft bewandeld.

Vooraleer het verhaal van Fisch zelf te brengen, eerst een kort woordje over de spionage in het algemeen. Van zodra onze contreien bezet waren door de Duitsers, deden de geallieerden er alles aan om zo accuraat mogelijke informatie over de bezette gebieden in te zamelen. Daarvoor werden via allerlei wegen spionnen gerekruteerd. Die hielden zich in hoofdzaak met drie zaken bezig: het treinverkeer in kaart brengen, het bespioneren van vliegvelden en het allerhande troepenbewegingen signaleren.

Mechelen was zoals gezegd een belangrijk verkeersknooppunt en daarom was het absoluut noodzakelijk om het treinverkeer zeer gedetailleerd te kennen. Elke trein werd in de gaten gehouden, het aantal wagons werd genoteerd, wat er werd vervoerd, etc… Via het Ruhrgebied kwamen de Duitse troepen en materialen over Luik en Leuven naar Mechelen. Van hieruit ging het weer verder naar Gent, Brugge en de frontstreek. Ook de as Antwerpen – Brussel kon gemakkelijk in de gaten worden gehouden. Het belang van Mechelen hoeft niet verder onderstreept te worden.

Eens de gegevens werden verzameld, werden ze doorgegeven aan een koerier. Die bracht de rapporten naar een verzamelpunt, een anonieme brievenbus ergens te velde. Daar werden de rapporten opgehaald door een passeur, die ze vervolgens over de Nederlandse grens smokkelde. Daarvoor moest hij wel de elektrische draadversperring die ons land hermetisch afsloot, oversteken. Uiteindelijk werden de rapporten door de Britse militaire attaché’s in Rotterdam en Den Haag ontvangen. Daar werden ze geanalyseerd en doorgegeven aan de Britse spionagehoofdkwartieren in Londen en Folkestone. In totaal zouden zo’n 6.000 spionnen actief zijn geweest in België en Noord-Frankrijk, onder wie dus ook 45 Mechelaars. En nu volgt het verhaal van één van hen…

Niemand zal hem nu nog kennen, maar tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog was hij in Mechelen een belangrijk figuur in bepaalde vaderlandslievende kringen: Théodore Fisch. Hij is met quasi zekerheid de allereerste Mechelaar die in dienst van het Britse leger heeft gespioneerd. In eerste instantie richtte hij zelf een spionagedienst op, de Service Fisch of de Service Albert. Daarenboven onderhield hij banden met een veel groter netwerk dat onder leiding stond van Charles Parenté en Louis Lefèvre. De Service Lefèvre & Parenté was de derde Belgische dienst die werd opgericht tijdens de oorlog. Ze was al actief van in het natjaar van 1914, dus reeds van meteen na de woelige eerste oorlogsmaanden.

Fisch, die in het dagelijkse leven sigaren verkoopt, is 50 jaar en wordt door een gezant van premier en opperbevelhebber van het Belgische Leger, Charles de Broqueville, overhaald om een spionagedienst op te richten. Aan het begin van de oorlog werkt Fisch als secretaris van een overheidsdienst. In die hoedanigheid kan hij relatief vrij reizen en in de eerste oorlogsmaanden komt hij dan ook regelmatig in Nederland, Frankrijk en Engeland. Daar komt hij in contact met mensen van de Britse en Franse spionage. Eerst is hij zelf actief als spion in een Franse inlichtingendienst, onder de codenaam “Tintamarre”. Hij schrijft bijvoorbeeld een rapport over de staat van de Antwerpse fortengordel en observeert verschillende Duitse troepen. Dat werk verricht Fisch vanaf 15 oktober 1914[1]. Stelselmatig wordt hij voorbereid om zelf een dienst op te richten. En dat gebeurt niet veel later, op 23 mei 1915. Ook Karel Dessain wordt van deze opdracht op de hoogte gebracht. Naast geldelijke steun, verleent de Mechelse burgemeester ook regelmatig paspoorten en vrijgeleiden aan Fisch, zodat hij zich makkelijk kan voortbewegen in bezet gebied. Fisch leidt de dienst, maar fungeert eveneens als koerier tussen Mechelen en Baarle-Hertog[2].

Naast Fisch zelf, zijn nog twee andere Mechelaars in dienst getreden van zijn dienst. Het gaat over Ernest Schoensetters en zijn buurvrouw Constance Naegels. Daarnaast richt Fisch, via kennissen, nog observatieposten op in verschillende andere steden[3]. In totaal werkten er voor Fisch zo’n 15 spionnen. In november 1915 wordt de dienst helaas opgerold. Een groot deel van het netwerk van Lefèvre & Parenté wordt door de Duitsers ontdekt. Bij twee toplui van dat netwerk worden verwijzingen gevonden naar Theodore Fisch. De Duitsers denken dus dat hij eveneens tot dat netwerk behoorde en ze arresteren de Mechelaar. Uiteraard houdt die zich van de domme. Fisch wordt door grote pech gearresteerd, zijn dienst houdt op te bestaan en tot overmaat van ramp wordt tegen hem de doodstraf geëist. Tijdens het proces ontstaat er nog opschudding omdat de Duitsers vermoeden dat Fisch en Frans Verschueren, één en dezelfde persoon zijn. Verschueren is de grote leider van een andere inlichtingendienst en de Duitsers verdenken Fisch ervan twee identiteiten aan te nemen. Fisch houdt echter voet bij stuk en beweert dat Frans een andere spion is.

De bewijslast tegen Fisch is echter te groot. Er worden in zijn huis brieven gevonden, gericht aan Frans Verschueren. Op het proces wordt ook duidelijk dat Fisch 4.000 frank heeft gekregen van burgemeester Dessain. Officieel in het kader van een krediet, maar uiteraard diende dit geld tot de oprichting van de spionagedienst. Natuurlijk zijn Frans en Theodore één en dezelfde persoon. In wezen maakte Fisch eigenlijk geen deel uit van de Service Parenté & Lefèvre, hij was zelf de leider van de Service Fisch. De Duitsers hebben echter nooit het fijne van het hele verhaal geweten. In totaal worden er 37 leden van de dienst gearresteerd. Tegen 13 van hen wordt de doodstraf geëist. De Duitse krijgsauditeur veroordeelt ook 9 onder hen effectief tot de dood[4]. Slechts drie spionnen worden geëxecuteerd. De andere terdoodveroordeelden, waaronder Theodore Fisch, worden niet terechtgesteld. Zij krijgen gratie omdat de Duitsers niet honderd procent zeker zijn van hun zaak. Fisch wordt naar Rheinbach in Duitsand gestuurd als verplicht tewerkgestelde. In januari 1917 wordt hij overgebracht naar Kassel, waar het regime minder streng is. Daar verblijft hij ook tot aan de Wapenstilstand. Bij de bevrijding weegt Fisch nog amper 50kg, ruim 40 minder dan voor zijn arrestatie.

Théodore Fisch was dus bijna zeker de allereerste Mechelaar die in dienst van het Britse leger heeft gespioneerd tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog, maar zijn dienst heeft niet lang bestaan. Hij was nog volop bezig alles te organiseren en nieuwe posten op te richten, toen hij door een ongelukkig toeval werd gearresteerd. De andere spionnen van de Service Fisch, bleven gespaard van het onheil en zijn nooit opgepakt door de Duitsers. Al bij al zijn Fisch en zijn collega’s slechts enkele maanden actief geweest, van eind mei tot november 1915. Het resultaat van die spionage is dus redelijk beperkt gebleven. Fisch telde in totaal 6 observatieposten.

Wat weten we over Theodore?

Uit de rapporten die in 1919 zijn opgesteld over de spionnen uit Mechelen blijkt dat Fisch in de Onze-lieve-Vrouwestraat nummer 104 woonde. Fisch werd geboren in Melle op 30 november 1865, zijn collega spion Ernest Schoensetters werd in Mechelen geboren op 8 november 1879. Schoensetters woonde in de Stationstraat 36. Hoe Theodore in Mechelen is beland weet ik niet. Is hij hier getrouwd? Had hij kinderen? Waar werkte hij precies? En hoe kwam een simpele sigarenverkoper in contact met buitenlandse spionagediensten? En wat was precies de rol van Dessain in dit alles? Al deze vragen blijven vooralsnog onbeantwoord, maar wat wel zeker is, is dat hij zijn leven meermaals op het spel heeft gezet om zo veel mogelijk inlichtingen in te winnen ten behoeve van de geallieerde strijdkrachten.

Na de oorlog kreeg Theodore Fish het British War Medal toegekend. Wanneer hij gestorven is en of hij nog nakomelingen heeft, weet ik niet…

Noot:Aan Op 7 juni 1915 sneuvelt er een Fisch aan de IJzer. Zou het kunnen dat deze soldaat van het 12e Linieregiment de zoon was van onze Theodore? Hij wordt begraven in een massagraf in Oostkamp.

[1] ARA Brussel, Services Patriotiques, P31
[2] KIRSCHEN (S.). Devant les Conseils de Guerre allemands. Rossel & Fils, Bruxelles, 1919, p. 179 e.v.
[3] ARA Brussel, Services Patriotiques, P31
[4] KIRSCHEN (S.). Devant les Conseils de Guerre allemands, pp. 235-238


Mooie site! http://www.mechelenblogt.be/2011/02/van-sigarenverkoper-tot-meester-spion
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thys Robert

Geboren te Schaarbeek op 18 januari 1884 Overleden te Nieuwpoort op 20 augustus 1964.

Militaire loopbaan
28 november 1903: Onderluitenant na het volgen van de Applicatieschool (67 promotie). Toegelaten tot de Genie
2 februari 1909: Verlaat het leger als actief officier en wordt reserveofficier
4 oktober 1919: Toelating tot verblijf in Belgisch Congo
29 december 1912: Benoeming tot kapitein in de reserve
1 augustus 1914: Aangeduid voor de genie van de Vesting Antwerpen
14 oktober 1914: Aangeduid voor 2 Genie(zal dienst doen bij de Dienst Onderwaterzetting)
3 september 1915: Aangeduid als Compagniecommandant van de Compagnie Sapeurs Mariniers
23 mei 1916: Overgang naar het Bataljon Pontonniers met zijn compagnie die intussen de naam Cie Sapeurs Pontonniers had gekregen
21 juli 1919: Verlof zonder wedde (op eigen aanvraag na een ziekteverlof) en ter beschikking gesteld van de Compagnie de Chemin de fer du Congo
18 september 1918 Als reserveofficier aangeduid voor de genie 2 Leger Divisie
22 september 1925: Benoeming tot Majoor in de Reserve
februai/maart 1930: Wederoproeping als reserveofficier
26 september 1934: Benoeming tot Luitenant Kolonel in de Reserve
9december 1938: Houdt op (om gezondheidsredenen) om verder deel uit te maken van het reservekader. Mag de titel Ere LtKol dragen

http://nl.milpedia.org/wiki/Thys_Robert
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zeppelin raids, Gothas and 'Giants' - Britain's First Blitz, 1914-1918

23rd/24th May 1917 - Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk - This second raid by ‘height-climber’ Zeppelins again proved ineffective. Six Zeppelins set out hoping to reach London but the winds at high altitude were against them. Only four reached England: L.40, L.42, L.43 and L.45. None got even close to London.
L.40, commanded by Kptlt Erich Sommerfeldt, came inland at 12.18am over Kessingland on the Suffolk coast. Heading towards Norwich on a north-west course, at about 12.45am L.40 dropped a 300kg HE bomb near the village of Little Plumstead, about five miles east of the city. This resulted in some broken windows in two cottages and a greenhouse. Continuing on a course roughly to the north, L.40 dropped a fuel tank at Horstead and another at Worstead. Having passed North Walsham, at 1.00am Sommerfeldt dropped an HE bomb at Knapton that tore down telegraph wires for a distance of 50 yards. L.40 then passed out over the coast at Mundesley and was later heard dropping 14 bombs out at sea. Nearing home L.40 managed to climb into cloud and escape an attack by a Curtiss H-12 ‘Large America’ flying boat sent out from RNAS Yarmouth.
Kptlt Martin Dietrich commanding L.42 came inland over Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex at 12.20am and heading west passed Colchester before following a meandering course over Essex and Suffolk at a height of 18,700 feet. At 1.30am Dietrich dropped an incendiary about a mile outside Halstead without effect. About 35 minutes later he dropped an HE and an incendiary at Radwinter, both landing about 500 yards from the church but again without effect. Heading north L.42 approached Newmarket at about 2.30am and five minutes later, just west of Mildenhall, dropped an HE bomb on West Row Fen at least a quarter of a mile from the nearest cottage. Three minutes later another HE bomb burst harmlessly on a grass track just over a mile from Lakenham. Continuing north, L.42 crossed into Norfolk and at 2.40am dropped five HE bombs at Hockwold. Two fell on a meadow owned by Frederick Rickard, smashing some windows and roof tiles at his house. Two more exploded on Charles Thompson’s wheat field. Two minutes later two HE bombs landed at Weeting Heath without causing damage. Moments later two HE fell at Cranwich, where one failed to detonate and the other exploded harmlessly, then an incendiary dropped at Ickburgh without burning.The final two bombs, both incendiaries, landed in fields at Hilborough at about 2.47am. Dietrich headed north to the coast and left Norfolk between Weybourne and Sheringham at 3.25am. L.42 flew into a heavy storm on the return flight, being struck by lightning three times, but she made it home safely.
L.45 came inland at about 1.00am and Kptlt Waldemar Kolle, commanding a Zeppelin over Britain for the first time, had a miserable night. He crossed the coast at Hollesley Bay in Suffolk and followed a north-west course largely dictated by the wind. He also encountered heavy rain and thunderstorms making accurate navigation impossible. An incendiary dropped at Banham in Norfolk was attributed to L.45. She dropped no more bombs until reaching Docking in north-west Norfolk. There L.45 released an incendiary and an HE bomb at about 2.20am, which caused minor damage to a ceiling and broke a window. After that L.45 crossed the coast over Brancaster Bay and set course for home.
The last Zeppelin to come inland, L.43 commanded by Kptlt Hermann Kraushaar, passed over the coast near Hollesley, Suffolk, at 2.20am. On a north-west course L.43 passed over Suffolk and into Norfolk where Kraushaar dropped five incendiary bombs over the village of Wretham at 3.05am followed five minutes later by another at Tottington. Continuing on the same course two more incendiaries dropped at Little Cressingham at 3.25am, but none of these eight firebombs caused any damage. Five minutes later L.43 dropped three HE bombs: one landed at Houghton-on-the-Hill (causing slight damage to crops) and two at neighbouring North Pickenham where they damaged roof tiles and smashed windows in one house. The next village in L.43’s path, Little Dunham, received six HE and three incendiary bombs at 3.35pm, which broke seven panes of glass in cottage windows. Five minutes later two incendiary bombs dropped at West Lexham but failed to burn. Another followed at Weasenham St. Peter but caused no damage. At about 3.45am L.43 dropped three HE bombs over Wellingham, where they damaged farm buildings, five cottages and the church, also causing the only casualty of the raid. The bombs killed a farm labourer who had gone out to warn his employer that Zeppelins were in the area. Kraushaar continued to rain his bombs down on these tiny Norfolk villages. A few minutes after Wellingham five HE and two incendiaries fell at South Raynham wrecking the interior of a cottage while the church, vicarage and 14 cottages suffered broken windows.Then three HE and two incendiaries dropped over East Raynham, breaking the windows in three large houses and seven cottages, smashing greenhouse windows, uprooting trees and dislodging roof tiles. The bombs also killed two horses in a meadow. With the sky now beginning to lighten, L.43 headed towards the coast, which it reached at 4.05am from where a mobile AA gun at Holkham fired 21 rounds without effect.
A significant response from the RFC and RNAS saw aircraft fly 76 sorties searching for the raiders but due to the poor visibility only one made a sighting. One RNAS pilot, Flt sub-Lt H.D. Smith, did not return; it was presumed his aircraft came down in the sea after running out of fuel.

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/2324-may-1917/4593777629
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Mei 2018 8:27, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Michael Bobenstetter - Soldaat bij 12e b. infanterie regiment. 8e kompagnie.

Gestoven op 23 mei 1916, 21 jaar oud.

http://wo2forum.nl/viewtopic.php?f=36&t=19937
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Breguet 14 and Lt. Clime are ready for photographic flight, Issoudon, France, 23 May 1918

Mooie foto... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Breguet_14_-_Lt._Clime_ready_for_photographic_flight,_Issoudon,_France,_23_May_1918.jpg
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 152, May 23, 1917

A CURE FOR CURIOSITY.
(An Idealistic Fable.)

Alfonso Ebenezer Scutt
Could never keep his mouth close shut;
And when I mention that his tongue
Was flexible and loosely hung,
You will begin to understand
Why he was honoured in our land.

A lucky coup in mining shares
Released him from financial cares,
And though his wife was strangely plain—
A lady of Peruvian strain—
She had a handsome revenue
Derived from manganese and glue.
Thus fortified, in Nineteen-Six
Alfonso entered politics,
Ousting from Sludgeport-on-the-Ouse
A Tory of old-fashioned views.
Alfonso Scutt, though wont to preach
In chapels, rarely made a speech,
But managed very soon to climb
To eminence at Question Time.
Fired by insatiable thirst
For knowledge, from the very first
He launched upon an endless series
Of quite unnecessary queries,
Till overworked officials came
To loathe the mention of his name.
At last their anguish grew so keen
The Premier had to intervene,
And by a tactful master-stroke
Relieved them from Alfonso's yoke.
By way of liberal reward
He made the childless Scutt a lord,
And then despatched him on a Mission
In honorific recognition
Of presents sent for our relief
By a renowned New Guinea Chief.
The natives of those distant parts
Are noted for their generous hearts,
But, spite of protests raised by us,
Continue anthropophagous.
And this, I have no doubt, was why,
When Members wished Lord Scutt good-bye,
You could not see one humid eye.

The moral of this simple strain
I trust is adequately plain.
When people crave for information
Unfit, in war, for publication,
They take a line, from vice or levity,
That's not conducive to longevity.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15512/15512-h/15512-h.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 15:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Empress Express, 23 mei 1918

Advertentie... http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/EPE/1918/05/23/3/Ad00302_7.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 16:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CORNELL ALUMNI NEWS, ITHACA, N. Y., MAY 23, 1918

High Honor to Seymour '18
A dispatch from the Western front
dated May 11, states that Flight Lieutenant
Alonzo Morton Seymour '18 is
the first American officer to be awarded
the French war cross for bravery under
fire. He was decorated with the Cross
of War with a star. Lieut. Seymour is
an observer attached to the Lafayette
Escadrille and his duty is to fly low over
the enemy lines and direct artillery fire.
The citation for bravery in part reads:
4'As a probationary observer in the
French aviation service he distinguished
himself immediately upon his arrival
by his daring and quick perception and
dash. On April 12 he made very successful
adjustments for the heavy artillery,
notably in very difficult atmospheric
conditions and despite the intense
attack of the enemy's artillery in the
zone into which he had advanced, he
conducted with rapidity and precision
from beginning to end a demolishing fire
on a particularly troublesome battery."
A New York World dispatch says
that "the contempt for danger of the
young American enabled the French
artillerymen to hit the mark." The
dispatch states that he is soon to be
transferred to the 91st Aero Squadron
of the American Expeditionary Forces.
Lieut. Seymour has had a very active
war career. He was a junior at Cornell
when the United States entered the
struggle and at once qualified for Madison
Barracks, where he began training.
He was transferred to the Coast Artillery
Corps at Fortress Monroe, Va., and
graduated from that school in August
with a second lieutenant's commission.
He sailed for France in September and
was at the front when a call came for
volunteers for the observation branch of
the Aviation Corps. He volunteered and
was at once transferred to the' Aero Corps
as aero artillery observer. This was the
first unit of its kind organized by the
United States. The duties of these
officers were to fly over enemy lines,
take photographs, draw maps, locate
batteries, direct fire by means of wireless,
and be prepared to defend themselves
with machine guns.
This apparently was not active enough
for young Seymour, for he secured another
transfer to the Aviation Section
proper. He trained at a French ground
school and in February was assigned to
a French squadron and engaged'in actual
flight work. Later he was attached to
the Lafayette Escadrille.
Sometime in March he succeeded in
destroying an intersection of an enemy
communication trench and also a telephone
line trench with his machine gun
fire.
Seymour's home is Peekskill, N. Y.
He is a member of Alpha Tau Omega.

Davis '96 Receives the D.S.O.
Lieutenant Colonel Edward Davis '96,
who, as U. S. military observer, campaigned
with the British forces in Palestine,
and entered Jerusalem with General
Allenby's forces, was decorated by the
general at that time with the Distinguished
Service Order. Davis has been
in the Army since the Spanish-American
War, assigned to the cavalry. The story
of his entry into Jerusalem was told in
the ALUMNI NEWS of December 27.

Mathews '21 Has Plane Trouble
Lieutenant Alexander F. Mathews '20,
of the Royal British Flying Corps, recently
had a narrow escape in an airplane
accident, according to The Ithaca Journal.
Mathews, who has been at the front, was
flying at an altitude of over 4,000 feet
at the Royal Flying School in England
when his motor caused trouble and
forced him to make a rapid descent.
While dropping, trouble developed with
the planes and he was able to keep but
one side up. He managed to land in a
field of deep mud, and although submerged
he was found to be uninjured.

A War Poem from the Front
The American Field Service Bulletin of
March 23, 1918, has the following contribution,
written by Harold G. Meissner
'17, a member of S. S. U. 634, who sailed
on June 23, last, for field service:

Without further preface, I am submitting
to you a five-reel poem, written
in an abri with a smoky stove, hoping
you may find use for it in the Bulletin
sometime.

AFTER THE WAR

Oh, this life has got its drawbacks,
Gas shells, shrapnel, mud and rain.
Smoky abris, midnight wakings,
Loading poilus wracked with pain.

But in spite of all the dangers,
Hardships, horrors, pain and woe,
We can't help but feel rewarded,
Helping to defeat the foe.

For without our ambulances,
Where would France's Army be ?
Count the poilus that we've carried,
And our usefulness you'll see.

Just recall the Verdun battle,
Maistre's victory on the Aisne,
More than half the poilus wounded,
Rode in Flivvers, free from pain.

So when Kaiser Bill gets his'n
And we're all back home again,
Don't forget those three years' veterans,
Henry Ford's own Ambulance Men
.

H. G. M.—S. S. U. 634.

From Menke '17
Chester H. Menke '17, B.S., thus
writes of his experiences at Camp Sherman,
Chillicothe, Ohio:
"I have learned many things in camp
—the greatest of these is only a verification
of what we all now believe to be
best—and that is comradeship among
all. The love of man for man, affection
and the attributes which are concomitant
to it are the fibres of a stronger cord
which will bind the people of all classes
together.
"When this is accomplished, there will
be no such word as 'classes' but all will
be on an equal basis. To me this is apparently
the greatest result of the war
thus far.
" l a in thus trying to adapt myself to a
broader environment and better myself
and as many others as I can. Before I
entered this work, I was of the opinion
that the best soldier was one of rudest
and most unbending characteristics, but
it seems to me now that the man of
highest ideals is the most willing to
serve."

http://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/3535/4/020_35.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 16:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 Suffolk Free Press newspaper archive

May 23rd 1918 Killed in action, Pte Basil Brown of the Hampshire Regiment, the youngest son of Mr and Mrs Stephen Brown of Long Melford, aged 23.

May 23rd 1918 Advert. Wanted at once a strong lad or a discharged soldier for work in the flour mills. Apply at Cornard Mills.

Advert. Before you order that tractor get particulars of the “Eros” tractor and the Ferguson plough the lightest and simplest tractor available.

Stanley Downs, Gestingthorpe. At a meeting of the Sudbury Common Lands Trustees on Friday night with regard to Peoples’s Park Mr Twithchett reported that people are in the habit of throwing a lot of refuse, tin cans and broken bottles on to the park and it took one man one whole day to clear it, there was 10 cart loads of rubbish making the park unfit for cattle, the police have been spoken to.

May 23rd 1918 Died on May 1st at the 2nd casualty clearing station in France from wounds Gunner M.Hempstead R.A.F, the only son of Mr and Mrs J. Hempstead of 3 Harp Close, Sudbury aged 19 also the dearly loved grandson of Mr James Martin of Alexander Brick works, Chilton.

May 23rd 1918 Died of wounds on May 1st, Pte H.Lambert aged 32, the son of Harry and Anna Lambert of Wiston Gatehouse, Nayland.

May 23rd 1918 Killed in action, Pte Horace Piper of the Queens Royal West Surreys, the dearly loved husband of Maud Piper of Kersey aged 32.

May 23rd 1918 Died of wounds on May 8th at Stationary Hospital ????-??, Dar Es Salaam, East Africa of malaria the 2nd son of Mr and Mrs Sage of 53 Station Road, Sudbury.

May 23rd 1918 Died of wounds on April 29th, Lieut Col. Lambert Hammer D.S.O. of the Indian Cavalry, the eldest son of Admiral and Mrs Hammer of the Priory, Lt Waldingfield. Aged 49.

May 23rd 1918 Died of wounds at the Base Hospital in France, Pioneer Charles Howe of the R.E. of Pye Corner, Castle Hedingham aged 32.

May 23rd 1918 Killed in action in France on April 24th, Sgt A.Hayward M.G.C. late of Sudbury.

http://www.foxearth.org.uk/1918-1919SuffolkFreePress.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Constantinopel 23 mei 1919: Protest tegen de bezetting

Foto! https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bezetting_van_Constantinopel#/media/File:SultanahmetMitingi.jpg via http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bezetting_van_Constantinopel
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Mei 2018 8:13, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2011 16:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Sándor Ferenczi to Sigmund Freud, May 23, 1919

Budapest, May 23, 1919

Dear Professor,

The rare opportunity finally to be able to send an almost uncensored letter entices me to write in the kind of detail in which I haven't been able to report to you in months. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.026.0355a
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2018 8:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Naval History on 23 May 1918

HMAS MOURILYAN, (patrol vessel), was commissioned.

https://www.navyhistory.org.au/23-may-1918/
Hier nog vééél meer: http://www.navy.gov.au/hmas-mourilyan
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2018 8:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 May 1917 | Remembering Fr Willie Doyle SJ

The following quote from one of Fr Doyle’s letters recounts some of his war time adventures on 23 May 1917 (...). What shines out for us on this occasion is Fr Doyle’s naturalness, his dedication to providing the sacraments to the soldiers and, as always, his calm courage – I’m not sure that many of us would sum up these events by saying “there was really little danger”…

I had been along the front line as usual to give the men a General Absolution which they are almost as anxious to receive for the comfort it will be for their friends at home, should they fall, as for themselves. I was coming down to the advanced dressing station, when I learned that a small party had ‘gone over the top’ on our right, though I had been told the raid was only from the left. When I got to the spot I found they had all gone and were lying well out in No Man’s Land. It was a case of Mahomet and the mountain once more. The poor ‘mountain’ could not come back, though they were just longing to, but the prophet could go out, could he not? So Mahomet rolled over the top of the sandbags into a friendly shell hole, and started to crawl on his hands and knees and stomach towards the German trenches. Mahomet, being only a prophet, was allowed to use bad language, of which privilege he availed himself, so report goes, to the full, for the ground was covered with bits of broken barbed wire, shell splinters, nettles, etc., etc., and the poor prophet on his penitential pilgrimage left behind him much honest sweat and not a few drops of blood.

That was a strange scene! A group of men lying on their faces, waiting for certain death to come to some of them, whispering a fervent act of contrition, and God’s priest, feeling mighty uncomfortable and wishing he were safely in bed a thousand miles away, raising his hand in Absolution over the prostrate figures. One boy, some little distance off, thinking the Absolution had not reached him, knelt bolt upright, and made an act of contrition you could have heard in Berlin, nearly giving the whole show away and drawing the enemy’s fire.

There was really little danger, as shell holes were plentiful, but not a little consolation when I buried the dead next day to think that none of them had died without Absolution. I was more afraid getting back into our own trenches; for sentries, seeing a man coming from the direction of No Man’s Land, do not bother much about asking questions and object to nocturnal visitors.


https://fatherdoyle.com/2017/05/23/23-may-1917/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2018 8:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter, Clifton Cates to Mother, 23 May 1917

From the Clifton B. Cates Collection (COLL/3157) at the Marine Corps Archives and Special Collections.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/usmcarchives/18764827158
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2018 8:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V.I. Lenin, 23 May 1917: One of the Secret Treaties
(Published in Pravda No. 53, May 23 (10), 1917)

'Soldiers and workers! You are told that you are defending “freedom” and the “revolution”! In reality you are defending the shady treaties of the tsar, which are concealed from you as one conceals a secret disease.'

We all know that the “revolutionary” Provisional Government’s first word on foreign policy was the declaration that all secret treaties concluded by ex-Tsar Nicholas II with the “Allied” capitalists remained in force, and that the new Russia would regard them as sacred and inviolable.

We know, furthermore, that our “defencists” vehemently support the Milyukovs’ refusal to publish the secret treaties. These so-called socialist have sunk so low as to defend secret diplomacy, and the secret diplomacy of the ex-tsar at that.

Why do the supporters of the imperialist war guard the secret of these treaties so zealously?

Do you want to know why, comrade workers and soldiers?

Familiarise yourselves with at least one of these noble treaties–“our” treaty with Italy (i.e., with the Italian capitalists) signed at the beginning of 1915.

On the basis of material published in Novoye Vremya, Mr. V. Vodovozov, a bourgeois democrat, reveals in Dyen (for May 6 [19], 1917) the contents of that treaty:

“The Allies have guaranteed Italy Southern Tyrol with Trient, the entire coastline, and the northern part of Dalmatia with the towns of Zara and Spalato, the central part of Albania with Valona, the Aegean islands off the coast of Asia Minor, as well as a profitable railway concession in Asiatic Turkey–such is the price for which Italy has traded her blood. These annexations exceed any national claims ever advanced by Italy many times over. In addition to regions with an Italian population (Southern Tyrol and Trieste) of nearly 600,000, Italy, under this treaty, is to receive territories with a population of over a million who are absolutely alien to Italy eghnographically and in point of religion. These include, for instance, Dalmatia, 97 per cent of whose population are Serbs and only slightly over 2 per cent Italians. It is only natural that this treaty with Italy, concluded without the knowledge or consent of Serbia, should have provoked such bitterness and resentment in that country. Pašic, speaking in the Skupshtina, expressed the hope that the rumours concerning the treaty were false, since Italy herself had united in the name of the principle of national unity, and could not therefore do anything that was likely to strike at the very roots of that principle. But Pašic was wrong; the treaty was concluded.

“This is the only treaty concerning the present war whose contents we know of, and this treaty is grossly predatory. Whether similar predatory instincts are or are not reflected in other treaties, we do not know. At any rate, it is extremely important that democracy, on whose banner is inscribed ‘peace without annexations’, should know this.”


“We do not know” to what extent the other secret treaties are predatory? No, Mr. Vodovozov, we know it very well: the secret treaties concerning the carve-up of Persia and Turkey, the seizure of Galicia and Armenia are just as dirty and predatory as the rapacious treaty with Italy.

Comrade soldiers and workers! You are told that you are defending “freedom” and the “revolution”! In reality you are defending the shady treaties of the tsar, which are concealed from you as one conceals a secret disease.

https://www.bolshevik.info/one-of-the-secret-treaties.htm
Nog meer Lenin-'producten': https://www.bolshevik.info/socialism-and-war.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2018 8:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kaiser Karl I. und Kaiserin Zita besuchen das am 21.5.1917 von einem Brand zerstörte Gyöngyös am 23.5.1917 (BildID 15564805)

Foto! https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kaiser_Karl_I._und_Kaiserin_Zita_besuchen_das_am_21.5.1917_von_einem_Brand_zerst%C3%B6rte_Gy%C3%B6ngy%C3%B6s_am_23.5.1917_(BildID_15564805).jpg
_________________

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