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12 December
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2005 6:53    Onderwerp: 12 December Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

December 12

1914 Stocks tank as NYSE trading resumes


On the first day of trading since the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) reopened in November 1914 after being shut down due to the start of World War I earlier that year, the Dow Jones Industrial Average suffers its worst percentage drop (24.39 percent) since it was first published in 1896.

American officials had decided to reopen the NYSE after the longest-ever suspension of trading because it was thought that bond trading, albeit with a set of restrictions designed to safeguard the American economy, could help raise money for the war effort. The precipitous fall of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), the most important of various stock indices used to gauge market performance, indicated the risky nature of business during the first months of war, when nobody knew exactly how long the war would last or what role the U.S. would eventually end up playing in the conflict.

Despite the tough economic climate that would continue throughout the war—including a 40-percent drop in the DJIA from late 1916 to early 1917—World War I was a clear turning point in the realm of international finance. New York would replace London as the top investment capital and the New York Stock Exchange would become, for better or for worse, the undisputed barometer of the world’s economies.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2005 9:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 12. Dezember

1914
Französische Angriffe abgeschlagen
Russische Kavallerie in Ostpreußen zurückgeworfen
Die schweren russischen Verluste in Polen
Der Gebirgsfeldzug in den Karpathen
Der Krieg gegen Serbien
Das Befinden des Kaisers
Die türkische Flotte bei Batum
Der Oberkommissar für Ägypten
Ein Zwischenfall in Hodeida
Aus dem französischen und italienischen Parlament

1915
Rückzug der Franzosen und Engländer aus Mazedonien nach Griechenland
Korita und Rozaj in Montenegro besetzt

1916
Weitere 10000 Rumänen gefangen
Der siegreiche Fortschritt in der Großen Walachei
Ein französischer Truppentransportdampfer versenkt
Friedensangebot des Deutschen Reiches und seiner Verbündeten
Die Rede des Reichskanzlers über das Friedensangebot
Armee- und Flottenbefehl Kaiser Karls
Russische Vorstöße an der Valeputna-Höhe abgewiesen

1917
Mäßige Gefechtstätigkeit
Das englische Luftschiff "C 27" durch Fliegerangriff vernichtet

1918

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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Dec 2005 16:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

12 december 1914
Servië

Het 6e Oostenrijks-Hongaarse leger steekt de rivier de Sava over bij Sabac.

12 december 1915
Berlijn

Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg houdt een toespraak in Berlijn in de rijksdag en probeert een vredesproces op gang te krijgen.

12 december 1917
Noordzee

Vier Duitse onderzeëers vallen een konvooi aan tussen Engeland en Scandinavië en brengen een Britse destroyer tot zinken. De andere destroyer wordt buiten gevecht gesteld terwijl de rest van het konvooi tot zinken wordt gebracht.

Bron: The Almanac of World War I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V.I. Lenin: "Over de nationale trots van de Groot-Russen"
Sotsial-Demokrat nr. 35, 12 december 1914.

Wat wordt er tegenwoordig veel gepraat, geargumenteerd en geschreeuwd over nationaliteit en vaderland! Liberale en radicale ministers in Engeland, een hoop ‘vooruitstrevende’ journalisten in Frankrijk (die het volledig eens blijken te zijn met de publicisten van de reactie) en een hele kudde officiële, kadetten- en progressieve scribenten in Rusland (inclusief verscheidene narodniki en ‘marxisten’) — allen bezingen zij in duizend toonaarden de lof van vrijheid en onafhankelijkheid van hun respectieve landen en de grootsheid in het principe van de nationale onafhankelijkheid. Hier is het ondoenlijk om te zeggen waar de corrupte lofprijzer van de beul Nikolaj Romanov of de brute onderdrukkers van de negers en Indiërs ophouden en waar de ordinaire kleinburger begint, die uit stompzinnigheid of karakterloosheid met de stroom meedrijft. En dat verschil is ook niet zo belangrijk. Voor ons zien wij een zeer brede en diepgaande ideologische stroming, waarvan het ontstaan nauw verweven is met de belangen van de grootgrondbezitters en de kapitalisten van de grote landen. Ieder jaar worden er tientallen en honderden miljoenen uitgegeven voor de propaganda van ideeën die voor deze klassen voordelig zijn: een flinke windmolen, die haar water overal vandaan haalt — bij Mensjikov, een chauvinist uit overtuiging, tot en met chauvinisten terwille van opportunisme en karakterloosheid als Plechanov, Maslov, Roebanovitsj, Smirnov, Kropotkin en Boertsev.

Laten wij, Groot-Russische sociaaldemocraten, ook eens proberen om onze houding te definiëren ten opzichte van deze ideologische stroming. Het zou voor ons, als vertegenwoordigers van een grote natie in het Verre Oosten van Europa en in een flink deel van Azië, niet behoorlijk zijn om de enorme betekenis van het nationale vraagstuk uit het oog te verliezen — in het bijzonder in een land dat terecht een ‘gevangenis van volkeren’ is genoemd en speciaal in een tijd dat in het Oosten van Europa en in Azië het kapitalisme tot leven komt, tezamen met het zelfbewustzijn van een aantal ‘nieuwe’ naties, zowel groot als klein — op een ogenblik dat de tsaristische monarchie een beroep heeft gedaan op miljoenen Groot-Russen en niet-Russen om een aantal nationale vraagstukken ‘op te lossen’ in overeenstemming met de belangen van de Raad van de Verenigde Adel en die van de Goetsjkovs, de Krestnikovs, de Dolgoroekovs, de Koetlers en de Roditsjevs.

Is een gevoel van nationale trots ons, als Groot-Russische proletariërs, dan vreemd? Zeker niet! Wij houden van onze taal en van ons land en zij doen ons uiterste best om zijn werkende massa’s (d.w.z. negen tiende van zijn bevolking) te verheffen tot het peil van een democratisch en socialistisch bewustzijn. Het is voor ons uitermate pijnlijk om te moeten toezien bij de kwellingen, de onderdrukking en de vernedering die ons mooie land moet ondergaan door de handen van de beulen van de tsaar, de edelen en de kapitalisten. Wij zijn trots op het verzet tegen deze schanddaden vanuit ons midden, vanuit de Groot-Russen en wij zijn trots op het feit dat dit milieu Radisjtsjev, de Dekabristen en de revolutionaire raznotsjintsy van de jaren zeventig heeft voortgebracht. Trots op het feit dat de Groot-Russische arbeidersklasse in 1905 een machtige revolutionaire partij van de massa’s in het leven heeft geroepen en op het feit dat de Groot-Russische boeren beginnen zich tot de democratie te wenden en begonnen zijn de pope en de landheer van hun troon te stoten.

Wij herinneren ons hoe een halve eeuw geleden Tsjernysjevski, de Groot-Russische democraat, die zijn leven heeft gewijd aan de zaak van de revolutie, heeft gezegd: ‘een treurige natie, een natie van slaven, van boven naar beneden — allemaal slaven. De openlijke en verborgen Groot-Russische slaven (slaven met betrekking tot de tsaristische monarchie) herinneren zich deze woorden niet al te graag. Maar toch waren deze woorden naar onze mening woorden van oprechte liefde jegens ons vaderland, een liefde die ongelukkig was als gevolg van de afwezigheid van een revolutionaire geest in de massa’s van het Groot-Russische volk. Er was in die tijd niets van die geest te bespeuren. Er nu ook nog maar weinig, maar zij bestaat toch al. Wij zijn vervuld van nationale trots omdat ook de Groot-Russische natie een revolutionaire klasse heeft geschapen, omdat ook zij in staat gebleken is om de mensheid te voorzien van grootse voorbeelden uit de strijd voor vrede en socialisme en niet alleen van grootse pogroms, galgenrijen, kerkers, grote hongersnoden en grote dienstbaarheid jegens priesters, tsaren, landheren en kapitalisten.

Wij zijn vervuld van een gevoel van nationale trots en juist om die reden haten wij in het bijzonder ons slaafse verleden (toen de landadel de boeren leidde naar een oorlog om de vrijheid in Hongarije, Polen, Perzië en China te verstikken) en ons slaafse heden, nu deze zelfde landadel ons met steun van de kapitalisten in een oorlog brengt om Polen en de Oekraïne te verstikken, de democratische beweging in Perzië en China te verpletteren en de bende van Romanovs, Bobrinski’s en Poerisjkevitsjen, die een schandvlek vormen voor onze Groot-Russische nationale waardigheid nog sterker te maken.

Het kan niemand verweten worden als slaaf geboren te zijn, maar een slaaf die het streven naar vrijheid uit de weg gaat en zijn slavernij rechtvaardigt en bejubelt (d.w.z. de verstrikking van Polen en de Oekraïne enz. een ‘verdediging van het vaderland’ der Groot-Russen noemt) — zo’n slaaf is een slijmerige ploert, die een gerechtvaardigde gevoel van verontwaardiging, verachting en weerzin oproept.

‘Geen volk dat andere naties onderdrukt kan vrij zijn’, dat zeiden Marx en Engels, de grootste vertegenwoordigers van de consequente negentiende-eeuwse democratie, die geworden zijn tot de leraren van het revolutionaire proletariaat. En, vervuld van nationale trots wensen wij, Groot-Russische arbeiders, koste wat het kost een vrij en onafhankelijk, een democratisch, republikeins en trots Groot-Rusland, een land dat zijn betrekkingen met zijn buurlanden zal baseren op het humanitaire principe van de gelijkheid, en niet op het feodale principe van voorrechten, dat zo vernederend is voor een grote natie. En juist omdat wij dat wensen zeggen wij: het is onmogelijk om in Europa in de twintigste eeuw (zelfs in het Verre Oosten van Europa) ‘het vaderland te verdedigen’ anders dan. door gebruik te maken van alle revolutionaire middelen om de monarchie, de landheren en de kapitalisten, d.w.z. de ergste vijanden van ons eigen land, te bestrijden. Wij zeggen dat de Groot-Russen hun ‘vaderland’ onmogelijk anders kunnen ‘verdedigen’ dan door de nederlaag van het tsarisme in welke oorlog dan ook te verlangen als zijnde het kleinste kwaad voor negen tiende van de inwoners van Groot-Rusland. Want het tsarisme onderdrukt deze negen tiende niet alleen economisch en politiek, maar het demoraliseert, vernedert, onteert en prostitueert hen ook nog door hen te leren om andere naties te onderdrukken en deze schande te bedekken met schijnheilige en quasi-patriottische frasen.

Men werpt ons wellicht voor de voeten dat er naast het tsarisme en onder diens vleugels een andere historische kracht is opgekomen en sterk geworden, namelijk het Groot-Russische kapitalisme, dat een progressief werk verricht door de economische centralisatie en het aaneensmeden van grote gebieden. Maar deze tegenwerping is geen excuus, maar juist des te meer een veroordeling voor onze sociaal-chauvinisten, die eigenlijk tsaristisch- Poerisjkevitsjistische socialisten genoemd moeten worden (net zoals Marx de Lassalleanen de Koninklijk-Pruisische socialisten noemde). Laat ons zelfs eens aannemen dat de geschiedenis zal beslissen ten gunste van het grote-machtkapitalisme van Groot-Rusland en tegen de honderd en een kleine naties. Dat is niet onmogelijk, want de hele geschiedenis van het kapitaal is er een van geweld en plundering, bloedvergieten en corruptie. Wij staan het behoud van kleine naties ten koste van alles niet voor; als de overige omstandigheden gelijk blijven zijn wij zonder meer voor centralisatie en tegen het kleinburgerlijke ideaal van federale betrekkingen. Maar zelfs wanneer onze veronderstelling juist zou zijn, dan is het nog niet in de eerste plaats onze taak — en niet die van democraten (laat staan van socialisten) om Romanov-Bobrinski-Poerisjkevitsj te helpen om de Oekraïne te verstikken enz. Op zijn eigen Junker-manier heeft Bismarck een progressieve historische taak vervuld, maar het zou een fraaie ‘marxist’ zijn die op zulke gronden zou overwegen om socialistische steun voor Bismarck te rechtvaardigen! En Bismarck bevorderde economische ontwikkeling nog wel door de verdeelde Duitsers, die door andere naties werden onderdrukt, samen te voegen. De economische bloei en de snelle ontwikkeling van Groot-Rusland vereisen echter dat het land wordt bevrijd van de Groot-Russische onderdrukking van andere naties — dat is het verschil dat door onze bewonderaars van de echt-Russische pseudo-Bismarcks over het hoofd wordt gezien.

Ten tweede, als de geschiedenis zou beslissen ten gunste van het grote-machtkapitalisme van Groot-Rusland, dan volgt daaruit dat de socialistische rol van het Groot-Russische proletariaat, als de belangrijkste stuwende kracht achter de door het kapitalisme voortgebrachte communistische revolutie, dus des te groter zal zijn. De proletarische revolutie heeft behoefte aan een langdurige opvoeding van de arbeiders in de geest van de meest volledige nationale gelijkheid en broederschap. En dus eisen de belangen van het Groot-Russische proletariaat dat de massa’s systematisch worden opgevoed om — op de meest resolute, consequente, stoutmoedige en revolutionaire wijze — de volledige gelijkheid te bevechten, met het recht op zelfbeschikking voor alle naties die door de Groot-Russen worden onderdrukt. De belangen van de Groot-Russische nationale trots (niet in de slaafse zin opgevat) vallen samen met de socialistische belangen van de Groot-Russische (en alle andere) proletariërs. Ons voorbeeld zal altijd Marx blijven, die na tientallen jaren in Engeland te hebben gewoond en half Engels geworden te zijn, vrijheid en nationale onafhankelijkheid eiste voor Ierland in het belang van de socialistische beweging onder de Engelse arbeiders.

In het tweede hypothetische geval dat wij in ogenschouw hebben genomen zullen onze eigen-teelt sociaal-chauvinisten, Plechanov enz., enz. verraders blijken te zijn, en dat niet slechts van hun eigen land — een vrij en democratisch Groot-Rusland — maar ook van de proletarische broederschap tussen alle naties van Rusland, d.w.z. van de zaak van het socialisme.

http://www.marxists.org/nederlands/lenin/1914/1914trotsrussen.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 17:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dutch dredger in the Suez Channel in 1914

The photo was published in the Dutch magazine De Prins dated 12 December 1914 page 279.



http://warshipsresearch.web-log.nl/warships/2010/12/dutch-dredger-in-the-suez-channel-in-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Abercrombie (1915)


At Sea, Turkey. July 1915

HMS Abercrombie was a First World War Royal Navy Abercrombie-class monitor.

On 3 November 1914, Charles M. Schwab of Bethlehem Steel offered Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, the use of four 14in/45cal BL MK II twin gun turrets, originally destined for the Greek ship Salamis. These turrets could not be delivered to the German builders, due to the British Naval blockade. The Royal Navy immediately designed a class of monitors, designed for shore bombardment, to use the turrets.

HMS Abercrombie was laid down at the Harland and Wolff Ltd shipyard at Belfast on 12 December 1914. The ship was named Admiral Farragut in honour of the US Admiral David Farragut, however as the United States was still neutral, the ship was hurriedly renamed HMS M1 on 31 May 1915. She was then named HMS General Abercrombie on 19 June 1915 and again renamed HMS Abercrombie on 21 June 1915

HMS Abercrombie sailed for the Dardanelles on 24 June 1915 and provided fire support during the Battle of Gallipoli. She remained in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Aegean, until returning to England in February 1919. She decommissioned in May 1919, and was disarmed in June 1920. Sold for breaking up in May 1921, she was retained in reserve until resold on 25 June 1927 to the Ward shipyard at Inverkeithing for breaking up.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HMS_Abercrombie_July_1915_AWM_G01082.jpeg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 17:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

H.M.S. Kent - Roll of Honour

SPENCE, THOMAS. Serjeant, PO/5674.
Royal Marine Light Infantry.
Died Saturday 12 December 1914.
Buried Stanley Cemetery, Falkland Islands. Grave Ref: I. 783.
Thomas was one of the ships six inch gun's crew in A.3 casemate. He is very
severely burnt about the head, fact, trunk and limbs. After being treated for his
injuries on H.M.S. Kent, Tom was taken to the Falkland Islands Hospital at Port
Stanley. His condition on arrival at the hospital was recorded as being of a
serious nature, and his ultimate recovery was doubtful. Whilst being treated at
the hospital, Tom ultimately succumbed to his injuries on Saturday 12 December.

http://www.kentfallen.com/PDF%20REPORTS/CANTERBURY%20HMS%20KENT%201914.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Scranton Tribune-Republican, Saturday, December 12, 1914

CORONER OPENS INQUEST INTO MINE HORROR
Jury Is Sworn and Adjourns to View the Place of Recent Accident


Acting under the advice of Mine Inspector S. J. Phillips in whose district the accident occurred Wednesday morning at the Tripp shaft of the Diamond mines that sent thirteen men to (their) death. Coroner W. M. Lynch yesterday empanelled a jury and held the first session of the inquest at No. 2 court room at the court house last night. The law requires the coroner to wait until instructed to hold an inquest, and this Inspector Phillips ordered immediately after the accident.

After the jurors were sworn and a consultation of all the attorneys in the case was held last night, it was agreed that there would be an adjournment to allow the jurors to visit the scene of the accident and examine the broken carriage and all other places which might have anything to so with the causing of the death of the men in question. The case was stated to the jurors as being an inquiry into the death of Thomas Thomas and others.

Mining Officials Present

When the jurors took their seats in the jury box the court room was filled with mining company officials, mine inspectors, attorneys, members of the United Mine Workers and others. Seated at one end of the tables were Col. R. A. Phillips, general manager of the D. L. & W. Coal company and C. E. Tobey, general superintendent for the same company. Close at hand were District Superintendent Walter Reese, Assistant District Superintendent Harry Harris, Assistant District Superintendent Davis Lloyd, of District No. 2, and Assistant Superintendent William Watkins. Foreman Sydney Baker, of the Tripp Shaft, Foreman John H. Powell, of the Diamond Shaft; Headman James Gallagher and Joseph Merret and Engineer Frank Gilroy, who handled the engine when the accident occurred, were inside the bar enclosure.

At another table was District President John T. Dempsey of the United Mine Workers and Board members Yannis, Fowler and Steve Reap, attorney Roger Devers of Wilkes-Barre, representing the United Mine Workers, as chief of their legal department, was at the same table. District Attorney Maxey was also in consultation with other lawyers, and seated about were Attorneys M. J. Martin, M. A. McGinley, F. M. Walsh, James Bell, William Fitzgerald, Daniel Reese, and J. H. Oliver, the latter two representing the D. L. & W. Coal company in whose mine the accident occurred. The other attorneys represented different families of the deceased, and Mr. Maxey, the commonwealth in the event that there was anything of a criminal nature revealed in the inquest.

Daniel Davis representing the United States Mining Bureau and attached to the rescue car station of Edwardsville was an interested spectator, and Ludwig Garscia, secretary to the Austria-Hungarian consul at Wilkes-Barre, represented the Austrian government because of the death of John Paslai, a native of Galicia, Austria-Hungary, and a subject of Emperor Francis Joseph.

Dynamite says Officials

Mine Inspector S. J. Phillips occupied a seat beside the coroner on the judge's platform. All the lawyers interested in the proceedings who had announced their presence were called to the front and a line of procedure agreed upon. It was decided to have the jury visit the scene of the accident. The mine officials agreed to show them everything that they might want to see, and conduct them to all parts of the place having any bearing on the death of the thirteen men. The witnesses were told that there would be an adjournment until Tuesday night at 8 o'clock. At that time the taking of testimony will be commenced. Special care is being evidenced on all sides and two stenographers were present, Messrs. Hamiln and Keegan

When asked if the investigation of the mine officials had revealed anything further that would give them a definite idea of what caused the accident, Superintendent Walter Reese said: "We are now satisfied that it was due to an explosion of dynamite on the carriage. All of our investigations tend to establish that fact. It is not true that the carriage was rotten as some of the miners are alleged to have said, and as they were quoted in the newspapers. We have the carriage there for the benefit of the coroner's jury or any other person who may have an interest in the matter. The carriage was in good shape and had been used hoisting coal right along and would not have broken with the weight of the men if there had not been an explosion. I wish the newspapers would tell the truth when they get publishing stories about this matter."

Considerable discussion was carried on about the court room which revealed a series of investigations that had been made since the accident by persons interested in the United Mine Workers and the families of the dead men. Those who made these inquiries are firmly convinced that there was no explosion on the carriage and point to the uninjured condition of Martin Boloskie, the sole survivor, as proof positive of the fact that there could not have been an explosion or it would have killed or at least injured him.

Explanation of Miners

Boloski was not injured in any manner, although on the fatal carriage an as close to any possible explosion as any of the men. The mutilated condition of the men when found is accounted for in the fact that when the bottom of the carriage fell out on the end and allowed the floor to tip at a sharp angle and precipitated the men out, that they fell as if from a chute and were shot against the side of the shaft, bounced back against the other side in the descent and repeated this until after a series of violent smashes against the sides and rigging of the shaft, they were huddled together in a heap at the sump.

It is alleged that John Pasley(?) carried on the carriage a box of dynamite and unexploded sticks were found at the bottom of the shaft. This is not considered reasonable by the miners as they contend that of any of the sticks had exploded all would have exploded and the havoc in the shaft would have been great. The carriage was not injured in any manner save the loss of the bottom and when the hanging bottom was pried off and removed by Foreman Baker after the accident at the bottom of the shaft, the carriage worked smoothly through the shaft and was in use when the newspapermen were lowered on the other carriage. The carriage that had a floor intact in the other half of the shaft was occupied by the observers, and when the other carriage met it half way in the shaft it was examined and there was nothing deranged about it whatever, and as Superintendent Reese said shortly after the accident the shaft was not injured at all, and they could have hoisted coal five minutes after the accident if the carriage was not without a bottom. There is nothing about the hood or the top of the carriage that betrays any evidence of an explosion, the miners say, and they scout the idea of any explosion of dynamite occurring on the carriage, and say that the bottom dropped out because of its defective character.

http://www.thomasgenweb.com/diamond_mine_1914_accident.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 17:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Marinekorps Flandern - de 3 marine divisies

2e MARINEDIVISION

Opgericht op 24 november 1914
Dit is de toestand op 12 december 1914:

- 3e Marine Brigade met het 3e Marine Infanterie Regiment en 3e Matrosen Regiment
- 4e Marine Brigade met de 4e en 5e Matarosen Regimente,
3e Landwehr Eskadron van het IX Armee Korps en de
1e en 2eMarine Feldbatterie en de 3e Marine Pioniers Kompagnie

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=8585
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The winter operations 1914-1915

Urged on by pressure from the French to renew the offensive on the Western Front, British GHQ called a commanders conference on 12 December 1914. There would not be a simultaneous attack, but a series of Divisional actions in succession from the left, gradually spreading southwards.The first action would be the capture of Wytschaete and a wood, Petit Bois, in front of it, to be undertaken by French units with the 3rd Division. (This Division had been severely mauled at First Ypres, losing more than 8,000 men in a matter of days, less than a month ago). Success there would be followed by a II Corps attack on Spanbroekmolen, and then Messines. The Divisions were instructed to make no special artillery preparations for cutting barbed wire, although the infantry would be issued with wire-cutters and mattresses with which to climb over this obstacle.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat8.htm


Soldiers of the London Scottish seem cheerful enough in the sodden trenches of Flanders in the winter of 1914 to 1915.
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De Rijnlandsche Courant, 12/12/1914

http://www.groenehartarchieven.nl/kranten/rijnlandsche-courant/1914-12-12
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Friedrich Cross 1914-1918, Anhalt



The Cross was created by Duke Friedrich II on 12 December 1914 for officers, military officials, non-commissioned officers and other ranks, as well as other persons, without regard for rank or status, who showed particular excellence in the theatre of war or exemplary conduct on the home front in support of the war (‘für Offiziere, Militärbeamte, Unteroffiziere und Mannschaften sowie für sonstige Personen ohne Unterscheid des Ranges und Standes, die sich auf dem Kriegsschauplatz besonders ausgezeichnet oder während des Krieges im Heimatsgebiet hervorragend betätigt haben’). The Cross was suppressed at the end of 1918. The population of the Duchy of Anhalt was less than 350,000 at the time of World War I and its decorations are amongst those found less often. A good example.

http://www.picardyantiquesltd.com/shop/article_S0967/Friedrich-Cross--1914-1918,---Anhalt.html?shop_param=cid%3D173%26aid%3DS0967%26
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The Final Whistle: Robert 'Pom Pom' Whiting
Ronan Thomas, 8 November 2010

November marks the 90th anniversary of the burial of the Unknown Warrior at London's Westminster Abbey.
It represents the 500,000 men killed and missing in action during The Great War.
Among them is football icon Robert 'Pom Pom' Whiting.



At Fulham Town Hall on 12 December 1914, Bob Whiting, now 30, enlisted as a private in the 17th (Service) Battalion (1st Football) of the Middlesex Regiment.

The 17th was a well-known 'Pals Battalion' with a complement of over 400 professional football players and officials from 70 clubs. Thirteen of Whiting's Brighton and Hove Albion teammates and officials also joined up with him that day, along with 22 other footballers.

Helemaal lezen op http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/london/hi/people_and_places/history/newsid_9166000/9166637.stm
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Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

12 December 1915 = From this day on most of the remaining troops on Anzac became aware that a full withdrawal was in progress. Charles Bean wrote:

The cemeteries of Anzac were never without men, in twos and threes or singly, ‘tidying’ up the grave of some dear friend, and repairing or renewing little packing-wood crosses and rough inscriptions.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/december-1915.html
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Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - December 1915

Telegram. Semrino. 12 December, 1915.

I have made inquiries about the frost-bitten Cossacks. It has turned out to be an absolute lie from some doctor...

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/december15.html
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Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

12 december 1916 - Het gemeentebestuur van Baarle-Hertog beloofde aan de raad van Baarle-Nassau de vergoeding voor gemeenschappelijke diensten te bekijken op voorwaarde dat die niet buiten hun weten om waren uitgevoerd. Voorstellen moesten tijdig worden overgemaakt. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

12 december 1916 - “Het leven gaat hier nog omtrent als vroeger. Wel wat minder plezier. Het is een dure tijd, zegt iedereen. Voor de boer is dat niet het ergste. Verleden week hebben wij nog een koeike verkocht voor 1.525 frank.” (Peter Huybrechts, zoon van Jaak, vanuit het Lipseinde in Zondereigen aan zijn oom Cornelis Huybrechts in Riel)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=189&Itemid=47
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Kamp Gaasterland

(...) Kamp Gaasterland werd bewaakt door manschappen van de 2e en 3e compagnie van het 1e Bataljon Landweer (in totaal 450 manschappen) onder leiding van kolonel jhr. E.A. Tedema van Berkhout. Zij werden oorspronkelijk ingekwartierd bij particulieren maar kregen later hun eigen onderkomens. Door de bruggen bij Sloten, Woudsend, Galamadammen, Warns en Lemmer (Tacozijl) open te zetten werd er een soort eiland gecreëerd waardoor vluchtpogingen werden bemoeilijkt. De bruggen werden permanent bewaakt. Kamp Gaasterland was door zijn grote oppervlakte moeilijk te bewaken waardoor vele Belgen in het begin kans zagen te ontsnappen. Het bewakingsregime werd verscherpt en in 1915 werd een reglement ingevoerd waarbij het o.a. een avondklok werd ingesteld en waarbij het de militairen was verboden vervoermiddelen te huren (hiertoe werden ook schaatsen gerekend). Desondanks werden nog vele vluchtpogingen ondernomen.

In september 1916 werd de vraag gesteld of opheffing van het Kamp niet tot bezuinigingen zou leiden. Dit bleek inderdaad het geval waardoor op 13 november werd besloten het Kamp als reserve-depot aan te houden en daar slechts een interneringsgroep te laten voortbestaan. Op 6 en 12 december 1916 vertrokken er 906 geïnterneerden naar Kamp Harderwijk en 642 naar Kamp Amersfoort-Zeist. De bewaking werd daarop verminderd tot 261 manschappen.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/vluchtelingen/kamp-gaasterland/index.htm
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Robert Georges Nivelle (1856-1924), French General

(...) He played a key part in the battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), as one of General Petain's subordinates, and played a key part in the planning of successfull, if limited, French counterattacks towards the end of the battle. This played a key part in his promotion to Commander in chief of the French armies on 12 December 1916, replacing Joffre. He was a good talker, and won over Lloyd George to his grand plan to win the war in 1917. (...)

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_nivelle.html
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Józef Piłsudski, on Warsaw Wien's railway station after his arriving, 12th of December 1916



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jozef_Pilsudski_12.12.1916.jpg
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STATEMENT OF CHANCELLOR VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG IN
THE REICHSTAG, December 12, 1916


Our strength has not made our ears deaf to our responsibility
before God, before our own nation, and before humanity. The
declarations formerly made by us concerning our readiness for peace
were evaded by our adversaries. Now we have advanced one step
further in this direction. On August 1, 1914, the Emperor had per-
sonally to take the gravest decision which ever fell to the lot of a
German--the order for mobilization--which he was compelled to give
as a result of the Russian mobilization. During these long and earnest
years of the war the Emperor has been moved by a single thought:
how peace could be restored to safeguard Germany after the struggle
in which she has fought victoriously.

Nobody can testify better to this than I who bear the responsibility
for all actions of the Government. In a deep moral and religious
sense of duty toward his nation and, beyond it, toward humanity, the
Emperor now considers that the moment has come for official action
toward peace. His Majesty, therefore, in complete harmony and in
common with our allies, decided to propose to the hostile Powers to
enter peace negotiations. This morning I transmitted a note to this
effect to all the hostile Powers through the representatives of those
Powers which are watching over our interests and rights in the hostile
States. I asked the representatives of Spain, the United States, and
Switzerland to forward that note.

The same procedure has been adopted today in Vienna, Constanti-
nople, and Sofia. Other neutral States and his Holiness the Pope
have been similarly informed.

Gentlemen, in August, 1914, our enemies challenged the superiority
of power in the world war. Today we raise the question of peace,
which is a question of humanity. We await the answer of our enemies
with that sereneness of mind which is guaranteed to us by our exterior

and interior strength, and by our clear conscience. If our enemies de-
cline to end the war, if they wish to take upon themselves the world's
heavy burden of all those terrors which hereafter will follow, then
even in the least and smallest homes every German heart will burn in
sacred wrath against our enemies, who are unwilling to stop human
slaughter in order that their plans of conquest and annihilation may
continue.

In the fateful hour we took a fateful decision. It has been
saturated with the blood of hundreds of thousands of our sons and
brothers who gave their lives for the safety of their homes. Human
wits and human understanding are unable to reach to the extreme
and last questions in this struggle of nations, which has unveiled all
the terrors of earthly life, but also the grandeur of human courage and
human will in ways never seen before. God will be the judge. We
can proceed upon our way.

PROPOSALS FOR PEACE NEGOTIATIONS MADE BY GERMANY
December 12, 1916


The most formidable war known to history has been ravaging for
two and a half years a great part of the world. That catastrophe, that
the bonds of a common civilization more than a thousand years old
could not stop, strikes mankind in its most precious patrimony; it
threatens to bury under its ruins the moral and physical progress on
which Europe prided itself at the dawn of the twentieth century. In
that strife Germany and her allies--Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and
Turkey have given proof of their indestructible strength in winning
considerable successes at war. Their unshakable lines resist ceaseless
attacks of their enemies' arms. The recent diversion in the Balkans
was speedily and victoriously thwarted. The latest events have
demonstrated that a continuation of the war can not break their resist-
ing power. The general situation much rather justifies their hope of
fresh successes. It was for the defense of their existence and freedom
of their national development that the four allied Powers were con-
strained to take up arms. The exploits of their armies have brought
no change therein. Not for an instant have they swerved from the
conviction that the respect of the rights of the other nations is not in
any degree incompatible with their own rights and legitimate interests.
They do not seek to crush or annihilate their adversaries. Conscious
of their military and economic strength and ready to carry on to the
end, if they must, the struggle that is forced upon them, but animated
at the same time by the desire to stem the flood of blood and to bring
the horrors of war to an end, the four allied Powers propose to enter
even now into peace negotiations.1 They feel sure that the propositions
which they would bring forward and which would aim to assure the
existence, honor, and free development of their peoples, would be
such as to serve as a basis for the restoration of a lasting peace.

If notwithstanding this offer of peace and conciliation the struggle
should continue, the four allied Powers are resolved to carry it on to a
victorious end, while solemnly disclaiming any responsibility before
mankind and history.

The Imperial Government has the honor to ask through your
obliging medium the Government of the United States to be pleased
to transmit the present communication to the Government of the
French Republic, to the Royal Government of Great Britain, to the
Imperial Government of Japan, to the Royal Government of Rou-
mania, to the Imperial Government of Russia, and to the Royal
Government of Serbia.

NOTE OF THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT TO THE VATICAN
REGARDING THE PEACE PROPOSALS, December 12, 1916


According to instructions received, I have the honor to send to
your Eminence a copy of the declaration of the Imperial Government
today, which, by the good offices of the Powers intrusted with the
protection of German interests in the countries with which the German
Empire is in a state of war, transmits to these States, and in which
the Imperial Government declares itself ready to enter into peace
negotiations. The Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, and Bulgarian Gov-
ernments also have sent similar notes.

The reasons which prompted Germany and her allies to take this
step are manifest. For two years and a half a terrible war has been
devastating the European Continent. Unlimited treasures of civiliza-
tion have been destroyed. Extensive areas have been soaked with
blood. Millions of brave soldiers have fallen in battle and millions
have returned home as invalids. Grief and sorrow fill almost every
house.

Not only upon the belligerent nations, but also upon neutrals, the
destructive consequences of the gigantic struggle weigh heavily. Trade
and commerce, carefully built up in years of peace, have been de-
pressed. The best forces of the nation have been withdrawn from
the production of useful objects. Europe, which formerly was devoted
to the propagation of religion and civilization, which was trying to
find solutions for social problems, and was the home of science and
art and all peaceful labor, now resembles an immense war camp, in
which the achievements and works of many decades are doomed to
annihilation.

Germany is carrying on a war of defense against her enemies, which
aim at her destruction. She fights to assure the integrity of her fron-
tiers and the liberty of the German Nation, for the right which she
claims to develop freely her intellectual and economic energies in
peaceful competition and on an equal footing with other nations. All
the efforts of their enemies are unable to shatter the heroic armies of
the (Teutonic) allies, which protect the frontiers of their countries,
strengthened by the certainty that the enemy shall never pierce the
iron wall.

Those fighting on the front know that they are supported by the
whole nation, which is inspired by love for its country and is ready
for the greatest sacrifices and determined to defend to the last ex-
tremity the inherited treasure of intellectual and economic work and
the social organization and sacred soil of the country.

Certain of our own strength, but realizing Europe's sad future if the
war continues; seized with pity in the face of the unspeakable misery
of humanity, the German Empire, in accord with her allies, solemnly
repeats what the Chancellor already has declared, a year ago, that
Germany is ready to give peace to the world by setting before the
whole world the question whether or not it is possible to find a basis
for an understanding.

Since the first day of the Pontifical reign his Holiness the Pope has
unswervingly demonstrated, in the most generous fashion, his solicitude
for the innumerable victims of this war. He has alleviated the suffer-
ings and ameliorated the fate of thousands of men injured by this
catastrophe. Inspired by the exalted ideas of his ministry, his Holi-
ness has seized every opportunity in the interests of humanity to end
so sanguinary a war.

The Imperial Government is firmly confident that the initiative
of the four Powers will find friendly welcome on the part of his
Holiness, and that the work of peace can count upon the precious
support of the Holy See.

AUSTRIAN OFFICIAL STATEMENT REGARDING THE PEACE PROPOSALS
December 12, 1916


When in the summer of 1914 the patience of Austria-Hungary was
exhausted by a series of systematically-continued and ever-increasing
provocations and menaces, and the monarchy, after almost fifty years
of unbroken peace, found itself compelled to draw the sword, this
weighty decision was animated neither by aggressive purposes nor by
designs of conquest, but solely by the bitter necessity of self-defense,
to defend its existence and safeguard itself for the future against
similar treacherous plots of hostile neighbors.

That was the task and aim of the monarchy in the present war. In
combination with its allies, well tried in loyal comradeship in arms, the
Austro-Hungarian army and fleet, fighting, bleeding, but also assail-
ing and conquering, gained such successes that they frustrated the in-
tentions of the enemy. The Quadruple Alliance not only has won an
immense series of victories, but also holds in its power extensive hostile
territories. Unbroken is its strength, as our latest treacherous enemy
has just experienced.

Can our enemies hope to conquer or shatter this alliance of Powers?
They will never succeed in breaking it by blockade and starvation
measures. Their war aims, to the attainment of which they have come
no nearer in the third year of the war, will in the future be proved to
have been completely unattainable. Useless and unavailing, therefore,
is the prosecution of the fighting on the part of the enemy.

The Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, on the other hand, have
effectively pursued their aims, namely, defense against attacks on their
existence and integrity, which were planned in concert long since, and
the achievement of real guarantees, and they will never allow them-
selves to be deprived of the basis of their existence, which they have
secured by advantages won.

The continuation of the murderous war, in which the enemy can
destroy much, but can not--as the Quadruple Alliance is firmly con-
fident--alter fate, is ever more seen to be an aimless destruction of
human lives and property, an act of inhumanity justified by no neces-
sity and a crime against civilization.

This conviction, and the hope that similar views may also be begun
to be entertained in the enemy camp, has caused the idea to ripen in
the Vienna Cabinet--in full agreement with the Governments of the
allied (Teutonic) Powers--of making a candid and loyal endeavor to
come to a discusssion with their enemies for the purpose of paving a
way for peace.

The Governments of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey, and. Bul-
garia have addressed today identical notes to the diplomatic representa-
tives in the capitals concerned who are intrusted with the promotion
of enemy nationals, expressing an inclination to enter into peace nego-
tiations and requesting them to transmit this overture to enemy States.
This step was simultaneously brought to the knowledge of the repre-
sentatives of the Holy See in a special note, and the active interest
of the Pope for this offer of peace was solicited. Likewise the ac-
credited representatives of the remaining neutral States in the four
capitals were acquainted with this proceeding for the purpose of in-
forming their Governments.

Austria and her allies by this step have given new and decisive
proof of their love of peace. It is now for their enemies to make
known their views before the world.

Whatever the result of its proposal may be, no responsibility can
fall on the Quadruple Alliance, even before the judgment seat of its
own peoples, if it is eventually obliged to continue the war.

Uit: Official Statements of War Aims and Peace Proposals, December 1916 to November 1918,
http://www.questia.com/library/book/official-statements-of-war-aims-and-peace-proposals-december-1916-to-november-1918-by-james-brown-scott.jsp
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Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne, 12 december 1917

Op 23 en 24 oktober 1917 slaagt de Duitse generaal Van Bülow erin, een bres te slaan in het Italiaanse front bij Caporetto. De Italiaanse generaal Cadorna heeft opdracht het gat te dichten met de rudimenten van zijn legers, hetgeen uitdraait op een totale mislukking: de hele vallei van de Piave gaat verloren. 4 Franse divisies die samen het Franse Tiende Leger vormen, aangevuld met 2 Britse divisies, snellen de Italianen te hulp. De versterkingen komen tegen half november ter plaatse aan, en hun artillerie doet het tij volledig keren. De troepen van Von Bülow worden teruggedrongen. Eind november bepaalt de Franse legerleiding dat het tijd is om een aantal eenheden die langdurig zwaar te lijden hebben gehad, met verlof te sturen. Vanaf 1 december vertrekt er dagelijks een trein met ongeveer 1000 poilus vanuit Turijn naar Frankrijk.

Modane, 12 december 1917, half tien in de avond. Het is een drukte van belang op het station. De dagelijkse verloftrein met ongeveer 1000 poilus van het Piave-front komt juist binnen. De mannen gaan even de stad in voor een wijntje, en de officieren stappen over op de expresstrein Modane-Parijs, die in gereedheid gebracht wordt. Tegen elf uur zijn de soldaten goeddeels terug op het station. Bij de locomotief staat een groepje mannen te ruziën. Machinist Girard verheft zijn stem vanaf de bok: “Ik ben verantwoordelijk voor dit konvooi. Ik vertrek niet zonder lokomotief achter de trein. Het zijn Italiaanse rijtuigen. Mijn collega heeft al aangegeven dat de remmen van de rijtuigen in beroerde staat verkeren. Ik ken deze lijn. Ik ga zo niet rijden!”
Girard heeft alle reden om zich zorgen te maken. Modane ligt ruim 300 meter hoger dan het volgende station, Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne. Een hoogteverschil dat in minder dan 15 km overbrugd moet worden. In feite is de spoorlijn naar Saint-Michel één lange afdaling met hellingen van gemiddeld 3%. De tweede lokomotief die hem beloofd was, en die nodig was om de trein op die helling af te remmen, wordt ingezet voor een artillerie-konvooi richting Turijn en verder naar het front. De hele trein bestaat nu uit 1 lokomotief, 2 bagagewagens en 17 rijtuigen. De voorste 3 rijtuigen hebben remmen die vanuit de lokomotief bediend worden, daarachter zijn nog 7 rijtuigen voorzien van een handrem, bediend door een remmer. De overige rijtuigen zijn ongeremd. De maximumsnelheid op de spoorlijn is 40 km/h.
De commandant van het station, luitenant Fayolle, wordt erbij gehaald. Hij heeft geen zin in toestanden: duizend man die graag naar huis willen en een slok op hebben… Als dat escaleert heet dat muiterij, en dat moet voorkomen worden, tot iedere prijs. Hij wendt zich tot Girard en briest: “Girard, dit is een bevel. Rijden met die trein en rap wat, of ik laat je executeren! Begrepen?!”
Girard foetert binnensmonds “900 ton aan de haak, gekkigheid...” En zet met tegenzin de trein in beweging.

Binnen heeft iedereen een plaatsje gevonden. De elektrische verlichting is buiten werking, dus veel soldaten hebben een kaarsje aangestoken om bij te kaarten en wat te drinken. Er wordt een beetje jolig gedaan over het incident met Girard en Fayolle. “Ach joh, gedoe met die remmen, schiet toch op…”

De trein begint vlak na het vertrek uit Modane aan de afdaling naar Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne. De soldaten vermaken zich prima, en merken op dat de trein een lekker vaartje ontwikkelt. Als met veel gepiep van de wielen de eerste bocht genomen wordt, en met nog steeds toenemende snelheid ook de tweede bocht gepasseerd wordt, klinkt steeds sneller en nerveuzer het stoomfluitje van Girard, het teken voor de remmers om te proberen vaart te minderen. De remmen van de rijtuigen reageren niet of nauwelijks, en de trein blijft meer en meer snelheid maken. Girard doet wat hij kan, maar is de contrôle over de trein volledig kwijt. Hij laat de zandreservoirs leeglopen voor zijn wielen in de hoop de trein af te remmen, probeert de aandrijving in de achteruit te zetten, maar niets helpt. De stationswachter van La Praz, nog niet op de helft van het traject naar Saint-Michel, ziet de trein met ontstellende snelheid langsbulderen, terwijl de remmen en wielen witgloeiend en hevig vonken sproeiend de eerste brandjes onder de rijtuigen veroorzaken. Ondertussen loopt de snelheid op... 80 km/h…100…120…Links en rechts springen reeds mannen uit de op hol geslagen trein, maar het is te laat : ze slaan te pletter op het talud. Aan boord blijven is ook geen goed plan, zo blijkt al gauw. Het eerste rijtuig, dat leeg was en dus lichter dan de anderen, ontspoort op anderhalve kilometer voor Saint-Michel. De koppeling met de lokomotief en de tender breekt af, en als een raket wordt de lokomotief over de Pont de La Saussaz gelanceerd. Het eerste rijtuig crasht tegen een rotswand met een snelheid rond de 140 km/h, en de andere 18 rijtuigen smakken er met dezelfde snelheid bovenop. De hele trein, zojuist nog een 350 meter lang, is veranderd in een hoop verwrongen staal en hout van ruim 100 meter lang, waaruit een afschuwelijk gekerm opstijgt. Overal woeden kleine brandjes. Al snel grijpt het vuur om zich heen en de puinhopen van de trein blijven branden tot in de namiddag van 13 december. Af en toe hoort men explosies, van handgranaten en patronen die de troepen bij zich hadden.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4844
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 18:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Koninklijk besluit dd 12 december 1917

http://www.tweedekamer.nl/images/Instellingsbesluit-Centraal-Stembureau-(voorloper_Kiesraad)-12-december-1917_118-206329.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 18:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Madeira History - Funchal Shelled

(...) Just nine days later, on 12th December 1917, two German U-boats again bombarded Funchal. This time the attack lasted between 20 or 30 minutes. Forty, 4.7 inch and 5.9 inch shells were fired. It was reported that there were 3 fatalities and 17 wounded, In addition, a number of houses and Santa Clara church were hit. (...)

http://www.love-madeira.com/madeira-history-funchal-shelled.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EYES OF THE ARMY: The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

December 12, 1917
Wednesday A.M.

Dear Father:-

As I said in my night letter yesterday, we have been informed that we will be commissioned as soon as we get to France.

One of our men went to Washington last week and through a friend (Major Smith) managed to see several of the higher officers in the Signal Corps and the War Dept. It seems they had lost all trace of us through some mix up down there. One man thought we were overseas and another that we were still at Fort Sill. After much trouble they succeeded in locating our papers. Then the high mogul, McCain the Adjutant-General of the Army, cabled Pershing that we were to be commissioned on arrival. He also established our status as “cadets” which may not mean $100.00 per month but does mean good accommodations on the trip abroad.

Under the circumstances I didn’t want to go across with practically no money because if we are commissioned there are certain things like collar ornaments, hat cords, etc. which we will have to have at once. The $50.00 will supply those things and the rest of my equipment I can get out of my pay.

With such uncertainty about what will really happen I hated to ask you for the $50.00, hated to ask you anyway, but I hated worse to land overseas without any money. Of course I am not exactly broke because we were paid Saturday but out of my $20.00 I have had to buy a supply of tobacco, soap and other little things that are hard to get in France.

We may be here till after Christmas and in that case I will surely try to get home but I am much afraid I will have no chance. However I will do my best.

I received the notification that the money was at the telegraph office but I have to go to Hempstead, a small town near here to get it. I will do so tomorrow morning.

Thank you very much for sending me the money. I no doubt will be able to repay you very soon if we get our commissions.

Lots of love,

Mortimer.

WVM Curator: Mortimer mentions a "night letter" sent "yesterday" regarding news of his commission. It is unclear if he is refering to the telegram which he sent Tuesday morning (the one posted yesterday), or if he in fact did send another letter, which subsequently is not in our collection.
A minor point of uncertainty, perhaps, but these are the types of questions every historian labors to answer. Indeed, if a letter is missing we have no way of knowing what potentially important information it contained.


http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/december-12-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

December 12, 1917: Father Flanagan establishes Boys Town

In Omaha, Nebraska, Father Edward J. Flanagan, a 31-year-old Irish priest, opens the doors to a home for troubled and neglected children, and six boys enter to seek a better life. Flanagan, who previously ran the Workingmen's Hotel, a haven for down-and-out workers in Omaha, understood that mistreated or orphaned children were at high risk of turning to delinquency and crime in later years.



The location of what would become known as "Boys Town" rapidly filled up with the arrival of additional children. Many were sent by local courts, others were referred to the home by citizens, and some wandered off the streets and through the home's unlocked doors on their own accord. In the spring of 1918, no space was left in the drafty Victorian mansion at 106 North 25th Street, so Father Flanagan, assisted by sympathetic citizens, moved Boys Town to a building 10 times the size on the other side of town. The vacant building was the German-American Home, which, with the U.S. declaration of war against Germany in April 1917, had become the most despised building in the city.

Within months, enrollment at Boys Town had soared to more than 100 boys, and a school was established that later grew into an institution with a grade school, a high school, and a career vocational center. Before the new building was four years old, more than 1,300 neglected boys from 17 states had passed through Boys Town. In 1921, Boys Town expanded again with the financial assistance of the people of Omaha, this time to a farm 10 miles west of Omaha. The institution remains at this site today and has changed its name to "Girls and Boys Town" to reflect its co-ed enrollment.



http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/father-flanagan-establishes-boys-town
Zie ook http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0700/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0700/stories/0702_0102.html

En wie kent de film níet?


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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hector Garaud



Sous Lieutenant Hector Eugene Joseph Garaud was a World War I flying ace credited with thirteen aerial victories. He was one of the rare aces who survived the earliest era of fighter aviation.

Garaud began his military service on 12 July 1915, being assigned directly to the 2e Groupe d'Aviation as an enlisted soldier. On 28 September, he moved to Parc d'Aviation No. 100 for training. Afterwards he was sent to Escadrille V97 (the 'V' standing for Voisin) on 4 November 1915. There he served as an observer/gunner, winning a Mention in Dispatches.

On 16 August 1916, he reported for pilot's training at Buc. He was awarded Pilot's Brevet No. 4804 on 21 October 1916. Eight days later, he was assigned to Avord for further training. He was promoted to Caporal on 11 November 1916 before being forwarded to Cazau and Pau for advanced training. He arrived at Escadrille Spa38 on 16 April 1917; he scored his first win on 12 May. He was promoted to Sergent on 25 June. He tallied three more triumphs, on 29 October, 13 November, and 12 December 1917. On 22 December 1917, he became an ace, teaming with Marcel Henriot and Gabriel Guérin to shoot down a German two-seater over Livry-Louvercy. The following day, Garaud shared his sixth win with Georges Madon.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector_Garaud
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Pacificatie van 1917

(...) Maar ten slotte kwamen de beraadslagingen tot een afronding, met een openbare parlementaire beraadslaging in oktober 1916 over de wijziging in de grondwet op het punt van het onderwijs en het kiesrecht. Dagenlang trokken zeven decennia kiesrecht- en schoolstrijd voorbij, maar in overgrote meerderheid werden de wijzigingen goedgekeurd, zowel in de beide Kamers als in de tweede lezing. Toen Lohman, die zoveel had gedaan aan deze 'bevrediging', in mei 1917 de gezegende leeftijd van tachtig jaar had bereikt, deden de liberalen het voorstel om hem ook namens de onderwijscommissie een bloemstuk te sturen, maar de antirevolutionairen verhinderden dit.

Op 12 december 1917 vond in het hele land openbare afkondiging plaats van de nieuwe grondwet. In Den Haag gebeurde dit door de burgemeester, op het bordes van het stadhuis. Nadat hij was uitgesproken nam Troelstra diens plaats in om 'het volk' geluk te wensen met de verovering van het kiesrecht als een nieuw wapen in de klassenstrijd. Jammer was alleen dat hij, tot diepe teleurstelling van de vrouwen in de SDAP, maar zo zwakjes was opgekomen voor het vrouwenkiesrecht; zijn nieuwe wapen had daardoor op voorhand al veel van zijn glans verloren. (...)

Duidelijk artikel van Piet de Rooy, http://www.historischnieuwsblad.nl/00/hn/nl/0/artikel/6571/De_Pacificatie_van_1917.html


Afkondiging van het algemeen kiesrecht voor mannen door de burgemeester op het bordes van het stadhuis te Den Haag op 12 december 1917.

http://dbnl.nl/tekst/borg006herm03_01/borg006herm03_01_0009.php
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 11 Dec 2010 21:18, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening Post, Volume XCIV, Issue 141, 12 December 1917









http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19171212.2.50.18
Foto: http://www.anbhof.com/oldtimers.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Renaat de Rudder

Renaat de Rudder: born in Oostakker in 1897, he moved with his parents to Landegem in 1909. In 1914 he volunteered for the Belgian army to fight in the first World War, where he wrote on the physical and moral pain he was suffering, until he died on 12 December 1917.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Nevele/105631329469422
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S. Military Intervention in Russia, 1917–20

(...) The American loans and pro‐war propaganda did not prevent the Bolsheviks from seizing power in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) in November 1917. Five weeks later, on 12 December 1917, President Wilson and Secretary of State Robert Lansing authorized covert financial support for anti‐Bolshevik forces then gathering in southern Russia. American leaders hoped the Cossacks and Russian officers would be able to block German access to Russian resources and would serve as a nucleus from which a democratic Russia could be regenerated.

While Wilson was willing to provide money and moral encouragement to anti‐Bolshevik groups, in the first half of 1918 he repeatedly declined British and French proposals for direct military intervention in Russia. Wilson and his top advisers feared that Allied intervention, particularly by Japanese soldiers, would cause Russians to rally around the Soviet government and seek protection from Germany. American leaders also believed that the war was going to be won on the western front, that diverting forces from France would be unwise, that Allied proposals to recreate an eastern front were impractical, and that condoning or participating in expeditions to Russia would undermine American popular support for the war. (...)

http://www.answers.com/topic/u-s-military-intervention-in-russia-1917-20
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hiliare Belloc, letter to G. K. Chesterton (12 December, 1917)

It is sometimes necessary to lie damnably in the interests of the nation. It wasn't only numbers that lost us Cambrai; it was very bad staff work on the south side. Things like thought oughtn't to happen.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWwpb.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hermkuhn, Watercolour, 12 December 1918



Dutch landscape with woman and sheep. The artist has written "P.O.W." after his name on the watercolour.

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/hermkuhn-watercolour-12-december-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Social and Anti-Social Forces in the Human Being
A lecture by Rudolf Steiner, Bern, December 12, 1918



The times themselves speak clearly enough, demanding that we should apply to the conditions and activities of these times those feelings and modes of thinking which we have acquired from our studies of Spiritual Science. Not only do outward circumstances speak clearly, but our conceptions of Spiritual Science also justify us in a certain way, especially in what we have to say today. In many if our basic ways of looking at the world, we have started from one fundamental fact of human evolution, from the fact that this evolution is accomplished by successive stages of which the most important and most related to us began with the great Atlantean Catastrophe, namely this Post-Atlantean Epoch. Four periods of it have passed by, while we are now living in the Fifth Post-Atlantean Period. This period of development, which began in the 15th century of our Christian era, is the one which we can designate as the period of the Spiritual or Consciousness Soul. Other soul forces have been especially evolved in other periods of civilization. In our civilization which has followed the Greco-Latin civilization from the first half of the 15th century, humanity must gradually develop the Spiritual Soul. The preceding period, which commenced in the 8th century B.C. and finished in the 15th century A.D., was pre-eminently the period in which humanity developed the Intellectual or Mind Soul.

Now we need not give a full description of these cultural stages, but we will particularly look at what is a peculiarity of our age — this age which has comparatively few centuries behind it. Each age lasts on average about 2000 years. Therefore much remains to be done in this period of the Spiritual Soul. The task of humanity — of civilized humanity in this age of the Spiritual Soul — will be that of laying hold of the whole human being and making him entirely dependent on himself, of lifting into the full light of consciousness much of that which in earlier periods man felt instinctively and judged instinctively.

Many present difficulties and much that is chaotic around us in our era, become quite explicable when one knows that the task of our era is to raise that which is instinctive to the plane of consciousness. What is instinctive in us happens to a certain degree by itself, but to achieve a conscious result one must make an inward effort, above all, to begin to think truly with one's whole being. Man tries to avoid this, he does not willingly take a conscious part in the shaping of world conditions. Here is a point over which many are indeed deceived today. Men today think the following: Well, today we live in the period of the development of thought. People are proud of the fact that there is more thinking nowadays than in the past. But this is an illusion — one of the many illusions in which humanity lives today. This comprehension on which people pride themselves today is mainly instinctive. Only when the instinctive nature which has appeared in the evolution of humanity and which so proudly speaks of thought — only when this instinctive nature becomes instead an active element, when the intellect does not depend merely on the brain but springs from the whole man, when it is separated from rationalism and is lifted to the plane of Imagination, Inspiration, and Intuition — only then will that gradually emerge which seeks to emerge in the Fifth Post-Atlantean Period, the period of the Spiritual Soul. That which meets man today and which is clearly indicated even in the worldly thought of the present epoch is something which one continuously needs to mention the appearance of the so-called Social Question.

But he who has earnestly studied our anthroposophically oriented Spiritual Science will easily perceive that the essential impulse in the shaping of the social order (whether belonging to the State or not) must come from that which human beings can develop out of themselves, as it is this which regulates the relationship between people. Everything which the human being develops out of himself naturally corresponds to certain impulses which are ultimately found in our soul and spirit life. If one looks at the matter this way, one is able to ask: Must attention not then be directed above all to the social impulses or to the social instincts, movements or forces emerging in human nature? We can, if you like, call these social impulses, social drives; but we must keep in mind that they should not only be thought of as mere unconscious instincts since when we speak of social instincts today, we must take into account that we live in the age of the Consciousness Soul and that these drives seek to press up into consciousness.

Now, if these things are to count for us, then we must find social impulses which seek to become reality. But in so doing we must recognize the terrible one-sidedness of our age, which should not of course be deplored, but which should be looked at calmly because it has to be overcome. Man has such a great inclination in our day to look at things one-sidedly. But a pendulum cannot swing from the central point out to one side without also swinging back to the other. Just as little as a pendulum can swing to one side only, can social impulses of men be expressed by only one side. This is because the social impulses are quite naturally opposed by anti-social impulses in the human being. Precisely because one finds social impulses or drives in human nature, one also finds the opposite. This fact must above all be considered.

The social leaders and agitators, for example, live in the illusion that they need only spread certain ideas or need only appeal to a class of man who is willing and disposed (provided ideas are there) to help forward the social impulse. It is an illusion to act in this way, for in so doing one forgets that if social forces are working, then anti-social forces are also present. What we must be able to do today is to look these things straight in the face without illusion. It is only from the viewpoint of Spiritual Science that they can be looked at straightly without illusion. One is tempted to say that people are sleeping through the most important thing of all in life when they do not begin to look at life from the viewpoint of Spiritual Science.

We must ask ourselves: What is the relation between people with regard to social and anti-social forces? We need to see that the relationship between people is fundamentally a complicated matter. When one person meets another, I would say we must look into the situation radically. Meetings of course point to differences which vary according to specific circumstances; but we must fix our eyes on the common characteristics, we must clearly see the common elements in the meeting, in the confrontation between one person and another. We must ask ourselves: What really happens then, not merely in that which presents itself to the senses, but in the total situation, when one person stands opposite another, when one person meets another? Nothing less than that a certain force works from one person to the other. The meeting of one with another leads to the working of a certain force between them. We cannot confront another person in life with indifference, not even in mere thoughts and feelings, even though we may be separated from them by distance. If we have any kind of relation to other people, or any communication with them, then a force flows between us creating a bond. It is this fact which lies at the basis of social life and which, when broadened, is really the foundation for the social structure of humanity.

One sees this phenomenon most clearly when one thinks of the direct interchange between two people. The impression which one person makes on the other has the effect of lulling the other to sleep. Thus we frequently find in social life that one person gets lulled to sleepiness by the other with whom he has interchange. As a physicist might say: a “latent tendency” is always there for one man to lull another to sleep in social relationships.

Why is this so? Well, we must see that this rests on a very important arrangement of man's total being. It rests on the fact that what we call social impulses, fundamentally speaking are only present in people of our present day consciousness during sleep. You are, in so far as you have not yet attained clairvoyance, really only penetrated by social forces when you are asleep, and only that which continues to work out of sleeping into waking conditions works into ordinary waking consciousness as a social impulse. When you know this, you do not need to be surprised when your social being seeks to lull you to sleep in your relationship with others. In the relationship between people the social impulse ought to develop. Yet it can only develop during sleep. Therefore in the relationship between people a tendency is shown for one person to dull the consciousness of the other so that a social relation may be established between them. This striking fact is evident to one who studies the realities of life. Above all things, our interchange with one another leads to dulling the consciousness of one another, in the interests of a social impulse between people. Of course you cannot go about continually asleep in life. Yet the tendency to establish social impulses consists in, and expresses itself by, an inclination to sleep. That of which I speak goes on subconsciously of course, but it nevertheless actually penetrates our life continuously. Thus there exists a permanent disposition to fall asleep precisely for the building up of the social structure of humanity.

On the other hand, something else is also working. A perpetual struggle and opposition to falling asleep in social relationships is also present. If you meet a person you are continuously standing in a conflict situation in the following way: Because you meet him, the tendency to sleep always develops in you so that you may experience your relationship to him in sleep. But, at the same time, there is aroused in you the counter-force to keep yourself awake. This always happens in the meeting between people — a tendency to fall asleep, a tendency to keep awake. In this situation a tendency to keep awake has an anti-social character, the assertion of one's individuality, of one's personality, in opposition to the social structure of society. Simply because we are human beings, our soul-life swings to and fro between the social and the antisocial. And that which lives in us as these two forces, which may be observed between people communicating, can from an occult perspective be seen to govern our life. When we meet social arrangements and structures in society, even if these arrangements seem far-fetched from the seemingly wise consciousness of the present, they are still a manifestation of this pendulum between social and anti-social forces. The national economist may reflect upon what credit, capital and interest are. Yet even these things which make for regularity in social transactions are only outward swings of the pendulum between social and anti-social forces. The person who seeks to find healing remedies for these times must intelligently and scientifically connect with these facts. For how is it that social demands arise in our time? Well, we live in the age of the Spiritual or Consciousness Soul in which man must become independent. But on what does this depend? It depends on people's ability during our Fifth Post-Atlantean Period to become self-assertive, to not allow themselves to be put to sleep. It is the anti-social forces which require development in this time, for consciousness to be present. It would not be possible for mankind in the present to accomplish its task if just these anti-social forces did not become ever more powerful; they are indeed the pillars on which personal independence rests. At present, humanity has no idea how much more powerful anti-social impulses must become, right on until the 30th century. For men to progress properly, anti-social forces must develop

In earlier periods the development of the anti-social forces was not the spiritual bread of humanity's evolution. There was therefore no need to establish a counter-force. Indeed none was set. In our day, when a person on his own account, for his individual self, must evolve antisocial forces, which are evolving because man is now subjected to this evolution against which nothing will prevail, there must also come about that with which man resists them: a social structure which will balance this anti-social evolutionary tendency. The anti-social forces must work inwardly so that human beings may reach the height of their development. Outwardly, in social life, structures must work so that people do not totally lose their outer connections in life. Hence the social demands of the present. They can in a certain sense be seen as the demand for a justified outer balance to the inward, essentially anti-social evolutionary tendency of humanity in the Fifth Post-Atlantean Epoch.

From this you can see that nothing is accomplished by seeing things in a one-sided way. As men live nowadays, certain words (I will not say ideas or feelings), certain words have certain values. The word “anti-social” arouses a degree of antipathy. It is considered as something evil. Very well; we perhaps need not trouble ourselves whether it is considered good or bad, since it is quite necessary. Be it good or bad, it is connected with the necessary tendencies of evolution in our time. It is simply sheer nonsense to say that the anti-social impulses must be resisted, for they cannot be resisted. One must grasp the essential inner development of mankind in our time, understand the evolutionary tendency. It is not a matter of finding prescriptions for resisting the anti-social forces; but of so shaping, of so arranging the social order, the structure, the organization of that which lies outside of the individual, that a counter-balance is present to that which works as anti-social force within human beings. Therefore it is vital for our time that the individual achieves independence, but that social forms provide a balance to this independence. Otherwise neither the individual nor society can develop properly.

In earlier periods there were tribes and classes. Our age strives against this. Our age is no longer able to divide people into classes but must consider them in their totality and create social structures which take this totality into account. I said yesterday in my public lecture that slavery could exist in the Greco-Latin Period; one was the master, the other the slave. Then men were divided. Today we have as a remnant just that which disturbs the working-man so much, namely that his power to work is sold; in this way something belonging to him is organized from outside. This must go; it is only possible to organize socially what does not integrally belong to the human being, such as his position or the function to which he is appointed, in short, something which is not an inner part of the individual. All this which we acknowledge with regard to the necessary development of social democracy is really so, and must be so understood.

Just as no man can claim to do arithmetic if he has never learned his multiplication tables, so too he cannot claim to discuss social reforms and the like when he has never learned those things which we have just explained: namely, that socialism and anti-socialism exist quite concretely in the way described. People in some of the most important positions in society, when they begin talking about present social demands, often appear to those who know, as individuals who wish to begin building a bridge over a rushing stream without having the mast elementary knowledge of mechanics. They may well be able to put up a bridge, but it will collapse at the first opportunity. It seems with social leaders or with those who look after social institutions, that their plans will be shown to be impossible; for the things of reality demand that we work with them, and not against them. It is therefore tremendously important that those things which form the backbone of our anthroposophical thought and consciousness should one day be taken seriously.

One of the impulses which ensoul us in the sphere of our anthroposophical movement is that we, in a sense, carry into the whole of man's life that which most people apply only to youth. We sit on the “school-bench” of life long after we have become grey. This is one of the differences between us and others, who believe that at the age of 25, or sometimes 26, when they have finished lazying about with their education, that they are ready for the rest of life — at most there may still be some amusing additions to one's education.

But when we approach the very nerve of Spiritual Science, we feel that the human being really must continue to learn throughout his whole life if he wishes to tackle the tasks of life. It is vital that we should be permeated with this feeling. If we do not get rid of the belief that people can master everything with the faculties they have developed up to their 20th or 25th year, that then one only has to meet in Parliament or some other forum to decide all affairs — as long as we do not get rid of this view, we shall never be able to establish healthy conditions in the social structure of mankind.

The study of the reciprocal relation between the social and the anti-social is extremely significant for our time. Just this anti-social tendency is of the utmost importance to understand because it must make itself felt and must be developed in us. This anti-social spirit can only be held in balance by the social. But the social must be nursed, must be consciously cared for. And in our day this becomes truly more and more difficult because the anti-social forces are really in accord with our natural development.

The social element is essential; it must be cherished. We shall see that in this Fifth Post-Atlantean Period there is a tendency to take no notice of the social in merely acting naturally. Rather it must be acquired consciously in working with one's soul forces, while formerly it was felt instinctively in man. What is necessary and must be actively acquired is the interest of man in man. This is indeed the backbone of all social life.

It almost sounds paradoxical to say today that no clear conception of the so-called difficult ideas of economics can be gained if the interest of one for another does not increase, if people do not begin to compare the illusions which have sway in social life with present realities. One who really thinks about it recognizes the fact that simply by being a member of society one is in a complicated relation to others. Imagine that you have a $5 note in your pocket, and you make use of this $5 note by going shopping one morning, and you spend the full $5. What does it mean that you go out with a $5 note in your pocket? The $5 note is really an illusion — it is worth nothing in reality (even if it is metal money. At this point I do not want to discuss the theories of the Metalists and the Nominalists with regard to money; but even if it is metal money, it is still an illusion and of no real worth). Money is namely only a ‘go-between’. And only because in our day a certain social order exists, an order belonging purely to the State, therefore this $5 note which you have spent in the morning for different items is nothing else than an equivalent for so many days of labour of so many men. A number of men must have completed so many days of work, so much human labour must have flowed into the social order — must have crystallized itself into merchandise — in order for the apparent worth of the bank note to have any real value, but only at the command of the social order. The bank note only gives you the power to call into your service so much labour, or to put it another way, to command its worth in work. You can picture it in your mind: There I have a bank note, which assigns to me, according to my social position, the power over so many men. If you now see these workmen selling their labour hour by hour, as the equivalent value of that which you have in your purse as the $5 note, then you begin to get a picture of the real facts.

Our relationships have become so complicated that we no longer pay attention to these things, especially if they do not concern us closely. I have an example which easily clarifies this. In the more difficult considerations of economics, in the areas of capital and interest and credit, things are quite complicated; so that even university professors and political economists, whose position should mean possession of adequate insight, really have no knowledge. Thus you can see that it is necessary to look at things correctly in these areas. Of course we cannot immediately take in hand the reform of the national economy, which has been forced into such a helpless condition by what is nowadays taught as political economy. But we can at least ask with respect to national education and other such matters: What must be done so that social life and forms are consciously established in opposition to anti-social forces? What is really required? I said that it would be difficult in our time for people to develop sufficient interest in each other. You do not have sufficient interest if you think that you can buy yourself something with a $5 note and do not remember the fact that this brings about a social relationship with certain other human beings and their labour-power. You only have an adequate interest when in your picture you are able to substitute for each apparent transaction (such as the exchange of goods for a $5 note) the real transaction which is linked with it.

Now, I would say that the mere egoistic, soul-stirring talk of loving our fellow-men and acting upon this love at the first opportunity, that this does not constitute social life. This sort of love is, for the most part, terribly egoistic. Many a man is supported by what he has first gained through robbing his fellow-men in a truly patriarchal fashion, in order to create for himself an object for his self-love, so that he can then feel nice and warm with the thought, “You are doing this, you are doing that” One does not easily discover that a large part of the so-called love of doing good is a masked self-love. Therefore, the main consideration is not merely to think of what lies nearest to hand, thereby enhancing our self-love, but to feel it our duty to look carefully at the many-sided social structures in which we are placed. We must at first lay the foundations for such understanding. Yet few today are disposed to do so.

I would like to discuss one question from the viewpoint of general education, namely: How can we consciously establish social impulses to balance those anti-social forces which are developing naturally within us? How can we cultivate the social element, this interest of man in man, so that it springs up in us — going ever further and deeper, and leaving us no rest? How can we enkindle this interest which has disappeared so pitiably in our age, the age of the Spiritual Soul? In our age true chasms have already been created between people. Men have no idea about the manner in which they pass one another by without in the least comprehending each other. The desire to understand the other in all his or her uniqueness is very weak today. On the one hand, we have the cry for social union; and on the other, the ever-increasing spread of purely anti-social principles. The blindness of people toward each other can be seen in the many clubs and societies which people form. They do not provide any opportunity for people to get to know one another. It is possible for men to meet one another for years and not to know each other better at the end than they did at the beginning. The precise need of the future is that the social shall be brought to meet the antisocial in a systematic way. For this there are various inner soul methods. One is that we frequently attempt to look back over our present incarnation to survey what has happened to us in this life through our relations with others. If we are honest in this, most of us will say: Nowadays we generally regard the entrance of many people into our life in such a way that we see ourselves, our own personalities, as the center of the review. What have we gained from this or that person who has come into our life? This is our natural way of feeling. It is exactly this which we must try to combat. We should try in our souls to think of others, such as teachers, friends, those who have helped us and also those who have injured us (to whom we often owe more than to those who, from a certain point of view, have been of use to us). We should try to allow these pictures to pass before our souls as vividly as possible in order to see what each has done.

We shall see, if we proceed in this way, that by degrees we learn to forget ourselves, that in reality we find that almost everything which forms part of us could not be there at all unless this or that person had affected our lives, helping us on or teaching us something. When we look back on the years in the more distant past to people with whom we are no longer in contact and about whom it is easier to be objective, then we shall see how the soul-substance of our life has been created by the people and circumstances of the past. Our gaze then extends over a multitude of people whom we have known in the course of time. If we try to develop a sense of the debt we owe to this or that person — if we try to see ourselves in the mirror of those who have influenced us in the course of time, and who have been associated with us — then we shall be able to experience the opening-up of a new sense in our souls, a sense which enables us to gain a picture of the people whom we meet even in the present, with whom we stand face to face today. This is because we have practiced developing an objective picture of our indebtedness to people in the past. It is tremendously important that the impulse should awaken in us, not merely to feel sympathy or antipathy towards the people we meet, not merely to hate or love something connected with the person, but to awaken a true picture of the other in us, free from love or hate.

Perhaps you will not feel that what I am saying now is extremely important — but it is. For this ability to picture the other in oneself without love or hate, to allow the other individual to appear again within our soul, this is a faculty which is decreasing week by week in the evolution of humanity. It is something which men are, by degrees, completely losing. They pass one another by without arousing any interest in each other. Yet this ability to develop an imaginative faculty for the other is something that must enter into pedagogy and the education of children. For we can really develop this imaginative faculty in us if, instead of striving after the immediate sensations of life as is often done today, we are not afraid to look back quietly in our soul and see our relationships to other human beings. Then we shall be in a position to relate ourselves imaginatively to those whom we meet in the present. In this way we awaken the social instinct in us against the anti-social which quite unconsciously and of necessity continues to develop. This is one side of the picture.

The other is something that can be linked up with this review of our relations to others. It is when we try to become more and more objective about ourselves. Here we must also go back to our earlier years. Then we can directly, so to speak, go to the facts themselves. Suppose you are 30 or 40 years of age. You think, “How was it with me when I was ten years old? I will imagine myself entirely into the situation of that time. I will picture myself as another boy or girl of ten years old. I will try to forget that I was that; I will really take pains to objectify myself.” This objectifying of oneself, this freeing of oneself in the present from one's own past, this shelling-out of the Ego from its experiences, must be specially striven for in our present time. For the present has the tendency towards linking up the Ego more and more with its experiences.

Nowadays man wants to be instinctively that which his experiences make him. For this reason it is so very difficult to acquire the activity which Spiritual Science gives. The spirit must make a fresh effort each time. According to true occult science, nothing can be done by comfortably remaining in one's position. One forgets things and must always be cultivating them afresh. This is just as it should be because fresh efforts need to continually be made. He who has already made some progress in the realm of Spiritual Science attempts the most elementary things every day; others are ashamed to pay attention to the basics. For Spiritual Science, nothing should depend on remembering, but on man's immediate experience in the present. It is therefore a question of training ourselves in this faculty — through making ourselves objective — that we picture this boy or girl as if he or she were a stranger at an earlier time in our lives; of bestirring ourselves more and more, of getting free of events, and of being less haunted at 30 by the impulses of a 10 year old. Detachment from the past does not mean denial of the past. We gain it in another way again, and that is what is so important. On the one hand, we cultivate the social instinct and impulses in us by looking back upon those who have been connected with us in the past and regarding our souls as the products of these persons. In this way we acquire the imagination for meeting people in the present. On the other hand, through objectifying ourselves we gain possibilities of developing imagination directly. This objectifying of our earlier years is fruitful insofar as it does not work in us unconsciously. Think for a moment: If the 10 year old child works on unconsciously in you, then you are the 30 or 40 year old augmented by the 10 year old. It is just the same with the 11, the 12 year old child and so on. Egoism has tremendous power, but its power is lessened when you separate the earlier years from yourself and when you make them objective. This is the important point on which we must fix our attention.

The following pre-condition for social activity must be made clear to those people who raise social claims in unreasonable and illusory fashion: Understanding about how man can develop himself as a socially creative being must first be present in this period, when anti-social forces are growing ever stronger as part of human evolution.

What will then have been achieved? You will discover the whole meaning of what I have now explained if you consider the following: In 1848 there appeared a social document which continues to work into the present day in radical socialism, and in Bolshevism. It was the Communist Manifesto of Karl Marx, which contains ideas which rule the thoughts and feelings of many working men. Karl Marx was able to dominate the labour world for the simple reason that he wrote and said what the working man thinks and understands, as a working man. This Communist Manifesto the contents of which I do not need to explain to you, appeared in 1848. It was the first document, the first seed in what has now borne fruit, after the recent destruction of opposing movements. This document contains one slogan, one sentence which you will often find quoted today by most socialist writers: “Workers of the world, unite!” It is a sentence which has run through many socialist groups. What does it express? It expresses the most unnatural thing that could possibly be thought today. It expresses an impulse for socializing, for uniting a certain mass of people. On what is this uniting, this union, to be built? Upon its opposite, upon the hatred of all those who are not members of the working class. This associating, this banding together of people is to be brought about through splitting up and separating mankind into classes. You must ponder this, you must think about the reality of this principle which is a genuine illusion, if I can use this expression, and which has been adopted in Russia, now in Germany and the Austrian countries, and which will eat its way further and further into the world. It is so unnatural precisely because, on the one hand, it shows the necessity of socializing, but on the other it builds this socialization out of the anti-social instinct of class hatred, and class opposition.

However, these things need to be considered from a higher perspective, otherwise we shall not get very far; above all, we shall not be able to participate in the healthy development of mankind in the present. Nowadays Spiritual Science is the only means of seeing things truly in their totality; it is the only means for understanding our time. Just as one is adverse to entering into the spirit and soul foundations of man's physical constitution, so one also avoids, out of fear and lack of courage, studying those things in social life which can only be understood out of the Spirit. People are afraid, cover their eyes and put their heads in the sand like ostriches when they are confronted by real and important things. Of what does human interchange in fact consist? As we have seen, it consists of one person trying to put the other to sleep, while the other tries to resist and stay awake. This is the archetypal phenomenon of social science in Goethe's sense. This archetypal phenomenon points to something which mere material thinking cannot grasp; it points to that which can only be understood when one knows that in human life one is not only asleep during sleep — when we slumber along for hours, oblivious to the world — but the same applies to daily waking life, where the same forces which lead to sleep and wakefulness also play into the social and anti-social forces of man. All thinking about social forms can bear no fruit if we do not make the effort to take these things into account.

With this in mind, we must not be blind to the events taking place in the world, but must carefully watch what is coming to pass. What, for example, does the socialist of today think? He thinks that he can invent socialist slogans and call to men from all countries — “Workers of the world, unite!” and by so doing, establish a sort of international Paradise.

This indeed is one of the greatest and most fatal illusions. People are not abstract, but concrete. Fundamentally, the human being is individual. I have tried to make this clear in my Philosophy of Freedom, in contrast to the relativism of Neo-Kantianism and socialism. Men are also different according to their groupings over the world. We will discuss one of these differences so that we may see that it is not possible to simply say: — “You begin in the West, and carry out a certain social system, then you go to the East and then home again, as if taking a world tour.” But the attitude of taking a world journey lives in those who wish to spread socialism over the whole earth. They look upon the earth as a globe on which they, by starting in the West, can eventually arrive in the East. But people on the earth are different — and exactly in this difference dwells an impulse which is the motive force of progress.

You can see how, in this way, provision is made for the Consciousness Soul through birth and heredity. This actually comes to expression in the English-speaking people of today. They are organized for the Consciousness Soul through their blood, their birthright, and their inherited faculties. Because the English-speaking peoples have been especially prepared for the cultivation of the Consciousness Soul they are, in a way, representatives of the fifth Post-Atlantean period. People are thus differentiated according to where they live and how they are constituted.

The Eastern peoples must effect and represent the true development of humanity in another way. Beginning with the Russian people, and passing on to the people of the Asiatic countries — one finds an opposition, a revolt against the instinctive elements natural to the evolution of the Consciousness Soul. The people of the East wish to save the soul treasure of intellectuality of the present age for the future. They do not want it to be mixed with experience, but wish to liberate and preserve it for the next period. During this period, a true union can take place between the human being and the evolved Spirit Self. Thus, if the characteristic force of our present period is in the West, and can indeed be best cultivated as a quality among the English-speaking peoples, the people of the east, out of their national inheritance, seek to prevent the coming-to-pass in their souls of that which is most characteristic of the present period — so that it may develop in them as a germ for the following period, which begins with the 30th century. From this we can see the fact that certain laws prevail in human life, and in human evolution. In the realm of nature people are not surprised that they cannot burn ice, that a regular law underlies this phenomenon. But with the social structures of humanity, people fancy that the same social form, based on the same social principles, can, for example, be made to work in Russia, as in England, Scotland, or America. This is impossible, for the whole world is organized by underlying principles so that one cannot simply create identical forms at will all over the globe. This is a point which we must not forget.

In the Central European countries there is a middle condition of affairs. There, it is as if one were in a balanced condition, between the extremes of the East and the West. Looked at in this way, we see the Earth population divided into three parts. You cannot say: “Workers of the world, unite!” For the workers are of three sorts, are three varieties of people. Let us look at the people of the West again. We find a special disposition, a special mission for all who speak English by nature (single cases may be different) — a disposition for the cultivation of the Consciousness Soul. This disposition expresses itself in not detaching from the soul its characteristic quality of intelligence, but connecting this intelligence naturally, instinctively, with events in the world. To naturally, even instinctively, place oneself in the life of the world as a consciousness soul individual is the task of the English-speaking people. The expanse and greatness of the British Empire rests on this quality. Indeed herein lies the original phenomenon behind the expansion of the British Empire — that which is hidden in the impulses of its people exactly coincided with the inner impulses of the age. In my lectures on the European folk souls, you will find what is essential in this matter. Much is contained in this series of lectures which were given long before the war, but which provide material for judging this war-catastrophe objectively (see Note 1).

Now, the very capacities connected with the evolution of the Consciousness Soul give the English-speaking peoples a special genius for political life. One can study how the political art of dividing society and creating social structure has spread from England to those countries where things have remained backward, where the remnants of the fourth Post-Atlantean period have remained. This influence has spread even to the division of Hungarian society, to this Turanian member of the European peoples. It is only from the English heritage that a foundation for the political thinking of the fifth Post-Atlantean period can come. The English are specially suited to the realm of politics. It is of no use to pronounce a judgment on these things, the necessities of the case alone do so. One may feel sympathy or the opposite — that is a private affair. Objective necessity determines the affairs of the world. It is important that these objective necessities shall be clearly placed before us at this time.

Goethe, in his Legend of the Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily, has treated the forces of the human soul as three members, or forces; Power, Appearance, and Knowledge or Wisdom — or, as the Bronze King, the Silver King and the Golden King. Many remarkable things are spoken of in this legend, regarding the governing relationships which are being prepared for the present and which will live into the future. We can point out that what Goethe symbolizes by the Bronze king, the force of Power, is that which spreads over the world through the English-speaking peoples. This is necessary because the culture of the Consciousness Soul coincides with the special qualities of the British and American peoples.

In the Central European countries, which are not in such a state of chaos, there is an unmistakable equilibrium between the Leaning of the intellect toward the Consciousness Soul, and the desire to be free from it; there, sometimes one prevails, sometimes the other. None of the Central European nations is really suited for political life. When they desire to be political, they are disposed to lose contact with reality. Whereas the political thinking of the Anglo-American nations is firmly anchored in the soul, in the Central European countries, it is not, for the second soul force dominates — Semblance and Appearance. However, the people of the Central European countries manifest an intellectuality of special brilliance. Compare anything that the English-speaking people have to say about the nature of thinking — and you will find the thoughts strongly linked to solid earth-realities. But if you take the brilliant feats of the German mind — you will find that they are more an aesthetic shaping of thoughts, even if the aesthetic shaping has a logical form. It is especially noticeable how one thought leads to another so that thoughts of value appear in dialectical form, shaped by an aesthetic will. If one wishes to apply this to solid earth-realities — if one wishes by this means to become a politician — then one easily becomes untrue; one easily falls into a so-called dreamy idealism which seeks to establish united kingdoms, with decade-long calls for unity — but in the end sets up a mighty State by force. Never before has there been such a contrast in political Life as the one between the dream of unity in 1848 and that which was really established in 1871 (see Note 2). There you see the swing of the pendulum, the shift from that which really strives for aesthetic form, which can become untrue, an illusion, a dreamy picture when one wishes to apply it to politics. Here, there is simply no disposition for politics. When the Central European people become politicians they either dream or they lie. I should add that these things must not be discussed with sympathy or antipathy in order to accuse or to acquit. Rather, they must be said, because on the one hand they correspond with a need, and on the other with a tragedy. These are things that we must heed.

And if we then look to the East, things are quite different again. We have seen that the German, if he wants to be political, falls into a dreamy idealism or, at its worst, into untruth. The Russian on the other hand becomes ill or actually suffers a death if he desires to be political. This may seem strange, yet a Russian person has a constitution which creates a disposition towards disease, towards death, with intensive political involvement. The Russian Folk Soul has absolutely no affinity with that quality in the English and American Folk Soul which creates a political capacity. But because of this, the East has the task of carrying the intellect separated from its natural connection with the world of sense experience into the future age of the Spirit-Self.

One must therefore know how different abilities are spread among the people of the earth. This becomes visible in many areas. You have, for example, heard about the supersensible experience called “The Meeting with the Guardian of the Threshold”. There are marked differences in this meeting with the Guardian. Where this meeting, this initiation, is effected entirely independent of nationality, then it is objective and complete. But when this initiation occurs through special groups or societies connected with a particular people or nation, then it is one-sided. The English-speaking peoples are those who, when not guided by higher spiritual leaders but by their own Folk Soul, are especially suited for bringing to the Threshold those spiritual beings who surround and accompany us in this world of Ahrimanic spirits, and whom we take with us when we approach the supersensible world, if they have developed a certain liking for us. They then lead us primarily to an experience of the power of sickness and death. You will therefore hear it said by the greater number of Anglo-Americans initiated into the super-sensible Mysteries, that the first more important event in their cognition of the supersensible world is the encounter with those powers expressing sickness and death. They learn to know this as an external, outward experience.

If you turn to the Central European people what will you find, when those who are being initiated are not taken out of their nation and raised to universal humanity, but when the Folk Spirit co-operates with them? Then the first important experience which comes to our notice is a conflict between those spiritual beings who belong to higher worlds, to the other side of the Threshold, and certain other beings who are here in the physical world, on this side of the Threshold but who are invisible to ordinary consciousness. The Central Europeans will first become aware of this conflict. The experience of this conflict makes itself felt to the genuine seeker after truth in the Central European countries as a being penetrated with the powers of doubt. One becomes acquainted with all the powers of “many-sidedness”. In Western countries, there is a stronger inclination to be satisfied with exact truth; whereas in the Central European countries there is a tendency to immediately see the other side of the question. There, in the searching for truth, one trembles in the balance. Everything has two sides. One is regarded as a Philistine in Central Europe if one ventures a one-sided opinion. But this causes tragic suffering when nearing the Threshold. We must pay attention to this struggle which takes place at the Threshold, between spirits which belong only to the spirit world, and those belonging to the world of sense — this struggle which conditions all that calls forth doubt in man, this vacillation with regard to the truth. It is this experience of doubt which creates the European need to be trained in the truth — in philosophy — so as not to fall prey so easily to the generally recognized impulses of truth in society.

When you turn to the Eastern countries — and the Folk Soul acts a sponsor at the initiation — then one primarily experiences the spirits that work upon human egotism. One sees all that gives rise to human selfishness. The Westerner who approaches the Threshold does not see this. Instead, he sees the spirits that permeate the world and humanity with sickness and death in the broadest sense, as injurious, destructive and degrading for humanity. The Neophyte of the East, however, sees all that comes forward to tempt man as selfishness. Therefore, the ideal which proceeds from Western initiation is making men healthy and keeping them healthy, and giving mankind the possibility of healthy development. In the East, on the other hand, there springs up, as instinctive knowledge in connection to a religious orientation toward initiation, a feeling of one's own insignificance when faced with the sublime powers of the spiritual world. The man of the East, when meeting the spiritual world, is shown how selfishness may be cured, and egotism destroyed because of its dangers. This is even expressed in the external character of people from the East. Much of the Eastern character which is inexplicable to people from the West arises precisely from what is expressed at the Threshold of the spiritual world.

So we can see the differences in human qualities when we look at the inner development, the inner shaping of the psycho-spiritual development of humanity. It is important to keep this clearly in mind. In certain occult circles of the English-speaking people who were under the guardianship of the Folk Spirits, prophetic sayings could be found during the second half of the 19th century which referred to the things we have been discussing, things which are happening today. Think of what could have happened if the people of Europe, with the exception of those speaking English, had not stopped up their ears and blindfolded their eyes, so that their attention was directed from the truth of these things. I will tell you of a formula which was frequently repeated during the second half of the 19th century. The following was said: — “The State must be abolished in Russia, so that the Russian people may develop, for in Russia social experiments must be carried out, which could never be done in Western countries”. This might seem unsympathetic to non-English ears, but it contains a high degree of wisdom and insight. And he who can connect himself with these things so that he can believe in their efficacy as impulses in whose realization he can take part, this person is truly of the present age (see Note 3). Those who do not see the reality of these forces set themselves against the time.

These matters must be clearly understood. It was, of course, the inevitable lot of Central and Eastern Europe to block their ears and blindfold their eyes to occult facts; to give no heed to them, to work on lines of mysticism, abstract teaching, and abstract intellectualism. But we are now in a time when this must cease. Pessimism and despair must not be created by such contemplations as these. Rather force, courage, and the will to help is needed. In this sense we should always remember that we do not work against, but rather with the issues of our time — out of the spiritual scientific impulse of the Anthroposophical Movement. Let us see to it that we do not sleep away our opportunities. Spiritual Science can lead us to the conscious cultivation of social faculties. It can, for example, show us the forces at work in the human being when he is free from the body, what he is experiencing between going to sleep and awaking. But more importantly it can give us a direction in conscious waking life for developing social capacities. We of course cultivate the powers most necessary for our age when we are consciously thinking about those things which can only forcefully penetrate into our soul during waking hours. We could not develop, we would be powerless, if we only had to evolve during sleep. It is for our waking life that the following is therefore important.

Two powers are working in the present. One is the power which since the Mystery of Golgotha has worked in different metamorphoses through the ensuing periods of earth evolution as the Christ Impulse. We have often said that just in our age a reappearance of the Etheric Christ will take place. This reappearance of the Christ is indeed not far off. That He is coming again is no cause for pessimism, nor should it give rise to a nebulous longing and a desire for soul-warming, self-seeking, theosophical theories. The Christ Impulse has various forms, but in His present form He wishes to help humanity realize that spiritual wisdom now being revealed by the spiritual world. This wisdom wants to be realized and the Christ Impulse will be a help in this realization. It is on this realization that all depends. At this critical moment humanity is faced with a momentous decision. On the one side stands the Christ Being, calling us of our own free will to do what we have been speaking about today, to consciously and freely receive the social impulses which can heal and help humanity. Freely, to receive them. Therefore, we do not unite ourselves on those levels where hatred forms a foundation for love as in the cry, “Workers of the world, unite!” But we unite by striving to realize the Christ Impulse, by doing those things which are the will of Christ for this age.

Opposed to this will stands the adversary who is called in the Bible “the unrighteous Prince of this World”.He makes his presence known in various ways. One of these ways is to take those forces which allow us as free beings to serve that which we have been talking about today, to take this force of free will and to place it at the service of the physical. This adversary, the Prince of this world, has various instruments; for example, hunger and social chaos. By this means, through external compulsion, and physical measures, the force of free will is subverted to the service of apparent necessity. See how humanity today shows that it will not of its own free will turn to a truly social life, and to a recognition of true progress for mankind. It wishes to be compelled. And yet, this compulsion has not even led people to make the basic distinction between the Spirit of the supersensible world, the Christ Spirit and the adversary, the unrighteous Prince of this world. Look at this situation and see if this does not explain why in so many places today men oppose and struggle against the acceptance of any true spiritual teaching, against true spiritual deeds, and against Spiritual Science. They are possessed by the unrighteous Prince of this world.

Now think for a moment; think how you of your own free will turn to spiritual life; think humbly of yourselves, but also earnestly and strongly as the missionaries of the Christ-Spirit today, who have to combat the unrighteous Prince of this world, who lays hold of all those who unconsciously allow themselves to use forces out of the future to realize their own aims. If you think of yourselves in this light there is no room for pessimism — indeed it leaves you no time for a pessimistic view of the world. It will of course not shut your eyes and ears to that which has happened, sometimes in a terrible manner — and which is tragic to behold in its true form. But you will preeminently keep the following before your souls — “I am, in any case, called to look at everything without illusion; I must be neither pessimistic nor optimistic, so that forces may awaken in my soul which give me the power to aid the free development of the human being, to contribute to human progress in the place and situation where I am”. Even if the faults and tragedies of the age are very visible to Spiritual Science this should not be an incitement to pessimism or optimism, but rather a call to an inner awakening so that independent work and the cultivation of right thinking will result. For above all things, adequate insight is necessary. If only a sufficient number of people today were motivated to say, “We absolutely must have a better understanding of things”; then everything else would follow. It is just in regard to social questions that there is a need to consciously strive for insight and understanding. The development of the will activity is planned for, it is coming. If we in daily life would only wish to educate ourselves about social issues, and develop new social ideas, then (according to an occult law), each of us would be able to take another human being along. Each one of us can therefore work for two if we have the will. We could achieve much if we had an earnest desire to acquire insight at once. The rest would follow. It is not so bad that not many people can do much about the situation of society today, but it is incredibly sad if people cannot at least make up their minds to become acquainted with the social laws of Spiritual Science. The rest would follow if serious study would take place.

This is what I have desired to communicate to you today regarding the importance of knowing and recognizing certain things about the social situation of the present, and how such a recognition can lead to a life impulse for the future. I hope we will again have the opportunity of speaking together about the more intimate aspects of Spiritual Science.

Note 1:
Rudolf Steiner, The Mission of Folk-Souls. Rudolf Steiner Press, London, 1970.
Note 2:
The reference is to the distinction between the dreams of the German revolution of 1848 and the creation of the German Empire of 1871 by the Prussian State.
Note 3:
Here and in other references to Russia in this lecture, Rudolf Steiner appears to be referring to the political attitudes and behaviour of Germany and Austria toward Russia during the time of the Russian revolution when the actions of the central powers certainly strengthened the hands of the Bolsheviks against more moderate social democratic forces.


http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/19181212p01.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Dec 2010 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Burgerlijke Decoratie 1914-1918

Toegekend aan burgers of niet-combattante militairen voor uitzonderlijke verdienste ten bate van het land.

Deze onderscheiding, in vijf klassen, was gebaseerd op de Burgerlijke Decoratie welke in 1867 was ingesteld. Op 18 mei 1915 voerde Koning Albert I de Burgerlijke Decoratie 1914-1915 in waarbij het originele koninklijke monogram (2 verstrengelde letters "L" - Koning Leopold) werd behouden omwille van de heersende oorlogssituatie.

De nieuwe decoratie verschilt op drie punten van de 1867 versie : het lint, de gekruiste zwaarden en een balk "1914-1915". Slechts enkele Burgerlijke Decoraties 1915 werden door de Belgische regering, toen in ballingschap in het Franse Le Havre, uitgereikt.

Op 12 december 1918 werd dan de eigenlijke Burgerlijke Decoratie 1914-1918, met het monogram "A" van Koning Albert I, ingesteld. De vijf klassen, welke sedert het ontstaan onveranderd gebleven waren, zijn : de Kruisen 1ste en 2de Klasse (resp. goud en zilver) en de Medailles 1ste, 2de en 3de Klasse (goud, zilver en brons). De kruisen zijn in wit email uitgevoerd en verguld of verzilverd naargelang de klasse. Ze hebben dezelfde voor- en achterzijde met het koninklijk monogram in een centraal medaillon en gekruiste zwaarden (in het metaal van de klasse) tussen de kruisarmen.. Het lint is lichtgroen met de nationale Belgische driekleur (rood, geel en zwart) aan de randen. Een gouden band (later een gele streep) is centraal in het lint geweven (behalve bij de 1914-15 uitvoering). Bij de medailles (verguld, verzilverd of brons naargelang de klasse) is de ruimte tussen de kruisarmen, waartussen een Boergondisch kruis ligt, opgevuld en gekruiste zwaarden zijn aanwezig tussen de medaille en het lint. Dit lint is identiek aan dat voor de kruisen behalve wat betreft de gouden (of gele) band. De vijf klassen hebben alle een balk "1914-1918" (in hetzelfde metaal als het kruis of de medaille) op het lint.

http://users.skynet.be/hendrik/nl/B1-N-CivDec.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2010 0:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Een gezicht voor de soldaten uit Overijse in de Grote Oorlog

GUNS, Eugeen, geboren in Overijse op 12 juli 1892 en overleden op 19 december 1966, was de echtgenoot van Jeanne Vanschoubroeck. Bij het begin van de oorlog was hij verbonden aan het eerste bataljon carabiniers wielrijders. Op 12 augustus 1914 vocht hij mee in de bekende slag van de zilveren helmen te Haelen. Hij werd zwaar gekwetst en verbleef achtereenvolgens in de ambulance Vaxelaire te Antwerpen (september 1914), in oktober 1914 in de ambulance Continental in Blankenberge op 13 oktober 1914 in Essex (Engeland), op 12 december 1914 in het krijgshospitaal van Colchester. Op 15 december 1914 werd hij overgebracht naar Ipswich, waar hij verbleef tot 13 april 1915. Hij hield er uiteindelijk een stijf been aan over en kon geen echte frontdienst meer doen. Vanaf 1 december 1915 werd hij tewerkgesteld als geleider bij het voedingsmagazijn van de eerste ruiterij afdeling in Gravelines. In 1916 werd Eugeen bevorderd tot korporaal en werd vervolgens benoemd tot maréchal het logies en archivaris van het voedingsmagazijn. Hij bleef er in dienst tot in 1919. Hij werd nog kortstondig opgenomen in het hospitaal in Woluwe voor hij definitief naar huis terug kon. Hij werd onderscheiden met tal van militaire eretekens. Na de oorlog bekende hij zich als Vlaams fontsoldaat, zie ons boek 'Overijse in de Grote Oorlog 1914-1918'.

http://www.beierij.be/genealogie/soldaten1418.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2010 0:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Company diary of the 7th Wellington West Coast Company serving with the Wellington Infantry Battalion in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force

Sunday 12th December 1915 - Quiet day, fatigues as usual.

http://www.wanganuilibrary.com/ww1/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2010 0:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lenin and Trotsky on Wikileaks (well, sort of)

A day after the revolution, Bolsheviks declared the abolition of existing secret treaties and promised that all future treaties would be negotiated "openly in full view of the whole people". The publication of the treaties between the Russian government and the governments of Britain, France and others revealed how they had conspired to divide the spoils of war between themselves

On November 8, 1917, the day after the victory of Bolshevik-led Russian Revolution, the first foreign policy decision of the revolutionary government was the "Decree on Peace", written by Lenin and adopted on that day by the second All-Russian Congress of Soviets. It proposed an end to the carnage of World War I on the basis of a "just, democratic peace". It declared the abolition of existing secret treaties and promised that all future treaties would be negotiated "openly in full view of the whole people".

The publication of the treaties between the Russian government and the governments of Britain, France and others revealed how they had conspired to divide the spoils of war between themselves. Publication of the war-time treaties (as Trotsky revealed they were actually "diplomatic correspondence and coded telegrams exchanged between governments") began in Izvestiya on November 23, 1917, and were also issued as pamphlets between December 1917 and February 1918. Their publication in the Manchester Guardian in Britain on December 12, 1917, created an uproar there and in the United States.

Lees vooral verder op http://www.viewpointonline.net/lenin-and-trotsky-on-wikileaks-well-sort-of.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 10:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Mona Lisa wordt teruggevonden (1913)

Op 12 december 1913 wordt het wereldberoemde schilderij de Mona Lisa teruggevonden in Florence, nadat het twee jaar eerder uit het Louvre in Parijs is gestolen.

In augustus 1911 was de Mona Lisa, een van de beroemdste schilderijen ter wereld, gestolen uit het museum in de Franse hoofdstad. De diefstal was een dag later ontdekt door de schilder Louis Béroud. Toen die naar de Salon Carré liep waar het schilderij al vijf jaar te bewonderen was, vond hij een lege plek op de muur. De schilder alarmeerde hierop het museumpersoneel. Aanvankelijk dacht men dat het schilderij was weggehaald om het ergens te fotograferen, maar al snel bleek het kunstwerk van Leonardo da Vinci te zijn gestolen.

Twee jaar later werd het schilderij teruggevonden. Het bleek te zijn gestolen door Vincenzo Peruggia, een Italiaanse patriot en medewerker van het Louvre. De Italiaan had zich in augustus 1911 verstopt in een kast en was later met het schilderij onder zijn jas het Franse museum uitgelopen. Als patriot vond Peruggia dat het werk van Da Vinci te zien moest zijn in een Italiaans museum. Andere lezingen melden dat de Italiaan het doek simpelweg stal om er rijker van te worden. Peruggia liep tegen de lamp doordat hij het beroemde kunstwerk in 1913 probeerde te verkopen aan het Uffizi, een beroemd kunstmuseum in Florence. (...)

https://vandaagindegeschiedenis.nl/12-december/
Zie ook http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mona-lisa-recovered-in-florence
Zie ook http://mydevotionalthoughts.net/2011/12/this-day-in-history-december-12-1913.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 10:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Saturday Evening Post - The Great War: December 12, 1914

In the December 12, 1914, issue: Irvin S. Cobb describes an airborne weapon introduced to the war.

A Reserved Seat
By Irvin S. Cobb

War had become a romantic business in the century of peace that followed Napoleon’s defeat. Generations of young men grew up hearing tales of bravery and military glory. Many yearned for an opportunity to distinguish themselves in battle, earning the fame, the promotion, and the adoration of women that was given to soldiers in the stories they’d heard. But when war came in 1914, it quickly re-educated the youth of Europe about the brutal realities of combat. And now, with new weaponry, killing became even more efficient and more brutal.

Airplanes, for example, had originally been intended only for reconnaissance. But soon the pilots began shooting at other planes or dropping small bombs on enemy lines. In this week’s dispatch from the German lines, Irvin S. Cobb reports a crude device that French pilots were dropping on German troops.

Warning: The following excerpt contains a graphic depiction of death that some readers may find disturbing.


“Soon after we left the stand of 10-centimeter guns, a civilian Red Cross man halted our machines to show us a new device for killing men. It was a steel dart, of the length and thickness of a fountain pen, and of much the same aspect. It was pointed like a needle at one end, and at the other was fashioned into a tidy rudder arrangement, the purpose of this being to hold it upright — point downward — as it descended. It was an innocent-looking device — that dart; but it was deadlier than it seemed.

“‘That flyer at whom our guns were firing a while ago dropped this,’ explained the civilian. ‘He pitched out a bomb that must have contained hundreds of these darts; and the bomb was timed to explode a thousand or more feet above the earth and scatter the darts. Some of them fell into a cavalry troop on the road leading to La Fere.

“‘Hurt anyone? Ach, but yes! Hurt many and killed several — both men and horses. One dart hit a trooper on top of his head. It went through his helmet, through his skull, his brain, his neck, his body, his leg — all the way through him lengthwise it went. It came out of his leg, split open his horse’s flank, and stuck in the hard road.

“‘I myself saw the man afterward. He died so quickly that his hand still held his bridle rein after he fell from the saddle; and the horse dragged him — his corpse, rather — many feet before the fingers relaxed.’

The officers who were with us were tremendously interested — not interested, mind you, in the death of that trooper, spitted from the heavens by a steel pencil, but interested in the thing that had done the work. It was the first dart they had seen. Indeed, I think until then this weapon had not been used against the Germans in this particular area of the western theater of war. These officers passed it about, fingering it in turn, and commenting on the design of it and the possibilities of its use.

“‘Typically French,’ the senior of them said at length, handing it back to its owner, the Red Cross man — ‘a very clever idea too; but it might be bettered, I think.’ He pondered a moment, then added, with the racial complacence that belongs to a German military man when he considers military matters: ‘No doubt we shall adopt the notion; but we’ll improve on the pattern and the method of discharging it. The French usually lead the way in aerial inventions, but the Germans invariably perfect them.’”

The new weaponry of war was increasing the ability to cause greater destruction from a greater distance. But they soon learned that, as distance increased, accuracy declined. The collateral damage — to civilians and their cities — was rising sharply. The generals began deflecting criticism by blaming the enemy.

“We could, with the aid of our glasses, make out the buildings in Rheims, some of which were then on fire — particularly the great cathedral. Viewed from that distance it did not appear to be badly damaged.

“Already during that week, from many sources, we had heard the Germans’ version of the shelling of Rheims Cathedral, their claim being that they purposely spared the pile from the bombardment until they found the defenders had signal men in the towers; that twice they sent officers, under flags of truce, to urge the French to withdraw their signalers; and only fired on the building when both these warnings had been disregarded, ceasing to fire as soon as they had driven the enemy from the towers.

“I do not vouch for this story; but we heard it very frequently. Now, from one of the young officers who had escorted us into the trench, we were hearing it all over again, with elaborations. …

“We were noncombatants and nowise concerned in the existing controversy; but we remembered the plaintive words of the Chinese minister at Brussels when he called on [the U.S. minister in Belgium] — Brand Whitlock — to ascertain what Whitlock would advise doing in case the advancing Germans fired on the city. Whitlock suggested to his Oriental brother that he retire to his official residence and hoist the flag of his country over it, thereby making it neutral and protected territory.

“‘But, Mister Whitlock,’ murmured the puzzled Chinaman, ‘the cannon — he has no eyes!’”

http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2014/12/08/history/ww1-blog/great-war-december-12-1914.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 10:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Saturday Evening Post - The Great War: December 12, 1914

In the December 12, 1914, issue: Irvin S. Cobb describes an airborne weapon introduced to the war.

A Reserved Seat
By Irvin S. Cobb

War had become a romantic business in the century of peace that followed Napoleon’s defeat. Generations of young men grew up hearing tales of bravery and military glory. Many yearned for an opportunity to distinguish themselves in battle, earning the fame, the promotion, and the adoration of women that was given to soldiers in the stories they’d heard. But when war came in 1914, it quickly re-educated the youth of Europe about the brutal realities of combat. And now, with new weaponry, killing became even more efficient and more brutal.

Airplanes, for example, had originally been intended only for reconnaissance. But soon the pilots began shooting at other planes or dropping small bombs on enemy lines. In this week’s dispatch from the German lines, Irvin S. Cobb reports a crude device that French pilots were dropping on German troops.

Warning: The following excerpt contains a graphic depiction of death that some readers may find disturbing.


“Soon after we left the stand of 10-centimeter guns, a civilian Red Cross man halted our machines to show us a new device for killing men. It was a steel dart, of the length and thickness of a fountain pen, and of much the same aspect. It was pointed like a needle at one end, and at the other was fashioned into a tidy rudder arrangement, the purpose of this being to hold it upright — point downward — as it descended. It was an innocent-looking device — that dart; but it was deadlier than it seemed.

“‘That flyer at whom our guns were firing a while ago dropped this,’ explained the civilian. ‘He pitched out a bomb that must have contained hundreds of these darts; and the bomb was timed to explode a thousand or more feet above the earth and scatter the darts. Some of them fell into a cavalry troop on the road leading to La Fere.

“‘Hurt anyone? Ach, but yes! Hurt many and killed several — both men and horses. One dart hit a trooper on top of his head. It went through his helmet, through his skull, his brain, his neck, his body, his leg — all the way through him lengthwise it went. It came out of his leg, split open his horse’s flank, and stuck in the hard road.

“‘I myself saw the man afterward. He died so quickly that his hand still held his bridle rein after he fell from the saddle; and the horse dragged him — his corpse, rather — many feet before the fingers relaxed.’

The officers who were with us were tremendously interested — not interested, mind you, in the death of that trooper, spitted from the heavens by a steel pencil, but interested in the thing that had done the work. It was the first dart they had seen. Indeed, I think until then this weapon had not been used against the Germans in this particular area of the western theater of war. These officers passed it about, fingering it in turn, and commenting on the design of it and the possibilities of its use.

“‘Typically French,’ the senior of them said at length, handing it back to its owner, the Red Cross man — ‘a very clever idea too; but it might be bettered, I think.’ He pondered a moment, then added, with the racial complacence that belongs to a German military man when he considers military matters: ‘No doubt we shall adopt the notion; but we’ll improve on the pattern and the method of discharging it. The French usually lead the way in aerial inventions, but the Germans invariably perfect them.’”

The new weaponry of war was increasing the ability to cause greater destruction from a greater distance. But they soon learned that, as distance increased, accuracy declined. The collateral damage — to civilians and their cities — was rising sharply. The generals began deflecting criticism by blaming the enemy.

“We could, with the aid of our glasses, make out the buildings in Rheims, some of which were then on fire — particularly the great cathedral. Viewed from that distance it did not appear to be badly damaged.

“Already during that week, from many sources, we had heard the Germans’ version of the shelling of Rheims Cathedral, their claim being that they purposely spared the pile from the bombardment until they found the defenders had signal men in the towers; that twice they sent officers, under flags of truce, to urge the French to withdraw their signalers; and only fired on the building when both these warnings had been disregarded, ceasing to fire as soon as they had driven the enemy from the towers.

“I do not vouch for this story; but we heard it very frequently. Now, from one of the young officers who had escorted us into the trench, we were hearing it all over again, with elaborations. …

“We were noncombatants and nowise concerned in the existing controversy; but we remembered the plaintive words of the Chinese minister at Brussels when he called on [the U.S. minister in Belgium] — Brand Whitlock — to ascertain what Whitlock would advise doing in case the advancing Germans fired on the city. Whitlock suggested to his Oriental brother that he retire to his official residence and hoist the flag of his country over it, thereby making it neutral and protected territory.

“‘But, Mister Whitlock,’ murmured the puzzled Chinaman, ‘the cannon — he has no eyes!’”

http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2014/12/08/history/ww1-blog/great-war-december-12-1914.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 11:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

FRANK SINATRA - DECEMBER 12, 1915

Frank Sinatra almost died the day he was born. The doctor had trouble getting the huge 13½-pound baby out of his tiny mother, a woman less than five feet tall. Using forceps, the doctor tugged away, ripping and scarring the baby's ear, cheek and neck, and puncturing his eardrum. But the baby wasn't breathing, so his grandmother Rose, an experienced midwife, grabbed him from the doctor and held him under cold running water until he gasped his first breath and cried out. Francis Albert Sinatra entered the world fighting for his life–and he won.

http://www.sinatra.com/december-12-1915

“Alcohol may be man’s worst enemy, but the bible says love your enemy.”

― Frank Sinatra

“I feel sorry for people who don’t drink. When they wake up in the morning, that’s as good as they’re going to feel all day.”

― Phil Harris (often used by Frank Sinatra)

http://borntolisten.com/2017/12/12/december-12-frank-sinatra-was-born-in-1915/
Zie ook http://www.firstandmonday.com/december-12-1915-happy-birthday-frank-sinatra/
Zie ook https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/december-12/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 11:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE LETTERS OF KATHERINE MANSFIELD, VOLUME I: SUNDAY NIGHT BEFORE DINNER — DECEMBER 12, 1915

Sunday night before dinner
December 12, 1915
I have just put on my spencer, an extra pair of stockings and another shawlet and I'm still frozen. I rang for Mary Anne to make me a fire but she is evidently gone a junketing for I can't find her. The only minion I did find said they could not mont any bois until demain. Which seemed to me absurd. Suppose I were in convulsions and had to be wrapped in blankets and laid on an hearth (would that I were!)? Also I am as empty as the little French boy's tirelire and there's nothing to eat here. And the salon is full of travellers a-sitting round the fire a-toasting of their unworthy toes—Oh, what a wretched little swinging-on-a-bare-twig of a goblin you have got to-night—-and her maladies have been such that she has been forcée to garder her chambre all day except for to post my letter. At about five I nearly swallowed the teaspoon and had done with it. For I have added a sore throat to my fever and I am trying to gargle every 2 hours with three sous worth of borax and it's tasted awful. Just when I wrote in my diary “Adieu chère terre”—a nice little boy who belongs to the hotel brought me a letter from you—it was a gift from heaven. Never was a letter more welcome—It was indeed one of my great-aunt Charlotte's ‘direct answers’ to prayers. I read it once and then twice and then I absorbed it, you know—If you are not careful and less sweet to me I shall say Toujours, too, and then you'll be finally caught out. I do hope they give you a bed among the pottery. Can you choose your jug and basin from the stock? I saw that shop the day Munro flouted me and nearly entered in (Forgive me; I am all sticky with eating so much and such continuous Shakespeare). You told me very little of Kot. Didn't he fall down dead when he saw I wasn't there? And where did you sleep that first night, sirrah? (...)

Lees verder op http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-Mur01Lett-t1-body-d1-d38.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 11:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

December 12 in German History

12 december 1915: The world’s first all-metal airplane, the Junker J. 1 undergoes a test flight at Dessau, Germany.

http://germanculture.com.ua/day/december-12-in-german-history/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 11:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Expired: Germany’s Peace Offer, Kladderadatsch (December 1917)

On December 12, 1916, the Central Powers issued the Allies a proposal on starting negotiations to end the war. The proposal, however, contained no concrete conditions for peace. On December 20, President Woodrow Wilson called upon the Central Powers to make the proposal more specific – but to no avail. On December 30, 1916, the Allies rejected the proposal, which they deemed unworthy of serious consideration.

The caricature from the December 1917 issue of the satirical journal Kladderadatsch refers to the peace offer by the Central Powers. It depicts Chronos, the god of time, as an old, frail, and thoroughly emaciated man. It includes the caption: “One year has already passed, and I am still running around as 'wartime'!” The German Reich is presented as the nation seeking peace.

Klik door... http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=2145
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 11:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Market Harborough Advertiser of December 12, 1916

The Market Harborough Advertiser of December 12, 1916, proclaims it a ‘momentous week’. That’s quite a statement to make in a year when hundreds of thousands of young soldiers – on both sides of the conflict – were lying in muddy, makeshift graves on the Somme.

However, the change in Prime Minister from Herbert Asquith to his fellow Liberal David Lloyd George, which prompts the Advertiser’s headline, is recognised by readers as nothing short of a political coup.

Think Michael Gove inserting a stiletto into the back of Boris Johnson this summer and then double it – that’s the magnitude of the political skulduggery going on between fellow MPs Asquith and Lloyd George.

The national newspapers had a huge part to play in the power games with Lord Northcliffe, owner of The Times and Daily Mail, constantly sticking the knife in.

As historian Niall Ferguson says in his book The Pity of War: “Northcliffe’s papers conducted a succession of campaigns aimed at intensifying the British war effort and harassing insufficiently bellicose ministers, including the Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith.

“The conventional wisdom today is that newspaper proprietors such as Rupert Murdoch wield excessive power; but their power pales into insignificance when compared with Lord Northcliffe’s during the First World War.

“Typical of Lord Northcliffe’s approach was his instruction to the Daily Mail editor, Tom Clarke, in December 1916: “Get a smiling picture of Lloyd George and underneath it put the caption `DO IT NOW’, and get the worst possible picture of Asquith and label it `WAIT AND SEE’.” There is not much Kelvin MacKenzie could have taught him.”

The Advertiser’s editor stays out of the politics and sticks mainly to the facts rather than digging down deep into rumour and snide gossip but all the drama is there.

The account begins: “The past week has been one of grave import in the history of our nation. Rumours of a Cabinet crisis had been persistently abroad for some time and on Sunday at 11.45pm, the Press Bureau issued the following:

“The Prime Minister, with a view to the most effective prosecution of the war, has decided to advise His Majesty the King to consent to a reconstruction of his Government.”

The formal language – which means ‘Lloyd George has made his move now Asquith’s on his way out’ – is the culmination of a week of twists and turns which are all catalogued in the Advertiser.

The rest of the story is fairly dry to a 21st century reader’s eye but those picking up the Advertiser in 1916 know how to unpick the drama – in particular the tension is taken up a notch from paragraph to paragraph with a key device: timing.

For example ‘shortly after nine o’clock on Tuesday night’ the Press Bureau circulated the announcement that Mr Asquith had handed his resignation to the King; a court circular was received just ‘an hour later’; Conservative leader Andrew Bonar Law went to the Palace ‘arriving at 9.30pm and leaving at five minutes past ten’. This meeting was for Bonar Law to turn down an invitation to be Prime Minister.

The Advertiser then ratchets the pressure up even more. “Events moved with startling rapidity.”

On Wednesday night at ten minutes past ten the Press Bureau issued a court circular from the Palace saying Lloyd George – with the ‘co-operation of Bonar Law’ – has consented to form a Government.

The King held a conference on Tuesday afternoon involving all the key political players – Asquith, Lloyd George, Bonar Law, First Lord of the Admiralty Arthur Balfour and Labour leader Arthur Henderson – by all subsequent accounts a pretty acrimonious affair.

The Advertiser goes on: “In well-informed quarters doubt was expressed whether Mr Lloyd George would be able to secure the co-operation of the Labour members but after a conference with them they decided to throw their lot with the new administration.”

The crisis was thus past and the court circular on Thursday night contained the following:

“The Right Hon D Lloyd George MP had an audience of the King this evening and His Majesty’s offer of the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, and kissed hands upon his appointment.”

A week certainly is a long time in politics.

This column is published every Monday by John Dilley on the Newspapers and the Great War website and will continue until the 100th anniversary of the final armistice in November 2018.

https://newspapersandthegreatwar.wordpress.com/2016/12/12/december-12-1916-forget-trump-and-brexit-political-earthquakes-were-happening-a-hundred-years-ago-as-well/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 11:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter to Mr. Wilson from Helen Keller, (December 12, 1917)

25 Seminole Avenue, Forest Hills, Long Island, New York,

December 12, 1917.

Mr. Woodrow Wilson,
President of the United States,
Washington, D. C.

Dear Mr. Wilson,

Again I enter your presence through the medium of a letter. I am aware that it may be almost an inexcusable intrusion. But I have more than ordinary confidence in your kindness, patience and forbearance. I have read with eager interest a good deal that you have written. Many of your splendid utterances have become an integral part of my thoughts and aspirations. That is what gives me courage to write to you about matters that multiply perplexities and wring my heart.

Some friends of mine are soon to be arraigned with many others in Chicago for alleged violation of some recently enacted statutes abridging freedom of speech and of the press. I cannot plead for them without attempting to make you understand why I sympathize with them, and why I feel with them that they are the victims of intolerance and persecution. Although we are living in a time of intolerance, suspicion and force rather than of forbearance, confidence and compassion--a time when men's thoughts grow confused, and their sense of fairness is well nigh stifled in the smoke of battle--a time when all sorts of prejudiced, self-appointed persons sit in judgment upon the words and acts of others--a time when the most fatuous utterances in the name of patriotism are hailed with unchallenged reverence, yet even in such a time I shall not believe that the humanity and kindliness in your great heart are dormant.

Lees verder op http://www.afb.org/info/about-us/helen-keller/books-essays-and-speeches/on-war/letter-to-mr-wilson-from-miss-keller-december-12-1917/12345
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

December 12, 1917: Wade Hampton

Today we'll be looking at the lynching of Wade Hamilton in Rock Springs, Wyoming. It's unknown whether this was actually the man's name because only one article lynches it and it's facts differ from two other articles. Our first article is from the Ogden Standard (Ogden, Utah) dated December 12, 1917:

ROCK SPRINGS HAS A LYNCHING BEE OVER NEGRO

According to advices received in Ogden today, twenty- five infuriated and determined men appeared at the city jail in Rock Springs, Wyo., early today, overpowered the jailer, took an unidentified negro from his cell and hanged to a railroad bridge north of town. The negro had been molesting wihte[sic] women in the vicinity of Blairstown, a suburb of Rock Springs.

Details accompanying the abrupt execution of the negro are lacking. It is known, however, that the victim of the mob had been terrorizing the women residing near the mining camp for some time and that murmurings of a lynching had been in circulation. The men were unmasked when they appeared at the jail and demanded the culprit. Upon being refused they used such force as was necessary to obtain the keys and take the prisoner.

The body was left dangling to the bridge stringer. It was found there this afternoon by passersby. No snots[sic]were fired. The mob was well organized and orderly.

Lees vooral verder op http://strangefruitandspanishmoss.blogspot.nl/2017/08/december-12-1917-wade-hampton.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 12:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Volume 153, December 12, 1917

THE LOST LEADER
.

The Hillsbury Company of the 2nd Battalion of the Lastshire Volunteers were being inspected for efficiency by a Captain of the Grenadier Guards, who had graciously come down and devoted his Sunday afternoon to this purpose. Forty “A” men had obeyed their country’s call and turned up on parade, and among the officers was Alfred Herbert, who was a second-lieutenant of the mature age of fifty. He was enthusiastic, but a slow learner, always confusing himself and his men. Still, he was obviously doing his best, and the men forgave him and did their best to cover up his faults.

“Mr. Herbert,” said the inspecting officer sharply, “be good enough to take the company out and move them about for a few minutes.”

Herbert’s heart began to beat at the double. He had known that this ordeal might come, but he had hoped against hope that, if he made himself small and meek, he would be overlooked. All was in vain; his time had come. “Drill them as a company of two platoons,” said the stern Guardsman.

“Yes, Sir,” said Herbert. “Shall I—­”

“Take them out at once, Sir. We have no time to waste.”

It was at this moment that Herbert’s first dream, or I should rather say the first phase of his treble dream, began. He dreamt that he called the company to attention, caused them to slope arms, and moved them to the right in fours.

So far so good.

Now they were in columns of fours and marching gaily.

“This is a good dream,” thought Herbert. “I will get them into line. On the right, form company!” he shouted at the top of his voice.

He had done it. He had got the rear rank in front, and this is a terrible state of affairs, leading to the most frightful complications—­at any rate in the Lastshire Volunteers.

“Move to the right in fours!” he commanded; and then the trouble began.

In less than half a minute, forty deserving men, including N.C.O.’s, were tied up into a series of terrifically complicated knots, in the midst of which the Company Sergeant-Major bobbed about, an angry cork on a stormy ocean of desperate men.

“Very good, Mr. Herbert, oh, very good indeed,” said the Inspecting Officer.

At this point Herbert passed into his second phase and dreamed that it was all a dream.

But the question remained: what was he to do?

“Double!” he shouted, and himself gave the example. And as he ran he passed into his third phase and dreamed it was all true; and he woke up with a start at the orderly room, and found that it was true.

That very evening he resigned his commission, “owing,” as he wrote, “to an incurable habit of getting the rear rank in front.”

What happened to the men I cannot say with certainty. I think they are still struggling.

http://www.bookrags.com/ebooks/11444/16.html#gsc.tab=0
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 12:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De vrouw moest even wachten nog

Algemeen kiesrecht Honderd jaar geleden kregen mannen stemrecht. Waarom moesten de vrouwen nog geduld hebben?

‘De groote betekenis van het oogenblik deed mij deze woorden met ontroering uitspreken en eenzelfde ontroering maakte zich meester van de luisterenden.”

Zo beschrijft de Nederlandse socialistenleider Pieter Jelles Troelstra in zijn memoires de toespraak die hij op 12 december 1917 vanaf de trappen voor het Haagse stadhuis hield. Het algemeen kiesrecht, product van een decennialange strijd die in grote delen van Europa werd gevoerd, was sinds die dag in Nederland een feit. (...)

Lees verder op https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2017/12/10/de-vrouw-moest-even-wachten-nog-a1584439
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Dec 2017 12:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arcadia Hotel at 1202 Washington Street, December 12, 1918

Elevated-view north of the Arcadia Hotel, located at 1202 Washington Street at the southeast corner of Washington and Laconia Streets. Signage adorns the west-southwest elevation of the building lining Laconia Street, which is included in the lower-left corner of the photograph. Boston Elevated Railway tracks run down the center of Washington Street and are visible along the center-left side of the photograph.

Fotootje! https://dl.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:TBS.VW0001.001454
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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