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22 April
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2006 9:20    Onderwerp: 22 April Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

April 22

1915 Second Battle of Ypres begins

On this day in 1915, German forces shock Allied soldiers along the Western Front by firing more than 150 tons of lethal chlorine gas against two French colonial divisions at Ypres in Belgium.

Toxic smoke had been used occasionally in warfare since ancient times, and in 1912, the French used small amounts of tear gas in police operations. At the outbreak of World War I, however, the Germans began to actively develop chemical weapons. In October 1914, small tear-gas canisters were placed in shells that were fired at Neuve Chapelle, France, but Allied troops were not exposed. In January 1915, the Germans fired shells loaded with xylyl bromide, a more lethal gas, at Russian troops at Bolimov on the Eastern Front. Because of the wintry cold, most of the gas froze, but the Russians nonetheless reported more than 1,000 killed as a result of the new weapon.

On April 22, 1915, the Germans launched their first and only offensive of the year. Now referred to as the Second Battle of Ypres, the offensive began with the usual artillery bombardment of the enemy's line. When the shelling died down, the Allied defenders waited for the first wave of German attack troops but instead were thrown into panic when chlorine gas wafted across no-man's land and down into their trenches. The Germans targeted four miles of the front with the wind-blown poison gas, decimating two divisions of French and Algerian colonial troops. The Germans, perhaps as shocked as the Allies by the devastating effects of the poison gas, failed to take full advantage, and the Allies managed to hold most of their positions.

A second gas attack, against a Canadian division, on April 24, pushed the Allies further back, and, by May, they had retreated to the town of Ypres. The Second Battle of Ypres ended on May 25, with insignificant gains for the Germans. The introduction of poison gas, however, would have great significance in World War I.

Immediately after the German gas attack at Ypres, the French and British began developing their own chemical weapons and gas masks. With the Germans taking the lead, an extensive number of projectiles filled with deadly substances polluted the trenches during the next several years of war. Mustard gas, introduced by the Germans in 1917, blistered the skin, eyes and lungs, and killed thousands. Military strategists defended the use of poison gas by saying it reduced the enemy's ability to respond and thus saved lives in offensives. In reality, defenses against poison gas usually kept pace with offensive developments, and both sides employed sophisticated gas masks and protective clothing that eventually negated the strategic importance of chemical weapons.

The United States, which entered World War I in 1917, also developed and used chemical weapons. Future President Harry S. Truman was the captain of a U.S. field artillery unit that fired poison gas against the Germans in 1918. In all, more than 100,000 tons of chemical weapons agents were used in World War I, some 500,000 troops were injured from their use and almost 30,000 died, including 2,000 Americans.
www.historychannel.com
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 22 Apr 2006 9:57, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2006 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres begins: town of Ypres largely destroyed; German advance checked by Canadians after French retreat before poisonous gas attack.

Progress by the French near St. Mihiel.

Eastern Front

Russian attacks repulsed on both sides of the Uzsok Pass.

Austrian attack towards Styrj fails.

Southern Front

Anglo-French force landed at Enos.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Resumed bombardment of the forts at Smyrna.

Political, etc.

British Admiralty suspends passenger traffic between England and Holland.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1915_04_22.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2006 9:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tag und Nacht Artilleriekämpfe um Verdun
Großes Hauptquartier, 22. April 1916.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

An der Straße Langemarck-Ypern griffen die Engländer in den frühen Morgenstunden die ihnen von unseren Patrouillen am 19. April entrissenen Gräben an, von denen sie etwa ein Drittel wieder besetzten.
Beiderseits des Kanals von La Bassée sprengten wir mit Erfolg einige Minen.
Feindliches Feuer auf die Städte Lens und Roye forderte weitere Opfer unter der Bevölkerung; in Roye wurde ein Kind getötet, zwei Frauen und ein Kind verletzt.
In den Argonnen zerstörten wir durch Sprengungen französische Postenstellungen auf der Höhe La Fille Morte und halten einen umfangreichen Trichter vor unserer Front besetzt.
Westlich der Maas wiederholten die Franzosen ihre Anstrengungen gegen "Toter Mann". Zweimal wurden sie durch Artilleriesperrfeuer von beiden Ufern zusammengeschossen, ein dritter Angriff brach mit schweren Verlusten an unserer Stellung zusammen. Erbitterte Handgranatenkämpfe um das Grabenstück nahe dem Cauretteswäldchen brachten es abends wieder in unseren Besitz; nachts gelang es den Franzosen erneut, darin Fuß zu fassen.
Östlich des Flusses lebhafte Infanterietätigkeit mit Nahkampfmitteln am Steinbruch südlich Haudromont und südlich der Feste Douaumont. Das beiderseitige Artilleriefeuer hielt im ganzen Kampfabschnitt des Maasgebietes ohne Unterbrechung Tag und Nacht mit außerordentlicher Stärke an.
In der Gegend nordwestlich von Fresnes-en-Woëvre wurden Gefangene von der 154. französischen Division gemacht. Hiermit ist festgestellt, daß der Gegner in dem Raume zwischen jenem Ort und Avocourt seit dem 21. Februar im ganzen 38 Infanteriedivisionen eingesetzt hat, von denen außerdem vier Divisionen nach längerer Ruhe und Wiederauffüllung durch frische Leute, hauptsächlich aus dem Rekrutenjahrgang 1916, zum zweitenmal ins Gefecht geführt und geschlagen worden sind.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Auch gestern scheiterten russische Angriffsunternehmungen blutig vor unseren Hindernissen südöstlich von Garbunowka.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2006 9:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ein französischer Stützpunkt am Hartmannsweilerkopf zerstört
Großes Hauptquartier, 22. April 1915.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

Südlich des La Bassée-Kanals und nordwestlich von Arras nahmen wir erfolgreich mehrere Sprengungen vor.
In den Argonnen und im Gelände zwischen Maas und Mosel fanden heftige Artilleriekämpfe statt. Nach Feuerüberfall griffen die Franzosen heute Nacht im Westteile des Priesterwaldes an, wurden aber unter schweren Verlusten zurückgeschlagen.
Am Nordhange des Hartmannsweilerkopfes zerstörten wir gestern einen feindlichen Stützpunkt und wiesen am Abend einen feindlichen Angriff ab
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2006 11:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Als het laatste gas ontsnapt, bevindt zich het begin van de wolk al zeshonderd meter verder, waarna de Duitse artillerie de vijand nogmaals kort onder vuur neemt. Die schiet niet terug. Er is geen Frans schot te horen. Om 18.15 klimt de Duitse infanterie, beschermd door een met een chemische stof behandelde mond- en neusdoek, over de borstweringen. De gaswolk verdwijnt langzaam. Als ze bij de Franse stellingen aankomen zien ze hoe hun tegenstanders creperen. Velen zijn al dood, degenen die nog leven hebben opgezwollen blauwe gezichten en uitpuilende ogen. Uit hun neus en mond komt bloederig schuim. Iedere ademtocht doet gruwelijk pijn. Schreeuwen kunnen ze niet, want ze hebben geen adem meer. Tevergeefs snakken ze naar lucht. Hun longen zijn verbrand en doordat deze zich met vocht vullen, sterven ze een helse dood. In hun aangetaste longen vormt zich door het chloor een bijtende, schuimende vloeistof die uiteindelijk tot een soort verdrinkingsdood leidt. Aan de houdingen van de doden en de stervenden is hun afgrijselijke lijden af te lezen. Het chloor is zo agressief dat alle metalen voorwerpen die ermee in aanraking komen, zoals geweren, munten en knopen, dof uitslaan met een vreemde groene tint.
Quote:
Voordat we over onze borstwering klommen, hoorden we het roepen en gillen van de Fransozen dat bijna meteen overging in diep hoesten en hard, meelijwekkend kermen. Even later was het doodstil. Toen we aankwamen, zagen we hoe veel mannen over elkaar lagen, alsof ze hoopten zo bescherming bij elkaar te vinden. De doden en stervenden waren verkrampt, alle spieren leken aangetrokken. Overal zag ik blauwe gezichten met een onwezenlijke uitdrukking in de ogen. Het was geen haat, maar onvergelijkbare angst, gevangen door de dood. Een enkeling schokte hevig, trapte met zijn benen en sloeg met zijn armen. Ik kon er mijn ogen bijna niet vanaf houden. Ik wilde het niet zien, maar ik zal de aanblik ervan de rest van mijn leven met me meedragen …


Uit: Krieg. Ieper, het martyrium van 14/18 door Duitse ogen. Lannoo 2006
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Fritz Kempf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2009 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Iemand een idee om welk soort gas er werd gebruikt op 22 april? Niet enkel de benaming van soort gas, zoals Traangas of Chloorgas of Mosterdgas of enz enz enz, maar ook de scheikundige benaming.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2009 12:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Simpelweg chloorgas of dichloor: Cl2

Zie meer hier

Zowat de meeste (niet edel-) gassen zijn mono-atomisch onstabiel en vormen een molecule bestaande uit 2 atomen van hetzelfde element. Ik vermoed zelfs dat dit voor alle niet edelgassen opgaat, maar daarvoor is mijn scheikunde een beetje te ver in mijn verleden, vrees ik...

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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 13:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres begins: town of Ypres largely destroyed; German advance checked by Canadians after French retreat before poisonous gas attack.

Progress by the French near St. Mihiel.

Eastern Front

Russian attacks repulsed on both sides of the Uzsok Pass.

Austrian attack towards Styrj fails.

Southern Front

Anglo-French force landed at Enos.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Resumed bombardment of the forts at Smyrna.

Political, etc.

British Admiralty suspends passenger traffic between England and Holland.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 13:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British repulsed at Sanna-i-Yat.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British progress in German East Africa.

Political, etc.

Easter Manoeuvres of Sinn Fein volunteers cancelled.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 13:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

British capture southern part of Trescault (east of Havrincourt Wood, below Bapaume-Cambrai road).

Germans bombard Reims; French repulse German attack on Moronvillers massif.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British attack Turks in retreat from Istabulat on west bank of Tigris and on west bank of Shatt-el-Adhaim.

Political, etc.

Arrival of British Mission, headed by Mr. Balfour, at Washington.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 13:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Local fighting to British advantage in Albert, Robecq and Wytschaete sectors.

Near Villers Brettoneux and on Ancre river, enemy concentrations are dispersed.

Austrian troops reported to be arriving in Belgium.

Eastern Front

United Diets of Baltic Provinces request German Government to form them into a monarchy under King of Prussia.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Baluchistan: India Office announces unconditional surrender of Khotran Tribe.

Transcaucasian Council decides to declare independence and reopens negotiations with the Turks.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Brilliant Naval Raid on Zeebrugge and Ostend, night of 22-23 April; Zeebrugge entrance blocked by sinking ships.

Block-ships also sunk in Ostend Harbour.

Destroyer action in Adriatic.

Political, etc.

Severe tension reported between Holland and Germany.

Germany: "Das neue Europa" publishes estimate of German losses up to 31 July 1917 as exceeding 5,000,000.

Mr. Bonar Law introduces the Budget.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 13:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919
Aftermath of War

No news reported.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 April, 1915
Will Irwin, correspondent
From the New York Tribune, April 25, 26, 27, 1915.
The German Army dispersed chlorine gas over Allied lines at Ypres on 22 April 1915.
North of France, April 24. -- There is no doubt that the action which has been proceeding about Ypres for a week, and which will probably be known in history as the second battle of Ypres, is the hardest and hottest which has yet developed on the extreme Western front. Indeed, no battle of the war has developed so much action on so concentrated a front. It is the third desperate attempt of the Germans since this war began to break through the combined British and Belgian lines and take the all-important City of Calais.

This series of attacks and counterattacks running along the whole line, developed into that general attack on the British lines with Calais for objective which the Germans probably had been planning ever since matters began to come to a deadlock in the Carpathians. The Germans, making full use of their artillery, launched infantry attacks in their old manner -- close-locked. As formerly, the British and French slaughtered them heavily with machine-gun and rifle fire. Then on Thursday the Germans suddenly threw in that attack its asphyxiating bombs, which will doubtless become famous in this war. It succeeded in breaking the line of French near Bixschoote, although not to such an extent as the Germans claim in today's communique.

The nearest British support was a part of the Canadian contingent. Fighting with desperate bravery, the Canadians succeeded in recovering part of the lost ground. They are still at it today. On a favorable wind the sound of cannonading can be heard as far away as the coast towns.

The nature of the gasses carried by the German asphyxiating shells remain a mystery. Whatever gas it is, it spreads rapidly and remains close to the ground. It is believed not to be specially deadly -- one that rather over powers its victims and puts them hors de combat without killing many. Its effect at Bixschoote may have been due to panic caused by the novelty of the device. Its composition and manner of discharge are probably no mystery to the scientific artillerymen of the Allies. That such devices might be used in war has been known for a long time, but the positive prohibitions of The Hague Conference have prevented the more civilized nations of Europe from going far with experiments in this line.
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_Use_of_Poison_Gas
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 April 1914, Commons Sitting

BASTARDY ORDER (SOLDIER'S LIABILITY).


HC Deb 22 April 1914 vol 61 cc932-3 932

Mr. ROWNTREE asked the Secretary for War whether his attention has been called to a case which came before the York magistrates in December, 1913, when a bastardy order was made against a sergeant, and to the fact that, although the sergeant was in England when the case was tried and his solicitor did not 933 deny the paternity, yet the War Office authorities decline to order that the amount shall be deducted from his pay on the ground that the sergeant was under orders for service beyond the seas; and, if so, whether steps will be taken to amend the Regulations of the Army Act so that such action will be impossible in future?

Mr. TENNANT No official report has been made to the War Office on this case. In the circumstances described, the War Office have no power to stop the soldier's pay. This particular case will be further investigated, and the general question referred to in the last paragraph of my hon. Friend's question will receive careful consideration.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/22/bastardy-order-soldiers-liability
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1e Regiment Grenadiers

Op 29 juli 1914 wordt het Regiment ontdubbeld in het 1ste en 2de Regiment Grenadiers. Ze nemen heldhaftig deel aan de gevechten rond ANTWERPEN, waar ze zich in 1914 laten opmerken tijdens de verschillende uitvallen van augustus, september en oktober.
Ze spelen een, actieve en moedige rol in de Slag van de IJZER. En te TERVAETE onderscheiden ze zich ter gelegenheid van een tegenaanval, ingezet om de vijand die over de IJZER was geraakt terug te drijven.

Gezien de verliezen, geleden tijdens de gevechten rond ANTWERPEN en gedurende de Slag van de IJZER, moet op 7 november 1914 worden overgegaan tot het samensmelten van de twee Regimenten in één enkel. Op 25 december 1916 zal het Regiment terug ontdubbeld worden.

De datum van 22 april wordt gekozen als DAG VAN DE GRENADIERS.
Die datum duidt immers het begin aan van de gevechten, waarin het Regiment door zijn heldhaftige weerstand de bres kan beperken die geslagen wordt door de Duitsers op de rechterflank van het Belgisch leger. De Duitsers maken te STEENSTRAETE op 22 april 1915 voor het eerst gebruik van gifgassen.

STEENSTRAETE is een gehucht gelegen langs het kanaal van IEPER, dat toen bestond uit een achttal huisjes, in kruisvorm rond de brug gebouwd. Eén van deze huisjes vormde de grens tussen de Belgische sector - de stellingen van de Grenadiers - en de Franse sector.

Op 22 april 1915, om 1700 uur, breekt plots een hevig bombardement los op de Franse stellingen en op de stellingen van de Grenadiers.

http://www.everyoneweb.com/buggenhout1418/Pr_Update_Knooppunt_Inhoud.aspx?WebID=buggenhout1418&BoomID=B1&KnooppuntID=K467&LG=
Zie ook http://home.scarlet.be/~tsj66356/wo1.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Apr 2010 20:15, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mexico 1914 - Commissioning and the Mexican Crisis

The operational career of Texas spanned a period of over 30 years, played a major role in two world wars, and helped to establish a strong national defense posture during the peacetime period between the wars.

USS Texas (BB35) was commissioned at Norfolk, Virginia, on 12 March 1914 with Captain Albert W. Grant, USN, commanding. Texas joined the fleet at a time when great events in history were about to take place. Trouble in the Western Hemisphere kept her from making the normal shakedown cruise that a newly commissioned vessel usually makes and she was immediately assigned to the Atlantic Special Service Squadron.

The United States had added ten battleships to the fleet in four years. Shortly after Texas joined the fleet the Panama Canal was opened, enabling ships to be moved from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean in a few days instead of taking weeks to steam around Cape Horn.

The Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, announced, "the science of aerial navigation has reached the point where aircraft must form a large part of our naval force for offensive and defensive operations." At this time the U.S. Navy had only 12 aircraft, all slow speed seaplanes, but 30 years later their high speed descendants had made all battleships obsolete.

Texas was on the fringe of war before her paint had dried. In late March 1914, she sailed to New York for installation of gun sights. On her return to Hampton Roads orders were received to take on coal and ammunition before sailing for Vera Cruz, Mexico.

Texas was part of the squadron that landed a force of 800 Marines and seamen at Vera Cruz on 22 April 1914 to protect U.S. citizens and rights during a period of political unrest in Mexico. Texas remained on that station, engaging in tactical maneuvers, until August when she steamed north to New York.

The casual reader may overlook three very important words in the brief statement of the preparations to be made before sailing for Vera Cruz - Mexico. They were "take on coal." Texas, and all her smoky sisters, were coal burners; no matter how spic and span they might be forward of the bridge, the clouds of black smoke, soot, and cinders belched by the funnels left the after part of the ship a little less than spotless.

Every time a ship reached port, the first thing to be done was take on coal. A typical battleship of 1914 carried about 2,600 tons of coal. Coal usually came out to the ships in open lighters, or barges, where men shoveled it into canvas bags holding about 800 pounds each. With ten coaling booms rigged on the main deck, the grimy crew could take on about 400 tons of coal an hour, the bunkers (coal bins) could be filled in eight to ten hours time.

Coal-fired boilers not only make smoke; they produce tons of ashes. At least twice a day the word was passed to "hoist ashes," and the men got dirty all over again getting them topside and into the sea. No one was worried about pollution in those days.

Lees verder op http://www.usstexasbb35.com/Mexico1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canvas of War, Painting the Canadian Experience 1914 to 1945

Het is opmerkelijk dat het slechts aan één man, Sir Max Aitken (later Lord Beaverbrook), een zeer rijke zakenman, te danken is dat in Canada een omvangrijke oorlogskunst is ontstaan. Als eigenaar van de Daily Express zag Lord Beaverbrook als geen ander het belang in van het documenteren van de oorlog in film, fotografie en drukwerk. Maar na de gasaanval door de Duitsers op de Canadese troepen in de tweede slag van Yper, april/mei 1915, raakte de Lord overtuigd van de noodzaak om de oorlog ook op doek vast te leggen: de tweede slag van Yper is om uiteenlopende redenen niet gefotografeerd. Beaverbrook richtte in 1916 het Canadian War Memorials Fund op en liet deze stichting een opdracht verstrekken aan de Britse societyschilder Richard Jack. Hoewel het resultaat, The Second Battle of Ypres, 22 April to 25 May 1915 uit 1917, met de gigantische afmetingen van 371,5 x 589,0 cm, niet alleen historisch incorrect is maar ook getuigt van een wel zeer traditionele stijl, volgden hierna nog vele opdrachten. In totaal werden 116 kunstenaars in Canada en Engeland ingehuurd om meer dan 900 oorlogsgebeurtenissen te schilderen.

Lees beslist verder! http://www.ssew.nl/canvas-war-painting-canadian-experience-1914-1945
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VORMING VAN DE IEPERSE BOOG EN TROEPENOPSTELLING

Na de inname van Antwerpen op 9 oktober 1914 trokken de Belgische troepen zich, samen met ter hulp gekomen Britten en Fransen terug op een lijn gevormd door de IJzer en het kanaal Ieper-IJzer. De Duitsers die op 7 oktober door Ieper waren getrokken, werden door de Brits-Franse troepen aan de Katsberg (Noord-Frankrijk) tegengehouden en tot aan het kanaal Ieper-Leie teruggedreven. Op 14 oktober bezetten de Britten Ieper.

Poelkapelle, Madonna (bestond toen nog niet onder die naam) en Bikschote werden door de Duitse troepen bezet, terwijl Langemark en Sint-Juliaan in geallieerde handen bleven. Tijdens de "Eerste slag om Ieper" in het najaar 1914, liepen de Duitse "Kinderregimenten" storm tegen Langemark maar de geallieerden hielden stand. Tijdens de eerste oorlogswinter waren er geen grote verschuivingen meer in de frontlijn. Deze frontlijn liep langs het kanaal Ieper-IJzer tot Steenstrate, te Steenstrate maakte het front een wijdse boog rond Ieper, de "Ypres Salient", en liep ten zuiden van Ieper verder richting Frankrijk.

Op 21 april was de geallieerde frontbezetting als volgt :
-De Belgische 6de divisie lag langsheen de westelijke kanaaloever vanaf Steenstrate richting kust.
-Vanaf Steenstrate begon de Salient met twee Franse divisies : de 87ste Territoriale Divisie (oudere reserve-soldaten) vanaf Steenstrate tot ten noorden Langemark; de 45ste Algerijnse Divisie (vooral kleurlingen) hield front vanaf het noorden van Langemark tot aan de Brugseweg even ten zuiden Poelkapelle.
-Vanaf de Brugseweg nam de Canadese 1ste divisie het van de Fransen over tot aan "Berlin Wood" bij 's Graventafel.
-Vanaf Berlin Wood werd het front verder gehouden door drie Britse divisies, nl. de 28ste, 27ste en 5de divisie.
Op deze korte afstand lagen dus troepen uit België, Frankrijk, Franse kolonies, Canada en Groot-Brittannië. Het is vanzelfsprekend dat de verschillen in taal, de manier van frontaanleg en de bevelvoering, de samenwerking tussen de diverse eenheden niet erg vergemakkelijkte.

De Duitsers beschikten over heel wat meer manschappen. Van noord naar zuid was de Duitse troepenopstelling in de Ieperse boog als volgt :
-Tegenover de 6de Belgische divisie lag de 45ste Reserve Divisie.
-Tegenover de twee Franse divisies lagen achtereenvolgens de 46ste Reserve Divisie; de 52ste Reserve Divisie en de 51ste Reserve Divisie. Hieraan toegevoegd lag nog de 4de Marine Brigade in de reserve.
-Tegenover de 1ste Canadese divisie lagen de 2de Reserve Ersatz Brigade en de 38ste Landwehr Brigade. Als reserve was er nog de 37ste Landwehr Brigade.
-Tegenover de Britse 28ste divisie lagen de 53ste en 54ste Reserve Divisies.
-Tegenover de Britse 27ste Divisie lagen de 39ste en 30ste Infanteriedivisies.
-Tegenover de Britse 5de divisie lag de 3de Beierse Divisie.

DE EERSTE DUITSE GASAANVAL (22 april 1915)

22 april 1915 was net als de vorige dagen een schitterende dag. De zonnestralen zorgden ervoor dat iedereen in het geallieerde kamp zich goed voelde. Zelfs het geschut zweeg voor een groot deel tijdens de voormiddag. Door de ongewoon hoge temperaturen van de voorbije dagen, stonden de bomen en struiken vroeger in blad dan anders en ook de voorjaarsbloeiers staken vroeger dan gewoonlijk de kop op. Met een beetje verbeelding kon men zich bijna voorstellen dat er helemaal geen oorlog was !

Tegen de middag begonnen de Duitsers Ieper te bestoken met het zware 42 cm geschut (de "Dikke Bertha"). Eerst was het centrum van Ieper het doelwit, later verlegden de artilleristen hun aandacht naar de hoofdwegen rond Ieper. Tegen 17u.00 hield het Duitse geschut op en werd het weer stil.

Plotseling onthulde zich voor de ogen van de Belgische, Franse en Canadese soldaten een vreemd spektakel.

Spannend! Lees verder op http://www.digilife.be/teleducatie/vbssj/omd98/omd20.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 April 1915: A German Soldier describes the field artillery bombardment

The following extract has been taken from an account by a German soldier, which was published in a German newspaper, the 'Kölnische Zeitung'. The soldier did not give his exact location for the article:

"Before the start of our infantry attack our artillery did a particularly good job. The enemy positions seemed to me to become one single great sea of fire. Unceasing, our artillery shells exploded over the top of and in the enemy trenches, causing dreadful chaos as a result of the devastation.

Believe it or not, I can't say how long this bombardment went on for, whether it was for a few moments or for a long time. Those of us in the front-line trench weren't looking at our watches; we were transfixed by this ghastly yet beautiful spectacle. Thick swathes of pungent smoke drifted back across no-man's-land towards our trench, stinging our eyes and making us choke. We found it hard to stand firm against this accrid smoke, and yet we only had a tiny fraction of what the enemy were having to cope with. But no-one left his place. We just stood and stared.

And then all at once our guns stopped firing. In the sudden silence some soldiers held their throbbing heads. Looking at their dazed comrades they pointed to the thick clouds of smoke darkening the afternoon sky. Had it been a dream? Had the bombardment been real?

Shouts rang out with the order to start the advance and suddenly the spell of this peculiar, silent moment was broken.

Our men climbed out of the front-line trench as one and, clutching their rifles, stormed forward ..."


http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/gebombard.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De chemische oorlog 1915 –1918 en het Belgische leger

De Duitse chloorgasaanvallen van 22 april 1915 troffen feitelijk geen Belgen maar de Fransen aan de rechterflank. Die leden onverwachte verliezen en weken tot achter het kanaal.

Lees het gansche artikel van de hand van Roger R. Verbeke op http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/gas2006.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RMS Lusitania

Lusitania departed Pier 54 in New York on 1 May 1915. The German Embassy in Washington had issued this warning on 22 April.

NOTICE!
TRAVELLERS intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk.
IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY,
Washington, D.C. 22nd April 1915


This warning was printed right next to an advertisement for Lusitania's return voyage. The warning led to some agitation in the press and worried the ship's passengers and crew.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Lusitania
Zie ook http://www.shipsthatsunk.com/RMS-Lusitania.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het Lichtknopje!

April [1916] – The light switch is invented by William J. Newton and Morris Goldberg.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1916
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_switch
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Executed Leaders of the 1916 Rising

Thomas Kent: Born in 1865, Kent was arrested at his home in Castlelyons, Co. Cork following a raid by the Royal Irish Constabulary on 22 April 1916, during which his brother Richard was fatally wounded. It had been his intention to travel to Dublin to participate in the Rising, but when the mobilisation order for the Irish Volunteers was cancelled on Easter Sunday he assumed that the Rising had been postponed, leading him to stay at home. He was executed at Cork Detention Barracks on 9 May 1916 following a court martial. In 1966 the railway station in Cork was renamed Kent Station in his honour.

http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/eng/Taoiseach_and_Government/History_of_Government/1916_Commemorations/The_Executed_Leaders_of_the_1916_Rising.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Doiran (1917)

The battle for a breakthrough in the Bulgarian positions began on 22 April and continued intermittently until 9 May 1917. The assault began with a bitter four-day artillery barrage in which the British fired about 100,000 shells. As a result, the earthworks and some wooden structures in the front positions were destroyed.

Lees verder op http://wapedia.mobi/en/Battle_of_Doiran_(1917)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Krantenknipsels Emmer-Courant 1911-1918

21-4 [1917] - Advertentie - Zondag 22 April a.s. hopen onze geliefde Ouders Karst Bruinsma en Harmke Witvoet hunne 35-jarige Echtvereniging te herdenken.
Hunne dankbare kinderen: J. Bruinsma, H. Bruinsma-van der Veen, Barger-Compascuum 21 April

http://www.xs4all.nl/~fjmblom/krantenknipsels_Emmer-Courant1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Joseph Edward Woodall

Joseph Edward Woodall VC (1 June 1896 – 2 January 1962) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Details
Woodall was 21 years old and a Lance-Sergeant in the 1st Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own), British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 11 April 1918 the 1st Battalion, Rifle Brigade was rushed up in buses to a position on the La Bassée Canal in order to try and stem the German breakthrough on the Lys. Over the next eleven days it was involved in severe fighting in the area around Hinges and Robecq. On 22 April, 1st Bn, Rifle Brigade, together with the 1st Hampshires, took part in an attack which helped to secure the Canal. It was during this fighting that Lance Sergeant Joseph Woodall won his Victoria Cross on the far side of the canal at La Pannerie, near Hinges.

His citation read:

La Pannerie, France, 22 April 1918, Lance Sergeant Joseph Edward Woodall, 1st Bn, The Rifle Brigade.
For most conspicuous bravery and fine leadership during an attack. ( La Pannerie, France ) Sjt. Woodall was in command of a platoon which, during an advance, was held up by a machine gun. On his own initiative he rushed forward and, single-handed, captured the gun and eight men. After the objective had been gained, heavy fire was encountered from a farmhouse some 200 yards in front. Sjt. Woodall collected ten men and, with great dash and gallantry, rushed the farm and took thirty prisoners. Shortly afterwards, when the officer in command was killed, he took entire command, reorganised the two platoons, and disposed them most skilfully.
Throughout the day, in spite of intense shelling and machine-gun fire, this gallant N.C.O. was constantly on the move, encouraging the men and finding out and sending back invaluable information. The example set by Sjt. Woodall was simply magnificent, and had a marked effect on the troops. The success of the operation on this portion of the front is attributed almost entirely to his coolness, courage and utter disregard for his own personal safety.


Further information
Joseph Woodall was invested with his Victoria Cross by King George V at Buckingham Palace on 23 November 1918.

Joseph Woodall stayed in the Army after the war and on 7 March 1919 became a Second Lieutenant with one of the Service Battalions of The Rifle Brigade. He retired from the Army as a Captain in September 1921.

Joseph Woodall died at St. Michael's Hospital, Dun Laoghaire on 2 January 1962 and was buried in Dean's Grange Cemetery.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Edward_Woodall
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PROTEST FROM CHICHERIN TO THE GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER AGAINST THE INVASION OF THE CRIMEA BY GERMAN-UKRAINIAN FORCES

22 April 1918

According to information received by us, German-Ukrainian troops have crossed the Perekop Straits and are moving towards Simferopol.

According to your communication, and even according to the unilateral declaration of the Ukrainian Government, the Crimea is not included within the boundaries of the Ukrainian People's Republic.

The advance on the Crimea is a serious violation of the Brest Treaty, since it is an incursion into the territory of the Soviet Republic. It constitutes a threat to our Black Sea Fleet, and may lead to clashes arising from action taken by the Fleet in self-defence.

The People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs hopes that any further advance of the troops in the Crimea will be halted and requests the German Government to inform it immediately of subsequent action.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/April/22.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Manfred von Richthofen

In common with most Allied air officers, Major Blake, who was responsible for Richthofen's remains, regarded the Red Baron with great respect, and he organised a full military funeral, to be conducted by the personnel of No. 3 Squadron AFC.

Richthofen was buried in the cemetery at the village of Bertangles, near Amiens, on 22 April 1918. Six airmen with the rank of Captain — the same rank as Richthofen — served as pallbearers, and a guard of honour from the squadron's other ranks fired a salute. Allied squadrons stationed nearby presented memorial wreaths.

In the early 1920s the French authorities created a military cemetery at Fricourt, in which a very large number of German war dead, including Richthofen, were reinterred. In 1925, Manfred von Richthofen's youngest brother, Bolko, recovered the body from Fricourt and took the Red Baron home to Germany. The family's intention was for Manfred to rest in the Schweidnitz cemetery, next to the graves of his father and his brother Lothar, who had been killed in a post-war air crash in 1922. The German government requested, however, that the final resting place be the Invalidenfriedhof Cemetery in Berlin, where many German military heroes and past leaders were buried and the family agreed. Later the Nazi regime organised a grandiose memorial ceremony over this grave, erecting a massive new tombstone with the single word: “Richthofen”. During the Cold War the Invalidenfriedhof was on the boundary of the Soviet zone in Berlin, and the tombstone became pockmarked with bullets fired at attempted escapees to the west. In 1975, the remains were moved to the family tomb at the Südfriedhof in Wiesbaden.

Lees alles op http://www.answers.com/topic/manfred-von-richthofen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Military Writings of Leon Trotsky

Speech at the session of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee, April 22, 1918

Comrades, the crucial character of the epoch in which we live is reflected in an especially acute and painful way in the internal life of the army, which is a huge organization, powerful in the number of persons and the amount of material resources that it embraces, and at the same time extremely sensitive to all those historical shocks which constitute the very nature of the revolution.

After the October revolution, the old Ministry of War was formally transformed into the People’s Commissariat for Military Affairs. But this Commissariat actually relied, and could not but rely, upon the military organism which had been inherited from the previous epoch. The army, which had spent three years in the trenches, had received already before the revolution, in the battles fought under Tsardom, then through the inner insolvency of the regime that prevailed in the first period of the revolution, and, finally, in the offensive of June 18, a series of cruel blows, from within and from without, which were bound inevitably to bring it to a state of complete disintegration. The People’s Commissariat for Military Affairs relied upon this huge organization, upon its personnel and its material apparatus, and at the same time, foreseeing its inevitable collapse, took steps to create a new army which would have to reflect, to a greater or lesser extent in this period of transition, the structure of the Soviet regime – to correspond to that regime. Within the People’s Commissariat for Military Affairs, in one corner of it, there was set up an All-Russia Board for organizing a workers’ and peasants’ Red Army. [36] This board has now, in practice, itself become transformed into the People’s Commissariat for Military Affairs. For the old army, which in October, November and December of 1917 still survived, materially at least, as a body, although it had already long ceased to exist as a soul – this army has at last, by way of extremely painful processes, departed from the scene. Thus the task of the War Commissariat at the present time consists in taking over the huge military apparatus of the past, disorganized and disordered, but powerful by virtue of the values which it contains, examining it, organizing it, and adapting it to the army which we now wish to form.

Lees vooral verder op http://marxists.catbull.com/archive/trotsky/1918/military/ch10.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Star - Christchurch - 1918 - April

Monday 22 April 1918
Fatality - WINSTONE
the death occurred in Trentham Military Camp of Major Ernest C.Winstone, principal dental officer --- he was married, aged 33 took his dental degree at Pennsylvanvia University, started practice in Auckland ---- volunteered at the outbreak of war. ------

http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~ashleigh/1870-1908/1918.April.Star.Christchurch.snippets.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het Turksche vredesverdrag

Ook de Turksche quaestie werd op de conferentie besproken. Naar gemeld werd, besloot de Opperste Raad definitief tot internationalisatie van de Turksche Zeeëngten en tot handhaving van de geallieerde troepen-contingenten te Konstantinopel, teneinde te voorkomen dat de Turksche leiders, door misleiding van het volk, in de toekomst opnieuw een gevaar voor de buurstaten van Turkije en voor de geallieerden worden.

De militaire- en marine-deskundigen zullen vergaderen om over de maatregelen van toezicht in Turkije te beraadslagen. De Opperste Raad heeft 's middags de andere bepalingen van het vredesontwerp van Turkije overwogen. De Opperste Raad besloot de Turksche gedelegeerden uit te noodigen op 10 Mei te Parijs het Turksche vredesverdrag in ontvangst te komen nemen.

De correspondent van de "Westminster Gazette" te San Remo geeft nog eenige aanvullingen op het bovenstaande. Zoo meldt hij o.a., dat het Turksche Rijk sterk verkleind zal worden daar Syrië, Arabië, Mesopotamië, Armenië, Thracië en Smyrna er van zullen worden afgescheiden.

Er zal een Fransche zone achter Adana en een Italiaansche achter Adalia komen. Turkije zal de helft zijner onderdanen verliezen en ongeveer negen millioen Christenen behouden. De bevrijding van meer dan tien millioen Arabieren, Armeniërs en Grieken zal een groote gebeurtenis zijn in de wereldgeschiedenis. Het overblijvende Turkije zal onder strenge controle van de geallieerden gesteld worden. De correspondent meent te mogen beweren, dat de geallieerden het volkomen eens zijn, maar dat de Turken heftigen tegenstand zullen bieden.

Heldersche Courant, 22 april 1920, Regionaal Archief Alkmaar, http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/HC-22-4-1920.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Speech by Gen. John J. Pershing to 33rd Division, 22 April 1919

By Gen. John J. Pershing

Although I have followed the effort that has been made by the 33rd Division from the time of its landing up to the time of the Armistice, it has not been my good fortune to have an opportunity to inspect it as a whole, nor to say a word of a personal nature as to what it has accomplished.

Now that demobilization has begun it is well for you, before you leave, to form in your minds a very distinct impression of what has been accomplished by the American Expeditionary Forces, of which you have been such an important part.

When we entered the war we found the Allied Army in a very low state of morale and our entry gave them new hope. When our Divisions, even partly trained though some of them were, were thrown into the line, stopped the onslaughts of the armies of the Central Powers, then our Allies took a new courage and a new spirit of aggressiveness.

Beginning with the battle of Sampigny, of splendid memory, following the operations of the American Army on down to Chateau Thierry, and in the Marne-Aisne offensive, in the Champagne, and under our own splendid army in the battle of St. Mihiel and later in the final great victory of the war, the Argonne, we have to our credit nothing by a succession of victories. This is one thought that you must carry home very clearly in your minds. Another is that the very good effort we made to provide for four million men was completed only to accommodate two million men, as we found that the stuff of which those two million men was made was sufficient to carry the war to a successful conclusion in 1918, instead of prolonging it to 1919, as we all thought might be necessary, or even to 1920. These things, then, have been a part of your work. They are to your credit, credit of the entire American Expeditionary Forces, but they would not have been possible except through the very splendid individual efforts that you have offered to the cause. Whether you know it or not, whether you fully realize it or not, there has been in each individual a spiritual uplift which carried him forward with an aggressiveness, which, combined as a whole, made the American Army an invincible one. You have belonged, then, to the greatest army, the most splendid army of modern times, under probably the best organization and composed of a personnel unequaled in modern times with an aggressiveness and fighting spirit unsurpassed by any. You have in that army, and as a part of it, fought in the greatest cause for which mankind ever fought. You have as a part of that army and in that cause represented perhaps the greatest nation, at least in many respects, in the world today.

Isn't it a proud thing, men, for you to carry home these thoughts with you, and when you contemplate it I am sure none will dare to minimize your efforts in your presence or speak discouragingly of them.

It is necessary that you carry home with you a very correct impression of what you have done, because your service has been far from home and far from you people, who will expect you to carry back a story of what American has accomplished in the war. It has been a very great privilege for every individual to have served as a part of this army in the war and each has given his very best, each has made the supreme effort to carry out the wishes of our people, but in doing so you also have received much. You have received a strengthening of character, you have received a breadth of vision which you had not before and you have prepared yourselves, unconsciously, to take up the duties that will devolve upon you when you return to your homes and to your firesides. These duties may be manifold, none of us can tell what we are going to be called upon to do, but we know, we are assured, that each will return to his home and follow whatever calling may fall to his lot with the very same earnestness, with the same industry, and with the same integrity of purpose with which you have fought the battles of our country.

When you return home with the military victory, as you are going to do, I am going to add to that another victory, and that is a moral one, which you are carrying back. It is the greatest moral victory that has ever been accomplished by an army. Isn't it a splendid thing that each one of you will be able to return home and say to his mother, or wife, or sister, or sweetheart, that he belonged to an army of two million men, served in a foreign country for more than two years, under more than ordinary temptations and yet returned home to the bosom of his family absolutely clean, morally as well as mentally and physically? Wouldn't that be a splendid thing to say to the womanhood of America, who remained back there waiting and praying that you might return with a victory? Wouldn't it be a tribute and honor to the women who made many sacrifices and came to the fight alongside of you in Europe and administered to the wounded and sick and otherwise maintained an esprit and morale? Wouldn't it be a find thing for the coming generations of young men of America for you to be able to say that this was an army of moral crusaders who returned home with a victory such as the world never has seen? More than all the splendid victory is the individual whose earnest work as such will make the combined victory possible. Let us bear that in mind, carry it out, go home with it proudly as we shall return home with the military victory.

I shall close by simply expressing to you, your commander and your officers, my very sincere thanks and my appreciation of the splendid work that has been done by you since your entry into the war. You are returning home with a record of which you should be exceedingly proud. You are returning home with that gratitude of all of those who are familiar with what you have done. You are returning home with the gratitude of the Allies, who know what work you have performed, not only upon your own front, but elsewhere on the western front. May I extend to you the thanks and gratitude of the American people, but I shall express the hope that you, yourselves, at a very early date, may receive from their own lips, at your own firesides, in your own homes in America, their thanks and their congratulations. Thank you very much.

In honor today of the presence of the Honorable Secretary of War, who has witnessed this splendid review, splendid appearance of this Division, I am going to ask him to say a word to you, although he has several times declined my invitations.

Address of Secretary of War Newton D. Baker

This splendid review which you have given us today has called upon you to begin early in the morning to get ready, and now we are at the setting of the sun and many of you have to scatter to remote places so it would not be just for me to take more than a minute to express the sentiment of gratitude I feel at having been privileged to witness you today as a complete Division in battle array.

I do want, however, to tell you that those of us who see you as you now are have thrills which you perhaps little understand, and now that we have come to the sunset of this great enterprise I bring you not only thanks for the inspiration you have given us, not only thanks for the great work you have done, but having very recently come from the other side I bring you a message of love and welcome from home. You are about to sail and when you get to the other side you will find the arms of the United States stretched out in welcome to you, from the port to your own homes, all along the line the flags will be out and your friends ready.

The story of what you have done will for days be the only subject of discussion and throughout your whole lives it will be the great thing for conversation and memory.

I have watched this great army grow on both sides of the water. It did not grow like a poppy but it took genius to make it grow. It took genius to organize in France for the receipt of this army, drill it, place it, and take care of it. It takes genius to send this army home in the way you have been invited to go home, and I want, in your presence today, not only to thank the man power of the army, but also to thank your great Commander-in-Chief, and ask you to join me in three cheers for General Pershing.

From: "Addresses Made by General John J. Pershing, U.S.A., and Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. to Officers and Soldiers of the 33rd Division in the Field, Luxembourg, April 22, 1919.", Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, volume 15, numbers 1-2: 519-523. (Reported by Sgt. H. L. Livingstone, Q. M. C., 33rd Division, 1907 S. 8th St., Springfield, Ill.), http://www.jimgill.net/wwipages/notes/pershing.html & http://www.jimgill.net/wwipages/notes/ndbaker.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 April 1920, Commons Sitting

FRANCE AND BELGIUM.


HC Deb 22 April 1920 vol 128 c552 552

Mr. CAPE asked the Prime Minister whether a military alliance has recently been formed or is now being negotiated between the Governments of France and Belgium, and whether His Majesty's Government has pointed out to these Governments the effect that separate agreements of this nature must have upon the stability of the League of Nations?

Mr. BONAR LAW I cannot give information about negotiations which may or may not be going on between two foreign Governments.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/apr/22/france-and-belgium
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Korte berichten uit een eeuw Apeldoornse leven

Alleen op Zondag 15 K.M. is onredelijk
22 April [1917] - De bewoners van de Loolaan staan, nu het heerlijk voorjaarszonnetje zich weer doet gevoelen en daarmede het sportlievend Nederland onze provincie en haar parel ,,Apeldoorn’’ doortuft en doorfietst, wederom in het teken van ergernis. De Loolaan is de autoval bij uitnemendheid. Het voorschrift der maximumsnelheid 15 K.M. met slechts een enkele seconde overschreden, doet de automobiel stoppen en de onvermijdelijke bekeuring volgt. Voor vele inzittenden was de plotselinge verschijning van eenige politieagenten achter de bomen verscholen plus het rondom de auto opdringend publiek een dagbederf dat velen heugen zal. De bepaling beoogt ongetwijfeld bescherming van het wandelend publiek tegen de stof, die een rijdende auto, en allereerst een snel rijdende auto, onvermijdelijk opwerpt, en als zoodanig verdient zij waardering. Het op Zondagen zoo herhaaldelijk constateeren van automobielovertredingen is onbetwist onredelijk omdat op werkdagen - wanneer er toch ook gewandeld wordt - de auto’s de Loolaan straffeloos doorvliegen met eene vaart naar mijne schatting van 50 tot 60 K.M.
Uw dw. Abonné B. Boekhoudt

http://members.chello.nl/a.horlings/1913-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Easter Rising in Ireland, 1916

PLANS FOR THE RISING
Thomas Clarke was the main instigator of the rising, supported by Pearse, Seán Mac Diarmada, Eamonn Ceant and Seán T. O Ceallaigh who went to America for further assistance. Thomas McDonagh, Joseph Plunket and James Connolly. were later brought on to the Supreme Council.

During all this activity Eoin McNeill was unaware of the secret body that was organising the rising. Few penetrated the IRB as they prepared for the rising.

James Connolly used his paper ‘The Workers' Republic' to call for an armed revolt. He used the Citizens Army to protect the paper.

The Irish Volunteers were holding recruiting meetings throughout Ireland and training enthusiastically. They awaited the signal to act as the rising had been set for Easter Saturday, 22nd of April, 1916.

Setbacks to the plan included the capture of Casement and the weapons, the capture of Austin Stack, commandant of the Kerry Brigade and the discovery of the plans for an uprising following a raid on German officials in New York.

The Supreme Council decided unanimously decided to proceed with the uprising despite the fact that they knew it had little chance of success. It was decided to strike on Easter Monday. In spite of the order from McNeill not to revolt, over 2,000 soldiers made a strike for freedom.

http://www.pittsburghirish.org/AOHDiv32/plansforrising.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2010 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Yehudi Menuhin

Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (April 22, 1916 – March 12, 1999) was a violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom. He was born to Jewish parents in the United States, but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1970, and of the United Kingdom in 1985. He is commonly considered one of the twentieth century's greatest violin virtuosi.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yehudi_Menuhin
Zie ook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lm1q3gadv50
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Price of Glory



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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 17:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

mercatus schreef;

22 april
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Wars begin where you will, But they do not end where you please.
"All Wars Arise For The Possesion Of Wealth" (Plato)

http://www.ahwk.fr
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 April 1914 → Commons Sitting

Suffragist Outrages.


HC Deb 22 April 1914 vol 61 cc935-6 935

Mr. CASSEL asked the Home Secretary whether his attention has been called to the large number of recent outbreaks 936 of fire, suspected to have been caused by militant supporters of Women Suffrage; and whether he proposes to take any and, if so, what steps to ensure that the law is enforced and property adequately safeguarded?

The SECRETARY of STATE for the HOME DEPARTMENT (Mr. McKenna) I would refer the hon. Member to the answer which I gave to a similar question last Monday.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/22/suffragist-outrages
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private W. Hay of the Royal Scots arrived in Ypres just after the chlorine gas attack on 22nd April 1915.

We knew there was something was wrong. We started to march towards Ypres but we couldn't get past on the road with refugees coming down the road. We went along the railway line to Ypres and there were people, civilians and soldiers, lying along the roadside in a terrible state. We heard them say it was gas. We didn't know what the Hell gas was. When we got to Ypres we found a lot of Canadians lying there dead from gas the day before, poor devils, and it was quite a horrible sight for us young men. I was only twenty so it was quite traumatic and I've never forgotten nor ever will forget it.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWchlorine.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Order of Battle of the British Second Army - 22 April 1915

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/british-battle-order-second-ypres.htm

Order of Battle of the German 4th Army - 22 April 1915

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/german-battle-order-second-ypres.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Apr 2011 21:28, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"In some ways, you might be able to argue that the First World War started on the 22nd of April 1915"

"Up to that point, what had occurred was a series of well-known 19th Century encounters that had gone wrong. But on the 22nd of April, not far from the city of Ypres, the Germans did something new. They opened cylinders of poison gas to try to break through the defensive strength of the allies on the other side. French and Canadian troops were hit by this gas, or chlorine gas, and were terrified. These are men without really any protection against this because it never happened before. These weren't shells, these were cylinders that had been lined up, and when the German troops thought that the wind was blowing the right way, the cloud opened – it looked very much like a green cloud – and the people who didn't escape from it would have their lungs burned out and die an awful death.

"Now, that moment is very important in understanding how the war that so many people joined up to fight turned into something much worse.

"It's important for a whole series of reasons. One, is that gas warfare is another level of brutality, another level of violence that until that point, had not been available to either side. And once it became available to one side, it was used by both.

"But it also required a huge industrial backup to produce. By 1918, one in every four shells on the Western Front was a gas shell. That meant huge factories producing weapons of war of a kind, which lowered the obstacles to brutality, because if you couldn't get out of a trench, if you couldn't flee, if you couldn't surrender, then there is a different nature to battle and confrontation. That is extermination, not combat, because a soldier cannot surrender.

"If he has no protection against the gas, he will simply suffocate and die miserably.

"The nature of that kind of war opens up the whole issue of whether this conflict began in a 19th Century fashion with a degree of understanding about what the limits of violence were, and, slowly but surely – 1915 is a critical moment – those limits were pushed and pushed and pushed until they didn't exist anymore. So that by the end of 1915, you could say that everyone in each combatant country was at risk. No one was safe. Everyone was a target.

"The first of those steps was the bombardment of civilian populations through zeppelins. This is something that brought home to the civilian population that they, too, were on the firing line. A kindergarten in the east of London was not what the zeppelins aimed at, but given the state of the art at the time, it's not surprising that they killed children.

"It is in 1915, that this kind of war was born, and the best way to understand it and its horrifying character, is to call it total war."

Historicus Jay Winter, op http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/historian/hist_winter_11_totalwar.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Proclamation of Deportations from Lille, 22 April 1916

Reproduced below is the text of a proclamation issued by the German Military Governor of Lille, General von Graevenitz, on 22 April 1916. In his proclamation von Graevenitz announced that selected men and women living in Lille were to be deported to surrounding areas for the purpose of working in the countryside. This was, he stated, to provide provisions for civilian use.

Proclamation of 22 April 1916, by General von Graevenitz, German Military Commandant of Lille

The attitude of England makes the provisioning of the population more and more difficult.

In order to relieve the distress, the German Government has recently asked for volunteers to go to work in the country. This offer has not had the success anticipated.

Consequently, the inhabitants will be evacuated by order and removed to the country. The evacuated persons will be sent to the interior of the occupied French territory, far behind the front, where they will be employed in agriculture, and in no way on military works.

This measure will give them the opportunity of making better provision for their subsistence.

In case of necessity, it will be possible to obtain provisions from the German depots.

Each evacuated person will be allowed 30 kilograms of luggage (household utensils, clothes, etc.), which it would be well to prepare immediately.

I therefore order as follows: Pending further orders, no person shall change his residence. No person may be absent from his declared legal residence between the hours of 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. (German time) unless he is in possession of a permit.

Since this measure cannot be recalled, it is in the interest of the population itself to remain calm and obedient.

Notice Issued to Individuals With the Above

All the inhabitants of the house, with the exception of children under fourteen and their mothers, and of the aged, must prepare themselves to be transported within an hour and a half.

An officer will decide definitely what persons are to be taken to the concentration camps. For this purpose, all the inhabitants of the house must assemble in front of the house; in case of bad weather they may remain in the passage.

The door of the house must remain open. No protest will be listened to. No inhabitant of the house (even including those who aec not to be transported) may leave it before 8 a.m. (German time).

Each person will be entitled to 30 kilograms of luggage; if the weight is excessive, the whole of the luggage of the person concerned will be peremptorily refused. The packages must be packed separately for each person, and provided with an address legibly written and firmly affixed. The address must bear the surname, first name, and the number of the identity card.

It is absolutely necessary that each person should, in his own interest, provide himself with eating and drinking utensils, with a woollen blanket, with good shoes and with body linen. Every person must bring his identity card. Any person endeavouring to avoid transportation will be punished without mercy.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lille_graevenitz.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMAS AUSTRALIA & HMNZS NEW ZEALAND

On this day 22 April 1916 the very similar battlecruisers HMAS AUSTRALIA and HMNZS NEW ZEALAND collided in the North Sea. The subsequent repairs on AUSTRALIA kept this ship out of the Battle of Jutland.

http://www.facebook.com/RANHistory
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private William McBride

Eric Bogle's song, variously called William McBride, No Man's Land and the Green Fields of France is being developed as a feature film called The Last Parade by New York film producer Ned Stuart. In the song Bogle (pictured right) visits a Western Front Cemetery, and sits by the graveside of an Irish soldier called William McBride. The song is essentially a series of questions to the soldier, who was apparently 19 when he died in 1916.

It is not entirely clear whether Bogle actually saw the name McBride on a headstone, although there are two soldiers of that name buried at the Authuile Military Cemetery on the Somme. The most likely is Private William McBride of the 9th Battallion Royal Enniskillen Fusiliers who died on 22 April 1916. His parents were from Lislea in County Armagh. But he was twenty-one when he died.

The second McBride in the Authuile Cemetery was a private in the 2nd Battalion of the same regiment, and is identified only by the initial W, with his age not given. He died on 10th February 1916. The third man, Rifleman William John McBride of the Royal Irish Rifles is recorded as having died on 2 July 1916 (just one day after the carnage over the first day of the Battle of the Somme) but has no known grave and is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial.

So, lacking any real evidence for the man himself, the story for the proposed film is essentially a fictional version of McBride's life, in which the hero is a boy from a family of pacifists who wanted to be a boxer. Eventually he joins the army, and goes to France where he dies. And the film (if it is ever made) will end with his burial - to the sound of a drum beating slowly, a fife playing softly and the last post and chorus being played by a band - all in accordance with the original ballad. Bogle himself has apparently agreed to play a cameo role in the movie, sitting at the graveside during the final scenes.

The song itself is still a powerful indictment of war, and has been recorded many times since it was written in 1975. A version by Makem and Clancey is reputedly the largest selling single in Irish history. The version by the Fureys spent many weeks in the Irish charts, and when Bogle toured Ireland there's a story that the audience in one venue almost caused a riot when he indicated that he had written the song. Apparently it was believed locally that the Fureys had written it!

Speaking of the visit that inspired the song Bogle said in a radio interview: " If you walk round that area, there's graveyards from the Napoleonic wars, the Franco-Prussian wars, the First World War, the Second World War and every sort of soldier you can think of is buried there from just all over the world, you know.

"If you go to the ossuary in Verdun there's the bones of 130,000 French soldiers just behind glass, you know and they're still adding to them every year, because every year they find more bones, you know, French farmers.... So when you see the -- you read the images of the earth was soaked with blood, and you couldn't walk anywhere without standing in dead bodies, you used to sort of dismiss that as old soldier's hyperbole, until you see the battlefields and you think, "Shit, yeah, this is how it was."

Bogle was born in 1944 in Peebles, in Scotland but moved to Australia in 1969. Within two years he wrote his first graphically moving song about Gallipoli called 'And The Band Played Waltzing Matilda', which is now Australia's most recorded song. In 1987 the Australian government honoured Eric with the Order of Australia for his contributions to that country's music and musical heritage. And his Willie McBride ballad was nominated by Prime Minister Tony Blair as his anthem for peace in Northern Ireland.

The actual words sung in the different versions vary considerably, but the verses below have been transcribed from Bogle's own recording.

Well how do you do, Private William McBride
Do you mind if I sit here down by your grave side?
And I'll rest for awhile in the warm summer sun,
I've been walking all day and I'm nearly done.
I see by your gravestone you were only 19
When you joined the glorious fallen in 1916.
Well I hope you died quick and I hope you died clean
Or, Willie McBride, was it slow and obscene?

Chorus:
Did they beat the drum slowly?
Did they sound the fife lowly?
Did the rifles fire o'er ye as they lowered you down?
Did the bugles sing 'The Last Post' in chorus?
Did the pipes play 'The Flowers o' the Forest'?

And did you leave a wife or a sweetheart behind?
In some faithful heart is your memory enshrined
And though you died back in 1916
To that loyal heart are you always 19?
Or are you a stranger without even a name
Forever enshrined behind some glass-pane
In an old photograph torn and tattered and stained
And fading to yellow in a brown leather frame?

Chorus

Well the sun's shining now on these green fields of France,
The warm wind blows gently and the red poppies dance.
The trenches are vanished long under the plough
No gas, and no barbed wire, no guns firing now.
But here in this graveyard it's still No Man's Land
The countless white crosses in mute witness stand.
To man's blind indifference to his fellow man
And a whole generation who were butchered and damned.

Chorus

And I can't help but wonder now Willie McBride
Do all those who lie here know why they died?
Did you really believe them when they told you the cause?
You really believed that this war would end war?
But the suffering, the sorrow, the glory, the shame -
The killing and dying - it was all done in vain.
For Willie McBride, it's all happened again
And again, and again, and again, and again.

Chorus


http://www.aftermathww1.com/mcbride.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly: "Labour and Ireland. Dublin Working Class, amid Great Emotion, Hoist and Salute the Flag of Ireland" [1]
Workers’ Republic, 22 April 1916.

On Sunday, April 16, 1916, let the date be forever remembered, Dublin witnessed a scene that moved thousands of men and women to tears of joy and thanksgiving. On that day the Irish Citizen Army, the armed forces of Labour, on the top of the headquarters of the Irish Transport Workers’ Union, hoisted and unfurled the Green Flag of Ireland, emblazoned with the Harp without the Crown, and as the sacred emblem of Ireland’s unconquered soul fluttered to the breeze, the bugles pealed their defiant salute, and the battalion presented arms, strong men wept for joy, and women fainted with emotion.

From early in the day the historic square was the centre of Dublin. Crowds were continually arriving to assure themselves that the ceremony was really to take place. All sorts of rumours were current all the week. Field guns were to level the Hall with the ground, all the avenues of approach were to be occupied by masses of troops with machine guns, Mr Connolly and all his officers were to be arrested at dead of night, martial law was to be declared on Saturday, and so forth; the stories were endless, and the bearers of the stories came from all quarters and ranks of society. But the preparations were quietly proceeded with, and the appointed hour found Beresford Place and all its avenues of approach blocked indeed, not by troops, but by tens of thousands of a breathless, excited, and jubilant crowd.

The duty and honour of unfurling the flag was allotted to Miss Molly Reilly, a young and beautiful member of the Irish Women Workers’ Union.

In front of the Hall the Irish Citizen Army cleared a space and formed into three sides of a square. Inside their formation positions were occupied by the Women’s Section, who made a splendid and beautiful show, the Citizen Army Boy Scouts, under Captain Carpenter, and the Fintan Lalor Pipers’ Band. Captain Poole and a Colour Guard of sixteen men escorted the Colour Bearer who was accompanied also by the three young girl dancers known as the Liberty trio.

The flag was deposited first on a pile of drums in the centre of the square. After inspecting the troops, Commandant Connolly took up his position in front of the drums with Commandant Mallin on his left and Lieutenant Markievicz on his right. Then the Colour Bearer, Miss Reilly, advanced from her escort, received the Colours from the Commandant, and turned about to face the Colour Guard. As she did so the Guard presented arms, and the buglers sounded the Salute. When the Colour Bearer had retaken her place in the centre of the Guard that body moved off around the square, whilst the Pipers’ Band played appropriate music.

As the Colour Guard reached the entrance to the Hall again, and reformed to their original front the Colour Bearer carrying the Colours across her breast bore them into the hall, and up to the roof. At this point the excitement was almost painful in its intensity. So closely had the crowds been packed that many thousands had been unable to see the ceremony on the square, but the eyes of all were now riveted upon the flag pole awaiting the re-appearance of the Colour Bearer. All Beresford Square was packed, Butt Bridge and Tara Street were as a sea of upturned faces. All the North Side of the Quays up to O’Connell Street was thronged, and O’Connell Bridge itself was impassable owing to the vast multitude of eager, sympathetic onlookers.

The Fintan Lalor Pipers’ Band is among the very first rank of the Pipe bands of Ireland, but so anxious and prayerfully eager were the people that its fine music was scarcely heeded as the hearts of all beat rapidly with longing for the appearance of the Flag upon its position.

At last the young Colour Bearer, radiant with excitement and glowing with colour in face and form, mounted beside the parapet of the roof, and with a quick graceful movement of her hand unloosed the lanyard, and

THE FLAG OF IRELAND

fluttered out upon the breeze.

Those who witnessed that scene will never forget it. Over the Square, across Butt Bridge, in all the adjoining streets, along the quays, amid the dense mass upon O’Connell Bridge, Westmoreland Street and D’Olier Street corners, everywhere the people burst out in one joyous delirious shout of welcome and triumph, hats and handkerchiefs fiercely waved, tears of emotion coursed freely down the cheeks of strong rough men, and women became hysterical with excitement.

As the first burst of cheering subsided Commandant Connolly gave the command, “Battalion, Present Arms”, the bugles sounded the General Salute, and the concourse was caught up in a delirium of joy and passion.

In a few short words at the close Commandant Connolly pledged his hearers to give their lives if necessary to keep the Irish Flag Flying, and the ever memorable scene was ended.

Note
1. This report by Connolly provided the editorial for the final issue of Workers’ Republic.


http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1916/04/labireland.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter confirming Reggie Bryant Missing in Action

Official letter sent as a reply to Patience Huthwaite's enquiry of 31st December 1916, concerning her sweetheart, Reggie Bryant, missing in action, 22nd April 1916. No further information had been received.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9003?REC=4
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Apr 2018 22:52, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Alan Edward Scarth 22 April 1917 - Oundle School

Lieutenant Alan Edward Scarth was killed in modern day Iraq. He was born in India in 1896, where his father ran a tea estate in Assam. He was sent to England in the care of his uncle the Rev CH Crossley of Willingham Rectory, Cambridge. He was in Crosby House for just two years from 1911 until 1913 and left just before his 18th birthday. He then returned to India to work on the tea plantation but in February 1915 he joined the Indian Army Reserve of Officers and spent some time training with the 1st Yorkshire Regiment stationed at Rawal Pindi. He was then attached to the Corps of Guides at Marden on the North-West Frontier.

In October 1916, he was sent out to Mesopotamia (Iraq) and was in charge of the Gurkha Company of the Corps of Guides, attached to the 53rd Sikhs. With them he took part in the advance to Baghdad. Alan Scarth was hit on the second day of the Battle of Istabulat where the 53rd suffered heavy casualties. He died in the first-aid station. On 22 April, the regimental diary records the action near Samarrah as British troops went into action against the Ottomans.

“At 16.50, two companies under the command of Captain A.E.Scarth and Lt. G.N.Mackintosh were sent to re-inforce the 56th Rifles on the left flank by the railway. At 17.40, the left flank met with heavy enfilade fire from across the railway lines with heavy losses. Captain Scarth was wounded and died of wounds. The attack was successful, Samarrah was taken.”

Accordingly, his company were congratulated on their success. One officer wrote to Alan’s parents in India : “Alan’s Company of Gurkhas did splendidly, in fact brilliantly – no less than three generals have congratulated our CO on this company…and this success was no doubt due to your son’s example and leadership as he was a fine officer.”

Alan Scarth, aged just 21, has no known grave and is commemorated on the Basra Memorial which has the names of more than 40,000 British soldiers killed in Mesopotamia between 1914 and 1921.

http://www.oundleschool.org.uk/Alan-Edward-Scarth-22-April-1917?returnUrl=/World-War-I-
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Kaiser Wilhelm II on the Third Battle of Champagne, 22 April 1917

Reproduced below is the text of Kaiser Wilhelm II's congratulatory telegram to Crown Prince Wilhelm following the French Army's failure to breakthrough during the Second Battle of the Aisne and Third Battle of Champagne, in April 1917.

The French Army's failure to achieve success during the Aisne/Champagne offensive directly led to the replacement of the Commander-in-Chief Robert Nivelle. Nivelle, who had promised an end to the war through victory at the Aisne, was replaced by Henri-Philippe Petain.

Telegram from Kaiser Wilhelm II to Crown Prince Wilhelm, 22 April 1917

The troops of all the German tribes under your command, with steel-hard determination and strongly led, have brought to failure the great French attempt to break through on the Aisne and in Champagne.

Also there the infantry again had to bear the brunt, and, thanks to the indefatigable assistance of the artillery and other arms, has accomplished great things in death-defying perseverance and irresistible attack.

Convey my thanks and those of the Fatherland to the leaders and men. The battle on the Aisne and in Champagne is not yet over, but all who fight and bleed there shall know that the whole of Germany will remember their deeds, and is at one with them to carry through the fight for existence to a victorious end.

God grant it.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/champagne3_wilhelm.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 21:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE MACHINE GUN CORPS - VICTORIA CROSS MEDAL WINNERS

LIEUTENANT JOHN REGINALD NOBLE GRAHAM
9th Battalion, Argyl and Sutherland Highlanders, attached 136th M.G Company (Infantry)


Born 17.9.1892 / Died 6.12.1980
Date of Gazette 14.9.1917

On 22nd April 1917 at Istabulat, Mesopotamia, Lieutenant Graham was in command of a Machine Gun Section which came under very heavy fire, when his men became casualties he insisted on carrying the ammunition and although twice wounded he continued in control and with one gun opened accurate fire on the enemy. This gun was put out of action and he was again wounded and forced to retire, but before doing so he disabled his gun and then brought a Lewis Gun into action with excellent effect until all the ammunition was expended. He was wounded yet again and was forced to retire.

http://www.machineguncorps.co.uk/heroes.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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April 22, 1918: The Times reports on Easter Day in Jerusalem and British troops’ consideration of the religious feelings of those around them

From a correspondent in Jerusalem

To us in Palestine it was given to pray for our brothers in France on Easter Day, kneeling in the churches which overlook the Garden of Gethsemane. During the British occupation of Palestine we have been very sedulous in considering the religious feelings of others. The shrines and festivals sacred to elder or alien creeds have been more than respected. So much so, that some have wondered whether we had any religion of our own.

This Easter in Jerusalem has been the answer. The British Army has celebrated the greatest festival of the Church in a place where the English under arms have never before prayed at Easter. King Richard never reached the Holy City; but King George’s men communicated, and sang the Easter hymns, in their own church of St. George outside the Damascus Gate of Jerusalem, or attended the splendid Latin ceremonial of Pontifical High Mass under the great dome of the Cathedral of the Holy Sepulchre, within the walls of the city. Numerous clergy of various Oriental rites gravely watched the ceremony; and their Prelates came and went in orderly solemnity.

The Kaliph Omar, in the moment of his victory, abstained from pressing to its extreme limit the right of a Moslem conqueror. His moderation preserved to Christians the use of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; and a Moslem guardian was appointed by the generous successor of the Prophet to ensure the continuance of that liberty.

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/court_and_social/article3788997.ece via http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=96929
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