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25 April
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2006 6:18    Onderwerp: 25 April Reageer met quote

April 25

1915 Allies begin invasion of Gallipoli

On April 25, 1915, a week after Anglo-French naval attacks on the Dardanelles end in dismal failure, the Allies launch a large-scale land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula, the Turkish-controlled land mass bordering the northern side of the Dardanelles.

In January 1915, two months after Turkey entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers, Russia appealed to Britain to defend it against attacks by the Ottoman army in the Caucasus. Lord Kitchener, Britain’s secretary of state for war, told Churchill, first lord of the Admiralty, that no troops were available to help the Russians and that the only place where they could demonstrate their support was at the Dardanelles, to prevent Ottoman troops from moving east to the Caucasus. First Sea Lord John Fisher advocated a joint army-navy attack.

The naval attack of March 18, 1915, was a disaster, as undetected Turkish mines sank half of the joint Anglo-French fleet sent against the Dardanelles. After this failure, the Allied command switched its focus to a landing of army troops on the Gallipoli Peninsula, with the objective of securing the Dardanelles so that the Allied fleet could pass safely through and reconnoiter with the Russians in the Black Sea.

On April 25, British, French, Australian and New Zealander troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Turkish forces were well prepared to meet them, however, as they had long been aware of the likelihood of just such an invasion. The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was devastated by some of the best-trained Turkish defenders, led by Mustafa Kemal, the future President Ataturk of Turkey. Meanwhile, the British and French also met fierce resistance at their landing sites and suffered two-thirds casualties at some locations. During the next three months, the Allies made only slight gains off their landing sites and sustained terrible casualties.

To break the stalemate, a new British landing at Suvla Bay occurred on August 6, but the British failed to capitalize on the largely unopposed landing and waited too long to move against the heights. Ottoman reinforcements arrived and quickly halted their progress. Trenches were dug, and the British were able to advance only a few miles.

In September, Sir Ian Hamilton, the British commander, was replaced by Sir Charles Monro, who in December recommended an evacuation from Gallipoli. On January 8, 1916, Allied forces staged a full retreat from the shores of the peninsula, ending a disastrous campaign that resulted in 250,000 Allied casualties and a greatly discredited Allied military command, including Churchill, who resigned as first lord of the Admiralty and accepted a commission to command an infantry battalion in France.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2006 6:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zie ook:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4461
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the beno



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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres: Germans retake Lizerne; British repulsed at St. Julien.

Germans capture and lose summit of Hartmannsweilerkopf (Alsace).

Eastern Front

Severe fighting near Styrj.

Southern Front

Dardanelles: Anglo-French forces land on both shores of the Straits.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Russian Black Sea fleet shells the forts of the Bosporus.

Political, etc.

Herr Dernburg in U.S.A. outlines unofficial German peace terms.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

Great British aerial activity.

Zeppelin raid on Kent and Essex; 1 injured.

Southern Front

Fighting in Gevgeli sector (Salonika).

Naval and Overseas Operations

German battle cruiser squadron raid Lowestoft; engaged and dispersed by local naval forces.

Great Yarmouth bonbarded: 4 killed, 19 wounded.

Political, etc.

Official report of secret session on Manpower published.

Martial law in Dublin.
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the beno



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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

German attack on Hurtebise Farm (Vauclere Plateau, Chemin des Dames) repulsed.

Southern Front

British success at Lake Doiran.

Naval and Overseas Operations

German destroyer flotilla bombards Dunkirk: repulsed by French and British patrols.

Political, etc.

Second reading of Corn Production Bill carried in House of Commons.

Court intrigues in Athens cause dissatisfaction.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Very strong attack on British and French from Bailleul to Hollbeke.

Germans reach Mt. Kemmel; Allied line forced back.

South of Somme Allies recapture Villers-Bretonneux with 600 prisoners.

German tanks in action for first time.

In the Woevre, after heavy bombardment, German attack is stopped.

Eastern Front

Finland: Germans report junction with Finnish army 30 miles north of Helsingfors.

Ukraine: Germans announced to be near Sevastopol.

Southern Front

In Asiago basin British patrols force enemy detachments to retire.

Political, etc.

Mr. Churchill reviews work of Ministry of Munitions.

Lord Rothermere (Air Ministry) resigns.

Australia: Mr. Hughes and Mr. Cook appointed to represent Australia at War Conference.

Mr. Loudon, Dutch Foreign Minister, says relations with Germany difficult.

German demands for use of Limburg railway agreed to.

Red Cross sale �151,000.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 11:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Armeense genocide in de Nederlandse pers

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 25 april 1914 (Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek)

De hervormingsarbeid in Armenië

Onze Konstantinopolitaansche correspondent schrijft: In aansluiting van mijn brief van verleden week (zie N.R.Ct. 13/14 l.l.) nog de volgende bijzonderheden over den toestand op het oogenblik in Armenistan en in Koerdistan, waarheen, nadat onze regeering die aanwijzing door de mogendheden en die keus door de Porte heeft goedgekeurd, binnenkort ook een Nederlandsch (Indisch) bestuursambtenaar, de assistent L.C. Westenenk, zal vertrekken, om daar met den Noorschen overste Hoff de moeilijke en netelige betrekking van inspecteur-generaal (en werkelijk invoerder) der door de mogendheden voor die gewesten aan de Porte opgedrongen of van de Porte afgedwongen hervormingen te aanvaarden.

Men weet dat de koerdische bevolking dier streken, welke in vele buurtschappen de meerderheid vormt van dit, in waarheid voornamelijk ten bate der Armeniërs uitgewerkte hervormingsplan, niet weten wil, en dat ook een niet onaanzienlijk deel der Armeniërs er niet van gediend is, en er reeds nu oppositie tegen maakt, omdat deze Armeniërs "alles of niets" willen hebben, d.w.z. geheel bevrijd van het bestuur van Stamboel willen wezen, en in elke poging om dit nog wat op te schorten veeleer een gevaar voor hun nationaal streven zien, dan eene verbetering van hun lot. (...)

Lees verder op http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-25-4-1914.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 11:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World Aviation in 1914

25 April - Lieutenant P.N.L. Bellinger makes the first American operational sortie by aeroplane, searching for sea mines during the Santa Cruz incident. A total of five Curtiss AB flying boats are involved in the operation, flying from the battleship USS Mississippi and the cruiser USS Birmingham in an operation lasting 43 days.

http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/aviation%20timeline/1914.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 11:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Machine Gun Corps 1914-1918

Private Herbert Exell, 19 and from Copnor, was a member of 49th Company when we was killed on 25 April 1918. 49th Company were supporting 16th Division. He has no known grave, and is remembered on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium.

http://dalyhistory.wordpress.com/2010/03/27/the-machine-gun-corps-1914-1918/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 11:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Why did the Anzacs land at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915?

A brief description of the landing
An excerpt from Denis Winter's book, 25 April 1915 - The Inevitable Tragedy, University of Queensland Press, 1994.

The landing scheme was a simple one, in outline at least. The 3rd Brigade's 4000 men would land as a covering force to secure a beachhead for two Australasian divisions made up of six brigades. Those 4000 would go in two waves. The first, consisting of 1500 men, were to start from three battleships – Queen, Prince of Wales and London – then be distributed between twelve tows, each made up of a steamboat, a cutter (30 men), a lifeboat (28 men) and either a launch (98 men) or a pinnace (60 men). The remaining 2500, the second wave, were to land from seven destroyers shortly afterwards. Those destroyers would wait near the island of Imbros and join the battleships, one and a half miles (about 2 km) from the mainland, at 4.15 am. The first wave was scheduled to land a few minutes earlier, and the destroyers would then sail in, full speed ahead, adding a number of lifeboats borrowed from transport vessels to the tows that had been used by the first wave. Once the whole 3rd Brigade was ashore, the rest of the 1st Division would arrive on transports, grouped in fours and coming in at regular intervals.

Such, at least, was the plan, and its first stage was negotiated without difficulty. Troops on the battleships were woken at 1 am, given a hot meal and a drink while the tows were being got ready, and by 1.30 am were ready for mustering into companies. This operation was carried out with impressive efficiency: no one spoke; orders were given in whispers. The only sounds were shuffling boots and muttered curses as men slipped on the ladders leading down to the boats. But for many, the tension of that still night magnified the sounds.

To Lieutenant Charles Fortescue it seemed "the noise of the pinnaces being filled, in the stillness of the night, was enough to make the whole world vibrate". Rear-Admiral Thursby, who had to supervise the whole operation, was equally fraught. "It was a still night," he recalled many years later. "There was hardly a breath of wind. Every sound seemed magnified tenfold and it seemed impossible that the noise of our boat hoists could escape being heard by the enemy a few miles away. We eagerly scanned the direction of the shore, the loom of which could just be seen, to see if we could detect any movement, but all was still."

The filling, which took about forty minutes, was supervised by adolescent midshipmen dressed in khaki-stained white duck and carrying revolvers almost as big as themselves. They checked the numbers and quietly called out, "Full up, sir!" at the right time. Naval officers then gave the order to "Cast off and drift astern" where the tows gathered, two on each side of a battleship.

The first wave was slowly gathered together in this way, enveloped by a sea mist which clung to the water like a shallow blanket. Orders required the men to keep greatcoats stowed in packs and wear tunics with sleeves rolled to the elbow so that flashes of white skin could give easier identification during the dawn assault. Dressed so lightly, men were soon chilled to the bone; nor could they move to restore circulation. The little boats varied in length from just nine paces for the lifeboats to fourteen for the launches and what little space was left by the men was filled by two boxes of ammunition, twelve picks, eighteen shovels, a hundred sandbags, three jars of water, three days' rations and a quorum of wirecutters.

The order to set off was given by Admiral Thursby using the Queen's wireless. Corporal James Bell (9th Battalion) later recalled the final stage. An officer on the battleship towering above his tow immediately called out, "Get away and land!" There was an immediate tug on the painter and the tow moved off at a brisk six knots. On the battleship, sailors lined the side of the ship, giving the service's "silent cheer" by waving caps in a circle and "uttering a subdued whisper, barely audible to those on the boats". How far offshore the battleships were by then remains uncertain. In his report of 8 May, Birdwood put the distance at four miles (about 6 km); Thursby's report agreed with the London's log on two miles; Callwell (Kitchener's Director of Operations) preferred one and a half; and the 1st Division's war diary recorded one. Whatever the actual distance, the journey took just forty minutes but with nerves wound up to such a pitch, few had any sense of time. To Cheney with the 10th, the journey seemed "like days", and to Lieutenant Aubrey Darnell with the 11th, "to go on for ever"; the last hundred yards were for George Mitchell "a lifetime".

As they closed on the peninsula, men whispered jests, and on the surface there was a sense of calm. "I am quite sure few of us realised that at last we were actually bound for our baptism of fire for it seemed as though we were just out on one of our night manoeuvres in Mudros harbour," Margetts was later to recall. But beneath the calm, all sensed an excitement that was tense and electric. Set as they were on a flat surface without a shred of cover and incapable of evasive action, all knew that Turkish shrapnel – even a single machine gun – could scupper the first wave. All they could do was sit silent, still, frozen, and let silence and darkness magnify their fears. Mitchell tried to analyse his own feelings at the time but failed: "I think every emotion was mixed but with exhilaration predominant." One 9th Battalion veteran later described how he had shivered and trembled uncontrollably throughout the journey, nervousness and excitement equally mixed. Blackburn, one of the scouts that day (and a future winner of the Victoria Cross), expressed it more simply: "The 30 or 45 minutes to the shore were the most trying of the lot."

What of the Turkish garrison meanwhile?

As the tows approached the cove, Lieutenant Colonel Sefik Aker of the Turkish 27th Regiment was looking out to sea from the Ari Burnu headland at the northern end of Anzac Cove. Later he described the scene:

At 2 am the moon was still shining. The patrols on duty from my reserve platoon were Idris from Biga and Cennil from Gallipoli. They reported having sighted many enemy ships in the open sea. I got up and looked through my binoculars. I saw, straight in front of us but rather a long way off, a large number of ships the size of which could not be distinguished. It was not clear whether or not they were moving.

I reported immediately to the battalion commander, Major Izmet, first by telephone, then by written report. He said to me: "There is no cause for alarm. At most, the landing will be at Gaba Tepe" – and told me to continue watching these ships. I went to a new observation point and kept watching. This time I saw them as a great mass which, I decided, seemed to be moving straight towards us. In the customary manner, I went to the phone to inform divisional headquarters. That was about 2.30 am I got through to the second in command, Lieutenant Nori, and told him of it. He replied, "Hold the line. I will inform the Chief of Staff". He came back a little later and said, "How many of these ships are warships and how many transports?" I replied, "It is impossible to distinguish them in the dark but the quantity of ships is very large." With that the conversation closed.

A little while later, the moon sank below the horizon and the ships became invisible in the dark. The reserve platoon was alerted and ordered to stand by. I watched and waited.


Australians were meanwhile peering anxiously in the direction of an unseen Colonel Aker. The night had been pitch black when the tows set off at 3.30 am, "so dark," wrote Bean, "that one tow could scarcely see a sign of the next one to it". An occasional scatter of sparks from a steamboat's funnel or the dim phosphorescence in bow waves was the only sign that each tow wasn't alone. At 4 am, with landfall ten minutes away, the first glow of dawn allowed men to distinguish between hills and sky. Bean spoke in 1919 of there having been "a brightening sky and a silken, lemon-coloured dawn breaking smooth grey behind the hills" when he briefed the artist Lambert on the monumental painting of the landing he was commissioned to produce, while Norris described the sea, in that first glow, as glistening "like a sheet of oil".

That same dawn allowed Colonel Aker and his men to see the tows clearly for the first time. In his words:

In a little while, the sound of gunfire broke out. I saw a machine gun firing from a small boat in front of Ari Burnu. Some of the shots were passing over us. I immediately ordered the platoon to occupy the trenches on the high ridge which dominated Ari Burnu and sent only two sections under Sergeant Ahmed to the trenches on the central ridge overlooking the beach. At the same time, I wrote a report to the battalion commander stating that the enemy was about to begin landing and I was going to a position on the far side with a reserve platoon. I ordered the withdrawal by telephone and set off immediately. On the way, we came under fire from the ships.

Aker was severely wounded in the thigh during this action and his command passed to Muharrem, the senior sergeant.

The Australian experience of Turkish fire varied. The tows of the 9th Battalion formed the southern flank, landing the men along the south flank of the Ari Burnu peninsula. Salisbury, who was among the forces, later gave Bean a detailed account: "It was not quite light but getting very close to it. A very bright light appeared to the north. The first we heard when we were about twenty yards off the beach was a single shot – then two or three. It sounded like a sentry group. Then it began very fast. There was an exclamation, 'Hello! Now we're spotted.' It was a relief to hear the thing go. Here we are. Now we are in it." Loutit and Feint landed with the 10th Battalion on the tip of the Ari Burnu peninsula. Just like the 9th, they came under fire about thirty yards out, although some of the battalion were more fortunate. Stanley's boat was fired on only when the noise of its keel grounding drew fire. The 11th Battalion of the flotilla's northern flank landed along the northern face of Ari Burnu and had a hotter reception. Turkish firing began when they were about four hundred yards out – or so Darnell and Johnstone thought. Hedley Howe put it at two hundred and Everett at eight hundred. Tension obviously distorted the perception of men suddenly coming under heavy fire, but the fact remains that the 11th had the stiffest reception.

Opinion was less divided on how much firing there had been and where it had come from. Milne told Bean that the Turks were shooting "from the whole face of the hill" and Mills agreed with him, likening the effect to "a monster firework display". After many interviews, Bean's despatch eventually stated: "The Turks in trenches facing the Landing had run but those on either flank and on the ridges above and in the gullies kept up fire on the boats coming inshore." Bean, however, didn't go along with men like Major Fortescue, who spoke of a solid mass of Turkish bullets and a cacophany of bugle calls. "Neither then nor at any time later," Bean concluded, "was the beach the inferno of bursting shells and barbed-wire entanglements and falling men that has sometimes been described or painted." Turkish artillery, in particular, didn't start to fire shrapnel until 5.10am (some reports said 4.45 am), or about an hour after the first Australians landed.

Odd memories from that first period under fire remained clear in some men's minds. Hedley Howe's is of a naval officer in the tow to his right shouting out, "Bear away more to the north. You're spoiling the whole bloody show." A few seconds later, a shower of sparks came from the funnel of that steamboat. "Then Abdul opened up with his machine guns." Darnell remembered seeing a light on the tip of Ari Burnu: "It just flashed for a moment. Then we heard voices and what appeared to be a sentry. The call came from that point. The adjutant whispered to Captain Leane that they had seen us."

When the firing began, Darnell heard men singing snatches from "This little bit of the world belongs to us", while officers shouted, "Make a landing where you can, lads, and hold on!" They were using leather megaphones attached to their wrists because the sound of firing, reflected from the steep amphitheatre of Anzac Cove, was loud and seemed even louder against the hush of the previous silence.

Men's responses to being shot at for the first time varied, as described by Mitchell: "Some men crouch[ed] in the crowded boat while others sat up nonchalantly. Some laughed and joked while others cursed. I tried to scan the dim faces of our platoon and my section in particular. Fear was not at home." One of Bean's anecdotes highlights the unexpected cheerfulness of men in a time of extremity: "The 11th Battalion had been told by someone that bullets would sound like birds flying overhead. The Turkish bullets, at short range, were anything but that, and one of the battalion's hard cases, Private 'Combo' Smith, set the whole boat laughing by remarking to his neighbour, 'Snowy' Howe 'Just like little birds, ain't they, Snow?'" As for the cursing, Stanley thought it worth mentioning that "the language was awful". "Bloody", at this time, was the limit prescribed by custom for the majority of Australians, and Tom Louch endorsed this point when writing of Mena: "What really staggered us about the Tommies was their vocabulary. One four-letter word with variations provided nouns, verbs and adjectives – the staple of their conversation. The men in my section were not particularly straight-laced but they only swore in a mild way when exasperated." During those last minutes into Anzac Cove, the Australians were exasperated indeed.

There were calm men too, and their example was priceless. Margetts told Bean: "A young midshipman in our cutter stood up. It did one the world of good to see him standing up. He had a great effect on our men. Four seamen had their heads well down in the boat and our men would have taken their cue from them."

Eric Bush described the quiet courage of a fellow midshipman:

Midshipman Longley-Cook was in charge of the Prince of Wales number five tow. "Go for'ard and get both bowmen up out of their forepeak and tell them to feel for the bottom with their boathooks," he told his coxswain Leading Seaman Albert Balsom, when the boats were nearing the shore. Balsom had served with Captain Scott in the Antarctic and was a fabulously strong, brave man. "Why only one?" Longley-Cook asked a minute or two later. "I couldn't get the other able seaman up, sir. He's too frightened to move," Balsom replied. And while they were speaking, a rifle bullet entered the compartment and struck Balsom in the spine, killing him instantly. A few minutes later, an Australian officer in one of the boats started to issue some orders, whereupon he was interrupted by Longley-Cook who, in a clear authoritative voice with a polished English accent (so I was told by an Australian who was there) said to the officer, "I beg your pardon, sir. I am in charge of this tow." The officer subsided into silence immediately and the troops in his boat were heard to mutter, "Good on yer, kid!".

By this time most tows were about a hundred metres from the shore and the steamboats cast them off. "Those at the oars rowed like men possessed," Darnell told his father. "Some were shot and others took their place at once and not a word was uttered. Presently we grounded and, in an instant, were in the water up to our waists and wading ashore with bullets pinging all around us." Private Gordon's landing was less accomplished. Responding to a sailor's exhortation to "Hop out and after 'em, lads", he promptly lost his footing on the slippery stones of the seabed, then fell a second time as he stepped ashore because of the weight of his saturated uniform. Meanwhile, Turkish bullets were killing and maiming in such a gratuitous manner that many men were deeply disconcerted. Arthur Butler, the 9th Battalion's medical officer, recalled a calm midshipman handing him his satchel, "as if he were landing a pleasure party" when he fell back into the boat, shot through the head. Colonel Hawley, a Tasmanian, was shot through the spine and paralysed just as he was getting out of his boat.

The sea bed, though, seems to have posed the most pressing problem, as men leaving the boats got into difficulties. Bean put this down to the difference in size between small cutters which could get in close and large lifeboats which grounded in deep water but the facts are against him. The difference in draught between the biggest and smallest boats used was only a matter of 7 to 8 inches (18–20 cm). As Salisbury put it to Bean: "Nobody was hit in our boat but some were drowned. Some jumped out up to their chests. Some to their feet only." Even where the depth was favourable, men could still have problems. Boulders on the seabed could easily trip a man, while small pebbles and metal-shod army boots were a slippery match for top-heavy soldiers in full marching order – as Sergeant Douglas Baker found to his cost when he slipped and got a ducking. Nor were stones and boulders the only hazards. "Looking down at the bottom of the sea, Nicholas wrote later, "you could see a carpet of dead men who had been shot getting out of the boats". Private Eric Moorhead stepped on one of those bodies "in the wash of the water's edge" when he came ashore.

The actual time of that first landing remains unclear. When he was briefing Lambert in 1919, Bean gave it at 4.53 am (but he had been well back on the transport Minnewaska and had had to rely on secondhand information). Corps headquarters recorded 4.32 am as the time they heard the first rifle shots through the mist. Vice-Admiral De Robeck's report put it at 4.20 am. The 3rd Brigade's war diary and the report of the London agreed on 4.15 am. The 12th Battalion's war diary (they were reserve battalion to the first wave) states 4.10 am.

The early times best fit what we know of the destroyer flotilla's arrival but the matter is unlikely to be resolved. The circulation of synchronised watches, together with an appreciation of the need for absolute precision in battle planning only came in 1917. Before that clockwork watches recorded events with their usual approximation. When the corps timepiece stood at 4.32 am for example, the saloon clock on the Minnewaska read 4.28 am and Bean's own watch 4.23 am.

The exact location where the first wave waded ashore is rather more precisely established – but not entirely so. In the draft of his first volume and on most of his working maps, Bean put the 9th Battalion just south of Ari Burnu's tip and the 11th along about four hundred metres of beach on Ari Burnu's northern face, with the 1 0th on the tip. But ten years or so after the event Ray Leane, a stalwart of the 11th during the landing, begged to differ:

The boat I was in landed on the point. There were three boats to the left of us containing 9th Battalion men, most of whom were killed or wounded in the boat on the extreme left. If Commander Dix states that he was on the extreme right, he is wrong, because the l0th Battalion and one of the 11th were on the right of my boat. I met Drake-Brockman after attacking and reaching the top of the point and he came up from the right side of the hill. The whole of the boats landed between the point and where afterwards the pier was built. My company was on the extreme left of the attack but the 9th Battalion boats landed to the left of us.

Most of Bean's other eyewitnesses thought the first wave had landed altogether further northwards with the sequence of battalions 9, 10, 11] from south to north. And yet the 10th Battalion's war diary gives Leane some backing when it records battalions landing, mixed together. In the course of correspondence sixty years after the event, Metcalfe, a midshipman in 1915, stated that two whole platoons of the 9th had landed five minutes late and in 11th Battalion territory. With such discrepancies still existing two generations after the event, a definitive resolution remains unlikely.

The question of who was first ashore became another contentious issue soon after the landing. The Sydney Mail proposed Joseph Stratford, a New South Wales man who had enlisted in Queensland's 9th Battalion and died during the first day. Lismore claimed the honour for its son and a school in Queensland was named after him. But Duncan Chapman, another 9th Battalion man, claimed priority in a letter dated 24 June 1915: "My boat was the first to land and, being in the bow, I was the first man to leap ashore." Bean supported Chapman and mentioned Frank Kemp, a sergeant scout, who corroborated the story. But since the tows landed on both sides of a peninsula with only the dimmest glimmer of dawn to illuminate the scene, it is difficult to discover a solid basis for any claim on this score.

One indisputable fact is that once the tows were well on their way to the shore, Thursby, in charge of the landing, shone a shaded light seawards and called in the destroyers. Major Alexander Steele recalled the engine-room bell of his destroyer clanging, then a 20-knot surge and an abrupt stop within the ship's length just two hundred yards (183 m) from the shore. That surge of speed presented two problems: the lifeboats got into difficulties and the destroyers themselves became easy targets.

Filled with men and breasting a steep bow wave, the lifeboats moved at a speed their designers had never contemplated, and in at least two cases ended in mishaps. The first involved Foxhound. A boat capsized and the senior NCO aboard was saved only by an airpocket that formed in his uniform. Another man – Ernest Shepardson – seized a rope and was dragged along at high speed, submerged for the most part but drifting to the surface now and again. When the Foxhound finally came to a stop, Shepardson reappeared, "much to the surprise of his comrades who had thought him drowned a mile back".

The other incident, recounted by Richardson, had a more tragic outcome:

We were doing 18 knots. The man in the second boat didn't seem to be controlling his boat at all. She was slewing in and out for two minutes. A seaman called out that the pace was too fast but it didn't slow up. It couldn't. The boat then swung into the destroyer, slewed out and started to tip. The water simply washed them all out of the stem except a man on the tiller who managed to catch the stern rope and began to crawl back along it into the boat. He [had] got one leg into the boat on the inside beam when she swung in again and crushed him. The men were all lined up, looking at it over the side. Half a dozen naval men put a rope round the poor chap, who was dying, and hauled him aboard.

Corporal John Searcy was in the boat at the time. He tried to reach Private P.V. Smith, one of the drowning men, but was hindered by the weight of his pack. "I'm certain I heard his drowning screams," Searcy wrote many years later.

Meanwhile the destroyers had come under fire from Turkish snipers. The Beagle on the southern flank was particularly badly placed since it was within the range of Gaba Tepe's machine guns. On the other flank, too, Turkish machine guns high on Walkers Ridge opened fire at almost point-blank range. Lieutenant Elmer Laing described those bullets hitting the side of the Usk "like hailstones on a tin roof". Nor did all the bullets waste themselves on armour plating, as Captain Dixon Hearder, second in command on one of the destroyers, could attest:

I noticed a boy standing, more or less appalled at the din. So I walked up to him and said, "Come on, lad. No one is being hit." He pulled himself together and went on in front of me to the stern of the destroyer where there was a boat room. I followed right behind for another ten yards. I stepped aside to pass him and, just as I did so and got level with him, he just said "Oh!" and pitched forward on the deck. I did feel bad about him.

Almost as unnerving as the sound of Turkish small-arms fire was the noise of the Royal Navy's covering fire. This began at 4.30 am. As Baker put it, "the noise was awful. I have never heard thunder equal to it."

The casual courage of many of the sailors was crucial in setting an example to the soldiers and helping the men through a difficult phase. Two incidents serve as examples.

As the boats were filling up, wrote Hearder, "talking was heard in one of them and one of the officers called from the deck, 'Who is in charge of that boat?' Great was the glee when a very dignified alto voice promptly replied, 'Naval officer in charge of this boat'. The joke," Hearder added, "went on in the trenches. 'Make way for a naval officer', a private will squeak when he wants to get with water or something to the firing line." It was Hearder, too, who told of the incident, when a sudden burst of Turkish rifle and machine-gun fire halted disembarkation: "A cheery English voice on the bridge called out, 'Go on, lads. Get into the boats; these fellers can't shoot for tawfee.' " Hearder smiled to himself when he saw the Australians laughing at incongruity of the upper class English accent. "It was just the right note to strike," he concluded.

Unlike the first wave in the battleship tows, many of the destroyer men came under fire throughout the whole of the journey ashore, one man speaking of "shrapnel bullets striking the water with a noise like the popping of corks when drawn from champagne bottles". Private Edward Luders, a 1st Battalion signaller, saw a shrapnel shell kill sixteen men in a single boat.

The tows go in

By the time most of the 3rd Brigade's four thousand men had landed from the battleships and destroyers (at about 8 am), the main force in the transports had begun to arrive and the destroyers began ferrying them ashore, too. Private Robert Grant, who was aboard one of those transports with other 1st Battalion men, described his own experience graphically:

Before dawn, I was asleep on the lower deck. When the ship's officer switched off the lights, the horses started to stampede in their stalls. This woke the troops who, in their semi-conscious state, groped about for their equipment which was lying loose at their sides. Being pitch dark, they got in one anothers' way and this brought out some very impolite remarks. Eventually, they struck matches and, as day dawned, we began to take in the situation. I was near a porthole and put my head out. I could hear the crackling of rifles in the hills about a mile away. The navy opened a terrific bombardment. Huge chunks of the Gaba Tepe fort flew about. The hills reverberated. Steam pinnaces towed laden boats of troops ashore, working with the regularity of the Sydney ferries. The destroyer Scourge came alongside. Her funnel was riddled with bullet holes and her decks were slippery with the blood of the wounded she brought to our ship. I watched them slung aboard. Never did I hate a ship more or want to leave it less than the Minnewaska.

Bean was on the same vessel and was himself unnerved by the sight of the destroyer, her decks awash with blood.

A curious feature of that first morning was the speed with which conditions changed. By mid-morning, the Turks had been pushed back to the 3rd Ridge. The war had moved inland, and it was as if the gunfire from Ari Burnu and shrapnel from Gaba Tepe had never been. "We were surprised how peaceful was our trip ashore," Colonel Dawson of the Auckland Regiment wrote. "A little shelling. Some dropping rifle fire but only two casualties in our battalion. The landing was peaceful but distinctly wet, particularly for us small ones. It is surprising what a lot of water a ship's boat draws. The quietness of our narrow strip of beach was also surprising. A few Australians forming up; an Indian mountain battery and some wounded and dying men." And quiet it remained as the men trudged towards the first range of hills: "We advanced in the cool of the morning through thick undergrowth, heavy with dew and fragrant with the perfume of wild flowers," wrote Captain Andrew Came, 6th Battalion. "Birds were singing in the bushes and the sun was bright overhead." With time to look around and take in the scenery, some men must have been surprised at the choice of landing place. Was a pebble beach less than the width of a cricket pitch a suitable site for landing the supplies for two divisions? Was a cliff of crumbling sandstone bush covered and carved up by deep gullies, really the best place to launch an offensive?

Was Anzac Cove the right place?

It was only shortly after the landing that high command let it be known that an error had been made – the landing should have been made on Brighton Beach, south of Anzac Cove and in a locality of relatively friendly topography. Instead and by accident, the men found themselves in the heart of precipitous country to the north of the intended landing area. Two explanations were proposed: a sea current had drifted the tows northwards and in the dim light of dawn the silhouette of Hell Spit or Ari Burnu had been mistaken for the intended aiming point, Gaba Tepe.

Both explanations can be safely rejected. If a stiff wind blew from the south-west, a set of one and a half knots flowed north-east. This fact was well known to the Mediterranean fleet, which had often visited Lemnos before the war, and was allowed for in orders issued to the marker ship Triumph: "It is absolutely essential for the success of the expedition that your ship should be accurately in this position [coordinates given]. Also record the direction of the tide and strength of the current and communicate both to Admiral Thursby after his arrival at the rendezvous." In the event, naval log books recorded a breeze blowing at just one knot during the landing, with the result, as Hamilton put it in his memoirs, that "Birdwood had no current to trouble him". On the point of silhouettes, no one could possibly have mistaken the headlands in question. The high mountain of Sari Bair rises immediately behind Anzac Cove. The Khilid Bahr Plateau, on the other hand, is some distance behind Gaba Tepe and appears much lower from the sea, with a flatter top. If the tows had lost their direction during the period of darkness, there was time to make any necessary adjustments during the inshore journey because (so Bean told a correspondent) the outline of the land could be seen fifteen minutes before the tows set off.

The navigators accompanying the tows were certainly well qualified to make those adjustments. They had studied the shore's profile on a reconnaissance voyage just before the landing and would have made a particular effort to establish their bearings before moonset (2.57 am on the 25th). They would have had plenty of time to do so as well. Thursby's report on the landing states that the loom of the land could be clearly seen at 2.30 am and, even one hour later, Colonel Johnstone found that he could "just see a faint outline of the coast." Godfrey went further. His memoirs state that he was "conscious of the loom of the land about 3 am", little more than an hour before the landing.

The significance of this degree of visibility was later explained by Hedley Howe, an Australian who landed with the first wave "Throughout the approach to Anzac," he wrote, "until the moon set at 3 am, navigating officers in ships were able to fix their positions at all times by accurate bearings of the land and in view of the large number of ships involved in the manoeuvre, there cannot be the slightest doubt that the commander of every vessel would be continuously occupied in maintenance of his correct station. Precise navigation is not merely a tradition in the navy. It is an obligation rigorously enforced on the commanders of all ships and on their navigation officers ...

Put simply, Howe was saying that the tows were released at a point and in a direction exactly calculated. Since there was virtually no current on the morning of the 25th, any deviation in the tows' course requires explanation. And there was a deviation – or, to be exact, two deviations, both noted by Major James Robertson of the 9th Battalion and others. "The naval people in the pinnaces seemed a bit hazy about the landing spot," Robertson wrote. "They stopped, changed course, and stopped again; and finally, when they were about two chains from the shore, a rifle shot rang out. This was the signal for full steam ahead and land as soon as possible.'' Metcalfe, then a midshipman, was more exact in the chart he sent to the War Memorial in 1973. "My effort was to show there was no error in navigation nor any current," he explained. On that chart he marked two places where the course had been changed, on each occasion by two points or 22.5 degrees.

The journal of Midshipman Dixon records the first change halfway in and Bean later confirmed his assessment when he briefed Lambert for his painting of the landing: "After fifteen minutes, the tows were sailing more or less in a line. They were swung to port by the naval officer in charge." Since the tows set off at 3.30 am and landed around 4.10 am, that change would have been made at 3.45 am, a little less than halfway in. The second change was made just before the tows landed. According to Bush's midshipman's log, it was a shift of two points. Metcalfe judged that the change had been made two hundred yards from shore, while Leane of the 11th Battalion put it at three hundred yards, at the moment when the northernmost tow was Opposite Hell Spit. That was the change of course that sent the tows in a cluster towards the Ari Burnu peninsula, where they landed. The second would have been a visual one because the shore was close and dawn just breaking. But how had the first change been carried out in the dark?

Bean's working papers show him puzzling over the matter for years. The wording of the first reference in his draft, written in 1920, suggests his bewilderment: "The naval men appeared to see far more in the dark than the troops did, for as the land grew closer one after another picked up this movement and swung several hundred yards northward." Three years later, Bean's address to cadets at Duntroon Military Academy, shows that his puzzlement remained. "Naval officers may have been able to see each other's tows but the soldiers could not for a long time." In other words, Bean had still been unable to discover how the first change of course had been made by all tows simultaneously. He was to go on puzzling into old-age, trying to explain why none of the soldiers had been able to tell him much when he interviewed them. Perhaps, he reasoned, "the overpowering strain of suspense (Was the coast defended? Had the Turks seen them?) [had] caused the raw soldiers in the boats to concentrate their thoughts and be less aware than the handful of British sailors who steered the tows".

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/bgrnd.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 11:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sdt August Alfons Goossens, Genie 1è LA, Belgian Army.

Born on 2 August 1893 at Waasmunster (E Flanders). Died of wounds at De Panne-Bredene on 25 April 1915. Originally buried at Bray Dunes (1922), he is now interred at the Belgian Military section of the cemetery at de Panne (plot D grave 189).

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1246-25-april-sdt-august-alfons-goossens.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 11:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth Appleton Diaries - Volume 2 (25 July 1915 to 25 April 1916)

[April] 25th. We have been called for early bkfst – so I must be quick – A convoy came in about
an hour ago. They called some people to go & help receive it. I started scratching my head
yesterday – to think about equipping the new theatre that is to be in my charge – along with
the two hernia wards - & ended by giving the Dispenser a list a yard long – of things to be
getting ready for me. I have had my staff nurse changed three times since I took on this job –
it will be quite useful to know – which one is to be the right one. It is a glorious morning – of
sunshine - & fishing boats – sea dead calm rumour of leave starting – which does not excite me
– because in the next breath it will probably be stopped again – now I must get up.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Vol2/PDF/1916_04April.pdf
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Victoria Cross

The Victoria Cross was - and remains to the present day - the highest British military award for gallantry, awarded for "most conspicuous bravery, a daring or pre-eminent act of valour, self sacrifice or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy".

Established during Queen Victoria's reign in February 1856 some 633 Victoria Crosses (known as the V.C.) were awarded during the First World War. Two of these comprised Bars - that is, an award of a second Victoria Cross to a current holder: to Arthur Martin-Leake in 1914 and Noel Chavasse in 1917 respectively. Of these Chavasse earned both V.C.s during the First World War, although the second was posthumously awarded.

Of the 633 V.C.s awarded during the First World War 187 were issued posthumously to men killed during their act of heroism. Prior to the outbreak of war in 1914 522 V.C.s had been awarded; by contrast just 182 were issued during the Second World War.

There are two instances of the Victoria Cross being awarded to father and son (although never during the same conflict). No woman has ever been awarded the V.C.

In 1921 the Victoria Cross was awarded to America's Unknown Warrior, laid on the tomb in Arlington Cemetery by Admiral Sir David Beatty on Armistice Day 1921.

A recommendation for the V.C. was issued at regimental level and had to be backed by three separate witnesses. From there the recommendation was passed up the military hierarchy until it reached first the Secretary of State for War and then King George V (who personally presented the award). A full 12 V.C.s were awarded for outstanding acts of bravery rendered during the Allied landings at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915.

The obverse of the medal featured the royal crown surmounted by a lion with a ribbon underneath bearing the legend 'For Valour'. The reverse of the medal was engraved with the name of the recipient, together with the name of his regiment and the date of the action for which the award was presented.

The award of a Victoria Cross - each of which was produced by Hancocks and Co of London - was published in the London Gazette, accompanied by the relevant citation.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/atoz/victoriacross.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE 1916 RISING - A baptism of fire - TUESDAY, APRIL 25TH

* Government forces arrive in the city by train overnight from Belfast and the Curragh.
* Machine-gun fire from the roof of the Shelbourne Hotel forces the rebels to leave their positions in St Stephen's Green and withdraw into the College of Surgeons.
* Government troops retake City Hall and the nearby offices of the Daily Express.
* The deranged Capt Bowen-Colthurst arrests three innocent civilians, including the pacifist Francis Sheehy Skeffington, and has them shot the next morning.
* Lord Wimborne declares martial law.
* Zeppelins raid Kent and Essex, and German ships bombard Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth. The British assume (wrongly) that the attacks are being made in support of the Irish rebels.

Martin Walton was just 15, though at 6ft tall he looked older. He had been in the Irish Volunteers for just three weeks. When he got up on Tuesday morning, he found that his parents had taken the valves from the tyres in his bicycle to prevent him from going into the city centre to join the rebels. He convinced them, however, that he had to go to work or risk losing his job. When he got to the GPO, he was told to go to Jacob's factory in Wexford Street. He had hardly ever been south of the Liffey and had to ask directions as he went along.

"When I arrived then at Jacob's the place was surrounded by a howling mob roaring at the Volunteers inside, 'Come out to France and fight, you lot of so-and-so slackers'. And then I started shouting up to the balustrade, 'Let me in, let me in'. And then I remember the first blood I ever saw shed. There was a big, very, very big tall woman with something very heavy in her hand and she came across and lifted up her hand to make a bang at me. One of the Volunteers upstairs saw this and fired and I just remember seeing her face and head disappear as she went down like a sack. That was my baptism of fire, and I remember my knees nearly going out from under me. I would have sold my mother and father and the Pope just to get out of that bloody place."

At around the same time, Patrick Pearse, in the GPO, was writing a report for a republican newssheet to be printed at Liberty Hall: "The Republican forces everywhere are fighting with splendid gallantry. The populace of Dublin are plainly with the Republic, and the officers and men are everywhere cheered as they march through the streets."

Pearse also issued a "Manifesto to the Citizens of Dublin": "The country is rising in answer to Dublin's call and the final achievement of Ireland's freedom is now, with God's help, only a matter of days. . . Irish Regiments in the British army have refused to act against their fellow-countrymen."

OVERNIGHT, THE military authorities had begun to get to grips with the reality of the rebellion and to mount an organised response. Troops, including Brig Gen WHM Lowe, reached the city by train from Belfast and the Curragh during the night, and by 5.20am, the whole Curragh Mobile Column of 1,600 men was in Dublin. Shortly afterwards, it was joined by the 1,000 men of the 25th Irish Reserve Infantry Brigade. By 4.20pm the number of troops available to the authorities had risen to around 3,000 and more were preparing to sail from Britain.

One of the troops rushed by train to Dublin overnight was 18-year-old Edward Casey, a "Cockney Irish" kid from a poor family of Irish exiles in the East End of London. He had joined the Royal Dublin Fusiliers and had already served at Ypres and Salonika. He arrived in Dublin at daybreak. "Marching in columns of fours, we were told by our officers 'This is not war: it's rebellion'. Our Company was detailed to cover the Four Courts. . . My post was lying down behind an iron urinal on the banks of the Liffey, and right opposite the Guinness Brewery. Streets were deserted, although on the way from the station, the crowds of men and women greeted us with raised fists and curses. I noticed a dead horse and a tram car pushed over on its side. . . I was standing behind my iron box when I noticed an old lady walking slowly along the street. When she was in hearing distance, I yelled 'Halt! Who goes there?' 'Oh Jesus, Mary and Joseph!' came the reply. It was amusing but to me very sad. That old lady with her Irish accent reminded me so much of my mother. Leading her by the arm to the shelter of the urinal, I told her she may have to stay a while. Shots were being fired now and again from the big concrete building across the road." (Presumably the Mendicity Institute.)

At daybreak, the government troops in the Shelbourne Hotel opened fire with a machine gun on the rebels in the Green. The thick vegetation saved them from horrific casualties, but their position was untenable and by noon they had withdrawn to the College of Surgeons. James Stephens noticed that "inside the Green railings four bodies could be seen lying on the ground. They were dead Volunteers. Some distance beyond the Shelbourne I saw another Volunteer stretched out on a seat just within the railings. He was not dead, for, now and again, his hand moved feebly in a gesture for aid; the hand was completely red with blood. His face could not be seen. He was just a limp mass, upon which the rain beat pitilessly, and he was sodden and shapeless, and most miserable to see."

INSIDE CITY HALL, Helena Molony and her comrades had been coming under sustained attack from artillery and machine guns since the early hours of the morning. As the troops stormed City Hall, she heard a window smash at the back of the building, "and then we knew they were pouring in. . . A voice said 'Surrender, in the name of the King'. At this point I felt a pluck on my arm and our youngest girl, Annie Norgrove. . . said to me 'Miss Molony, Miss Molony, we are not going to give in? Mr Connolly said we were not to surrender.' She was terrified, but there was no surrender about her."

As the soldiers continued to pour in, however, the defenders were overwhelmed. Helena Molony and her female comrades were the cause of some confusion to the troops. "The British officers thought these girls had been taken prisoner by the rebels. They asked them, 'Did they do anything to you? Were they kind to you? How many are up here? Jinny Shanahan, quick enough, answered: 'No, they did not do anything to us. There are hundreds upstairs - big guns and everything.' She invented such a story that they thought there was a garrison up on the roof, with the result that they did delay and took precautions. It was not until the girls were brought out for safety and, apparently, when they were bringing down some of the men, that one of the lads said, 'Hullo, Jinny, are you all right?' The officer looked at her, angry, the way he was fooled by this girl." Helena Molony and the other women were then led to a dirty barrack room on the Ship Street side of the castle and imprisoned.

In the afternoon, the Daily Express building on Cork Hill, which served as an outpost to the rebel detachment in City Hall, was also stormed by troops. One of the Trinity students who had helped to seal the college off from the insurgents watched in confusion: "We were at the time in ignorance of what was actually happening; for we were possessed with the idea that the Sinn Féiners held the Castle. When, therefore, we saw at the head of Dame Street men in successive waves rush across the street from the City Hall towards the Express offices, we thought they represented the enemy in process of expulsion from the Castle. As a matter of fact the waves of men were composed of the troops. From our position in front of the College we could see that a terrific fire was being directed against the Daily Express building: plaster and powdered brick were flying in showers from its facade. This fire was to cover the advance of our soldiers. But in spite of this we saw, more than once, one of the running figures pitch forward and fall. . . The fight seemed to last a considerable time - about an hour at its greatest intensity - before the firing began to wane."

Even as the authorities were beginning to pick off these rebel detachments, however, Dublin was buzzing with rumours of a vast uprising. Real news was at a premium. The Irish Times appeared on the streets, but its extensive reports of the previous day's events had been suppressed and it carried just two references to the Rising. One was a proclamation from the lord lieutenant, Lord Wimborne, announcing an attempt "to incite rebellion" by "a reckless, though small, body of men" and warning that "the sternest measures" were being taken. The other was a tiny report, containing fewer than 50 words, beginning: "Yesterday morning an insurrectionary rising took place in the city of Dublin."

THE VACUUM WAS filled with rumour. James Stephens "met a wild individual who spat rumour as though his mouth were a machine gun or a Linotype machine. He believed everything he heard; and everything he heard became as by magic favourable to his hopes, which were violently anti-English. . . He said the Germans had landed in three places. One of these landings alone consisted of 15,000 men. The other landings probably beat that figure. The whole city of Cork was in the hands of the Volunteers, and, to that extent, might be said to be peaceful. German warships had defeated the English, and their transports were speeding from every side. The whole country was up, and the garrison was out-numbered by 100 to one. Those Dublin barracks which had not been taken were now besieged and on the point of surrender."

O'Connell Street, where there was only sporadic shooting, was still a surreal site.

Francis Sheehy Skeffington had printed leaflets condemning looting and asking for volunteers for a civic police force, but his efforts were unavailing. People were selling looted diamond rings and gold watches for sixpence or a shilling.

Ernie O'Malley watched as "Kiddies carried golf bags and acted as caddies as young gentlemen in bright football jerseys and tall hats, who hit golf balls with their clubs, or indeed anything else". A young girl passed him with a fan in her hand and a gold bracelet on her wrist. "She wore a sable fur coat, the pockets overhung with stockings and pale pink drawers: on her head was a wide black hat to which she had pinned streamers of blue silk ribbon. She strutted in larkish delight calling to others less splendid: 'How do yez like me now?'"

At 4.10pm, Eamon Bulfin on the roof of the GPO, watched as children looted a photography and toy shop, Lawrence's, and came out with a large quantity of fireworks. They "made a huge pile of them in the middle of O'Connell Street, and set fire to them. That is one thing that will stick in my mind forever. We had our bombs on top of the Post Office, and these fireworks were shooting up in the sky. We were very nervous. There were Catherine wheels going up O'Connell Street and Catherine wheels coming down O'Connell Street." The looters then set Lawrence's on fire.

Thomas Walsh and his brother Jim, who had both been with Eamon de Valera in Boland's Mill, were sent to reinforce the small garrison at Clanwilliam House, overlooking Mount Street Bridge. After dark, when Thomas was about to leave one of the rooms in the house, "I saw what I thought was a man hiding, and I called 'Hands up' twice. On the third challenge I still got no reply and switched on the torch. You can imagine my surprise at finding it to be a dressmaker's model!"

But the mad carnival of the streets and the comedy of mistaken identity could turn deadly at any moment. During the evening, one of Capt Gerrard's sentries at Beggar's Bush approached him. "'I beg you pardon, Sir, I have just shot two girls.' I said 'What on earth did you do that for?' He said 'I thought they were rebels. I was told they were dressed in all classes of attire.' At a range of about 200 yards I saw two girls - about twenty - lying dead."

http://www.irishtimes.com/focus/easterrising/tuesday/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lowestoft Raid, 25 April 1916

The Lowestoft Raid of 25 April 1916 saw elements of the German High Seas Fleet bombard the east coast port of Lowestoft and threaten Yarmouth. The Germans took advantage of the distribution of the British fleet, which saw the battleships of the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow and the battle cruisers at Rosyth. Weaker British squadrons were based further south, but only Commodore Tyrwhitt at Harwich would be able to respond in time to make contact with the Germans.

The main aim of the German sortie was to support the Easter Uprising, which broke out on 24 April. On the same day the German High Seas fleet came out. The German force contained 22 capital ships (battleships and battlecruisers), 5 older battleships, 12 light cruisers and 48 destroyers under the command of Admiral Scheer. The actual raiding force was made up of the 1st Scouting Group (four battlecruisers), the 2nd Scouting Group (four cruisers) and two fast destroyer flotillas led by cruisers all under Admiral Boedicker. The Germans allowed 30 minutes for the bombardment, before the battle cruisers would have to retire.

The High Seas Fleet came out to sea on 24 April. The plan was for it to sail along the Frisian coast, passing south of the German mine barrage, then turn north to pass the British minefield north of the Dutch coast. At this point Admiral Boedicker’s flagship, the battlecruiser Seydlitz, struck a mine, and Boedicker was forced to transfer to the Lützow. This delayed the fleet, and gave the British more time to respond, but despite their best efforts the Grand Fleet did not get out until the evening of 24 April.

The only effective British response came from Commodore Tyrwhitt’s 5th Light Cruiser Squadron (HMS Conquest, HMS Cleopatra and HMS Penelope), supported by two destroyer flotillas, one led by the Lightfoot and one by the Nimrod. At first it was unclear what the German target was – a particually alarming possibility was that they might try to break into the Downs, where a hundred merchant ships were waiting to enter the Port of London. Once Tyrwhitt was at sea it became more obvious where the Germans were heading, and so he turned north to protect the British bases at Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth.

At 3.50 am on the morning of 25 April Tyrwhitt sighted the German strike force – four battlecruisers, six light cruisers and their destroyers. Despite being massively outgunned, he attempted to divert them from their target by pretending to flee south. The German light cruisers turned towards him, but only for a few moments before turning back towards Lowestoft.

At 4.10 the German battlecruisers opened fire with their 12in guns. In ten minutes they wrecked 200 houses, although luckily with causing a large number of casualties. They then turned north towards Great Yarmouth. Three British submarines were in the vicinity, and one submerged to make an attack. This appears to have been enough to discourage the Germans, for at 4.23 the light cruisers turned back to the south east.

At 4.30 Tyrwhitt sighted the light cruisers, and opened fire at 14,000 yards, without success. The German battlecruisers turned south to come to the support of their light cruisers at 4.40 am, and were sighted by Tyrwhitt at 4.45 am, ten miles to the north. Tyrwhitt now turned south in earnest, but still came under heavy and accurate fire from the battlecruisers. HMS Conquest was hit on the superstructure by a 12in salvo, suffering 38 casualties (25 dead and 13 wounded), but was able to maintain her speed. The Laertes was also hit in the thirteen minute attack, suffering five wounded.

After engaging the British cruisers for thirteen minutes, the German battlecruisers turned away, to rejoin the High Seas Fleet off Terschelling. At this point Beatty’s battlecruisers were still some six hours away, steaming south at high speed.

Tyrwhitt turned back and attempted to catch the German fleet once again, hoping to get a chance to pick off any outlying ships, but at 8.40 the Admiralty called off the chase. At 12.30pm Beatty also turned back, and by that evening the Grand Fleet was back in its base.

The Lowestoft raid improved the morale of the German fleet, and may have played a part in delaying the start of the unrestricted submarine campaign. The Lowestoft raid was typical of an increasingly bold attitude on the part of Scheer and the High Seas Fleet that would eventually result in the battle of Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916).

In Britain it caused shock, but not panic. Balfour wrote to the Mayors of Lowestoft and Yarmouth reassuring them that the fleet would be redistributed to prevent a repeat raid. Enough new dreadnaughts had been completed since the start of the war to allow this. The Third Battle Squadron, reinforced by HMS Dreadnaught and the Third Cruiser Squadron were moved to Sheerness, arriving on 2 May. There they came under the command of Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Bradford.

Rickard, J (18 September 2007), Lowestoft Raid, 25 April 1916 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_lowestoft_raid.html
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Duitse_slagkruisers_beschieten_Lowestoft_en_Yarmouth_(1916)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Manifesto to the Citizens of Dublin, 25 April, 1916

THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT To The CITIZENS OF DUBLIN

The Provisional Government of the Irish Republic salutes the Citizens of Dublin on the momentous occasion of the proclamation of a SOVEREIGN INDEPENDENT IRISH STATE, now in course of being established by Irishmen in arms.

The Republican forces hold the lines taken up at twelve noon on Easter Monday, and nowhere, despite fierce and almost continuous attacks of the British troops, have the lines been broken through. The country is rising in answer to Dublin’s call, and the final achievement of Ireland’s freedom is now, with God’s help, only a matter of days. The valour, self-sacrifice and discipline of Irish men and women are about to win for our country a glorious place among the nations.

Ireland’s honour has already been redeemed; it remains to vindicate her wisdom and her self-control. All citizens of Dublin who believe in the right of their country to be free will give their allegiance and their loyal help to the Irish Republic. There is work for everyone: for the men in the fighting line, and for the women in the provision of food and first aid. Every Irishman and Irishwoman worthy of the name will come forward to help their common country in this her supreme hour. Able-bodied citizens can help by building barricades in the streets to oppose the advance of the British troops. The British troops have been firing on our women and on our Red Cross. On the other hand, Irish Regiments in the British Army have refused to act against their fellow-countrymen.

The Provisional Government hopes that its supporters which means the vast bulk of the people of Dublin—will preserve order and self-restraint. Such looting as has already occurred has been done by hangers-on of the British Army. Ireland must keep her new honour unsmirched. We have lived to see an Irish Republic proclaimed. May we live to establish it firmly, and may our children and our children’s children enjoy the happiness and prosperity which freedom will bring.

Signed on behalf of the Provisional Government, P. H. PEARSE,

Commanding in Chief of the Forces of the Irish Republic, and President of the Provisional Government.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Manifesto_to_the_Citizens_of_Dublin,_25_April,_1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

An Ulster Unionist view of the 1916 Rising

Letter from A. Duffin, 9 Waring Street, Belfast, to his daughter, Dorothy, in London, 25 April 1916,giving his first reactions to news of the outbreak of the Easter rising - some words have been erased or censored

"Dearest Dorothy - We are having a little rebellion here just by way of a change. You may have seen or perhapsheard in the Admiralty that we have sunk a German Auxiliary Cruiser off the West Irish coast carrying armsand Sir Roger Casement, but you probably have not heard as it is not published here yet that the IrishVolunteers (Sinn Fein) have risen in their might in Dublin [and] have taken the G.P.O.
[words erased]
areentrenched in Stephens Green. Rumour says they have sacked the Bank of Ireland but that is not confirmed.The L[or]d. L[ieutenan]t. was to have been here at 6 oc[lock] yesterday but did not arrive and it turned out
[words erased]
the wires all cut. A wireless got through via Larne and gave the news.Troops went up from here last night and more are coming from
[word erased].
I hear they have commandeered all the Motor Cars coming back from Fairyhouse races and detained theowners as hostages! I hope they have got hold of Birrell.Isn’t it all like a comic opera founded on the Wolf
[sic]
Tone fiasco a hundred years ago?I am only afraid of
[words erased]
and isolated Protestants in out of the way places being murdered.Otherwise it is good business its having come to a head, & I hope we shall deal thoroughly with these pests."

http://www.scribd.com/doc/491081/Ireland-From-Rising-to-Partition-191621
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arras April 1917- Continued operations

Whilst not always completed immediately an admission and discharge book [A&D book] was kept for each field ambulance, showing the nature [and numbers] of casualties passing though the unit.[8] The A&D book of the 51st Field Ambulance still exists, it shows a surprising amount of men attending the ADS sick, with most being evacuated. Concern to keep the ADS clear dictated the swift evacuation of the sick, but was reliant on a vigorous filtration at unit level by the RMO. The A&D book covering 24-25 April 1917 has 90 admissions. Of these 12 were sick, all of whom are evacuated. A further two had suffered soft tissue injuries and were also evacuated, in this case to the Corps Rest Station. Of the 76 injured most [61] were gunshot wounds, the majority [26] being to the limbs.[9]In this period there were four deaths in the ADS; two from abdominal injuries, a situation the field ambulance was not adequately equipped for; one a double traumatic amputation; the last being shrapnel wounds to the thigh. The field ambulance's pragmatic approach to triage and casualty assessment at forward posts coupled with the careful work to counter shock had resulted in a low mortality rate at medical facilities.

http://alihollington.typepad.com/historic_battlefields/2009/11/arras-april-1917-continued-operations.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilfred Owen: Letters

25 April 1917 - A Coy., My Cellar

My own dearest Mother,

Immediately after I sent my last letter, more than a fortnight ago, we were rushed up into the Line. Twice in one day we went over the top, gaining both our objectives. Our A Company led the Attack, and of course lost a certain number of men. I had some extraordinary escapes from shells & bullets. Fortunately there was no bayonet work, since the Hun ran before we got up to his trench. You will find mention of our fight in the Communiqué; the place happens to be the very village which Father named in his last letter! Never before has the Battalion encountered such intense shelling as rained on us as we advanced in the open. The Colonel sent round this message the next day: 'I was filled with admiration at the conduct of the Battalion under the heavy shell-fire.... The leadership of officers was excellent, and the conduct of the men beyond praise.' The reward we got for all this was to remain in the Line 12 days. For twelve days I did not wash my face, nor take off my boots, nor sleep a deep sleep. For twelve days we lay in holes, where at any moment a shell might put us out. I think the worst incident was one wet night when we lay up against a railwav embankment. A big shell lit on the top of the bank, just 2 yards from my head. Before I awoke, I was blown in the air right away from the bank! I passed most of the following days in a railway Cutting, in a hole just big enough to lie in, and covered with corrugated iron. My brother officer of B Coy., 2/Lt. Gaukroger lay opposite in a similar hole. But he was covered with earth, and no relief will ever relieve him, nor will his Rest be a 9 days' Rest. I think that the terribly long time we stayed unrelieved was unavoidable; yet it makes us feel bitterly towards those in England who might relieve us, and will not.

We are now doing what is called a Rest, but we rise at 6.15 and work without break until about 10p.m. for there is always a Pow- Wow for officers after dinner. And if I have not written yesterday, it is because I must have kept hundreds of letters uncensored, and enquiries about Missing Men unanswered [remainder missing]

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/education/tutorials/intro/owen/letters.html
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1918)

25 april 1918 - “Stuivekenskerke. Tusschen 24 en 25 april begon den Duitsch om middernacht hevig de voorposten te beschieten met granaten, bommen, obussen, gaasch, al wat hij bezat. Korts na half een kwam er eene jongen van de voorpost geloopen welke van de gaasch gepakt was. En zegde dat Luitenant Theeuwen zwaar gekwetsts lag. Spoedig was Aalmoezenier Louis Mertens weg en liep door de gaasch en het geschut naar den voorpost om den zwaargewonde nog te zien, doch die had bijna opgehouden met leven. Rond half vier kwamen er veel soldaten van de voorposten, allemaal gepakt van de gaasch waaronder nogal die er veel van hadden en seffens naar het gasthuis moesten.” (Uit het dagboek van Fonske Versmissen)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=191:09-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1918&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 April 1918, Commons Sitting

CIGARETTES.


HC Deb 25 April 1918 vol 105 cc1101-2 1102

Sir BERTRAM FALLE asked the President of the Board of Trade if he is aware that there are quantities of Turkish and Egyptian cigarettes for sale in this country notwithstanding that we are in the fourth year of the War; and if he can say where all this tobacco comes from, if from heavy stocks or what other source?

Mr. WARDLE There is a small and rapidly diminishing quantity of pure Turkish and Egyptian cigarettes being manufactured in this country from stocks imported prior to the outbreak of war. The majority of so-called Turkish and Egyptian cigarettes arc made largely from a similar type of tobacco grown in Greece, Cyprus, Nyassaland, China, and Japan.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/apr/25/cigarettes
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 12:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Lys, 9-29 April 1918

(...) On 25 April the Germans achieved their last major successes of the battle, capturing Mount Kemmel. A final attack on 29 April captured another high point, the Scherpenberg, but the general progress of the attack on 29 April convinced Ludendorff to call off the offensive.

Both sides suffered heavy losses during the battle of the Lys. The Germans lost 120,000 of the 800,000 men engaged in the battle, while British and French losses had been on the same scale. Once again Ludendorff had failed to achieve his main target. In some respects the main impact of the battle of the Lys came after the war. The only significant achievement of the dreadful fighting during the third battle of Ypres (1917) was the seizure of Passchendaele Ridge. Now in twenty days everything gained in 1917 had been lost. The fighting on the Lys in 1918 made the fighting around Ypres in 1917 look even more futile. Ironically the fighting of 1918, despite causing a short term crisis, caused critical damage to the German army, and helped to prepare the way for the great Allied counterattacks of the last hundred days of the war.

Lees verder op http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_lys.html
Zie ook http://www.webmatters.net/belgium/ww1_lys_4.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Apr 2010 13:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Vrijdag 25 April 1919.

Valkenswaard. Gisterennacht tusschen 12 en 1 uur werd bij den landbouwer Neijnens alhier ingebroken. Een der huisgenooten door het geloei van vee wakker geworden, ging terstond op onderzoek uit. De dieven, gerucht hoorende, kozen het hazenpad, stal en schuurdeuren openlatend.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gone But Not Forgotten:

They say there's no such thing as the perfect murder, but practically every day of the year someone is killed and their killer remains at large. This section of the archive is dedicated to the victims of the UK's unsolved murders of the 20th century...

April 25th 1914: Frances Alice Quayle – Douglas
She was six feet tall and well able to take care of herself, she used to say to friends. Shopkeeper Frances Alice Quayle said it again on the night of Saturday, April 25th, 1914, as she bade good evening to a neighbour in the garden of her home in Bucks Road, Douglas, Isle of Man.
“There are a lot of tramps around at night at this hour,” the neighbour cautioned her. “Matter of fact, I saw one hanging around here only minutes ago.” Frances, 56, and a widow for 30 years, just laughed and went down the garden to feed her rabbits.
Next morning another neighbour found her body lying in front of the rabbit hutch. Her skull was fractured back and front, and the rabbit food was scattered on the ground around her.
The murder weapon was found after several days’ searching. It was a large eye-bolt used for tightening wire supports on telephone poles. It was badly bloodstained and carried traces of Mrs. Quayle’s hair, but the man who wielded it so savagely vanished without trace.

http://www.truecrimelibrary.com/crime_series_show.php?series_number=11&id=1321
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Larne Gun-Running: Report from The Belfast Evening Telegraph, April 25th, 1914

AMAZING NIGHT AT LARNE.

WHOLESALE GUN-RUNNING.

THOUSANDS OF RIFLES LANDED.

THREE-AND-A-HALF MILLION CARTRIDGES.

MOTORS FROM FAR AND NEAR.

AN ASTOUNDING ACHIEVEMENT.

(Special to "Telegraph.")


The night of Friday, 24th April, 1914, is a date which will find a permanent place on the page of history. On it there were enacted happenings for which Great Britain's long and chequered story affords no parallel. However prosaically the record may be set down, it will send a thrill of amazement through every man and woman who reads the simple matter of fact account of what actually took place.

On Friday night there were landed at Larne within a few hours 40,000 rifles and nearly three and a half million rounds of ammunition. There was no rush or bustle in the doing of it. It was accomplished with celerity, yet without fuss or splutter, because it was done in pursuance of a well-formed plan, executed as perfectly as it had been preconceived. Thousands unconsciously played a part in it, though only a few hundreds were directly and immediately concerned in the actual work, or were cognisant of what was in progress. All the arms were landed at Larne Harbour, and a vast transport of hundreds of motor cars, lorries, and waggons drawn from their various centres came to the town. So exactly had this mobilisation been arranged that these hundreds of motors reached the assembly point at an identical moment. It was an amazing sight to see this huge procession of cars nearly three miles in length descending upon the town with all their headlights ablaze.

The people flocked to their doors as the seemingly endless procession filed past in the direction of the harbour.

MILES OF PICKETS.

Meanwhile strange events were happening on all the highways leading to the town. Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force had been notified that they were immediately to repair to stated points to discharge such duties as might there be allotted to them. A like order had been issued to the local companies stretching from Larne away to the north, to the west and to the south. The result was that by eight o'clock, right from Belfast to Larne the whole coast road was under close patrol by strong bodies of pickets posted at intervals of a few perches. The roads leading to Glenarm, Ballyclare, Ballymena, &c, were similarly manned, and everything was in readiness for beginning operations. In Belfast itself and in all the neighbouring towns every battalion of every regiment mobilised in like fashion, and the public began to dimly suspect that something stirring was afoot, though what it really was they never imagined. Very few of the public or of the Volunteers had any idea of the actual business in hand, for that secret was well kept and confined to a few.

THE "MOUNTJOY" ARRIVES.

In the neighbourhood of Larne Harbour and throughout the streets of the town strong bodies of men wearing armlets stood in line silent as soldiers on parade, while officers moved about and conversed in low tones. At nine o'clock the throb of an approaching steamer's engines could be heard coming up the Lough; then masthead lights were discernible, and presently the grey, gaunt outline of the "mystery ship" took definite shape. In a few minutes she was alongside the landing stage and made fast to her moorings. A. little earlier Larne had been cut off from the outside world in so far as telegraphic or telephonic communication was concerned. At the same moment of time, ingoing and outgoing vehicular traffic was brought to a standstill, and only motors whose drivers possessed a pass indicating that they were concerned in the business on hand were allowed to pass through the strong line of pickets drawn like a ring fence around Larne. Cordons blocked the road and vehicles, for which a permit could not be produced, were politely but absolutely held up, and their detention notified to the proper quarter for further instructions. It was a bewildering experience to find one's path barred by a score of men leaping into the glare of an advancing car's headlights, to the accompaniment of a mandatory shout of "halt." A few short, sharp interrogations followed, and as those held up were almost invariably sympathetic, there was prompt and implicit compliance with any request made. Cars duly fiated sped through and took their places in the line that ultimately swung into the dock yard to receive their consignments, and speed off into the silence and blackness of the night.

SOME STRENUOUS WORK.

The "mystery ship," it was noticed bore on her bows the name "Mountjoy"óno doubt, readers of Derry's history will draw their own parallel. As she came alongside the lines of men in waiting on shore were divided up, part being assigned to sentry duty at the gate approaches; while others were quickly aboard. No one was permitted to enter the gates upon any pretext unless engaged in the task that was being tackled. Hardly had the hatches been removed before bands of great sturdy fellows stripped to their shirts and pants plunged into the vitals of the ship to join the crew in getting her cargo ashore.

The rifles had been carefully packed, five to each case, with ammunition and bayonets to suit, and the chains sang in the runners as they shot down into the hold to reappear in a few seconds embracing weighty parcels of rifles and ammunition. Volunteer clerks checked those oft one by one with amazing rapidity, and as fast as packages were checked they were seized by strong hands and dumped into the carsóthe load of one large lorry numbered 700 rifles. As each car received its complement, the driver accelerated his engine, let in his clutch, and slipped away in a cloud of smoke; while another moved into the vacant space and thus the work went on hour after hour without a pause.

Simultaneously transhipment was being carried on. The "Mountjoy" was only a few minutes berthed when another ship crept into the circle of the harbour lights and took up position alongside the floating arsenal. The cranes whirred and buzzed as they swung thousands of rifles over the side to the newcomer, which later on slipped swiftly and silently away to her appointed destination, and her position was taken up by a third, which was expeditiously loaded and despatched in the same fashion. Meantime the line of cars steadily melted down, and some were already well on their homeward journey. Such as had shorter distances to cover returned and made other trips, and so the work went on at express speed and without rest or pause. As one batch of perspiring stevedores tired a fresh batch relieved them. All "put their backs into it" in a way that well illustrated the old adage, "One Volunteer is worth three pressed men." They toiled like galley slaves.

NO SLEEP FOR LARNE.

In the town itself hardly a single person went to sleep. The town lamps, save those at corners, are always extinguished, but on Friday night every lamp blazed until daylight, and many a hearty good wish was: shouted to cars heading for the open road. Nearly every house had its windows alight, and the women and children lined the footpaths, exchanging salutations with neighbours, and proud of the fact that husbands or brothers were lending their best aid* to complete the business of the night. The race against time prospered, and just as the first faint streaks of the coming dawn crept over the horizon the last band of tired, but well-pleased, "stevedores" came ashore, leaving the "Mountjoy" empty. Her moorings were cast off, and in ten minutes she had passed into the melting shadows. It was an amazing piece of work, perfectly executed. The frank boldness of it leaves one almost breathless. There was no vacillation or timidity about it. Every man engaged knew perfectly well what he was about. The hazards simply mattered less than nothing. The plans seemed to have been contrived so as to prevent or to checkmate interference if it had been attempted. The very boldness of the scheme contributed to its success, and everything worked out with perfect smoothness.

AUTHORITIES POWERLESS.

The authorities might as well have been in Timbuctoo in so far as knowledge or interference was concerned. The local forces, in any case, would have had no more effect in dealing with the situation than so many flies. They probably realised in the course of the night that some very big scheme was in full swing, for the whole town knew it by midnight, but it was impossible to do anything for the reasons already mentioned. The Excise officers were equally helpless. Some of them, it is stated, were in fact enjoying a performance of amateur theatricals when word was brought to them that the proclamation against the importation of arms, the enforcement of which is their business, was being violated wholesale. It is stated that some of them did make an effort to reach the harbour, but they quickly realised that they were "up against it," and it is alleged, in obedience to a pointed, suggestion, refrained from an attempt at the utterly impossible. Police and Excisemen combined would have been at most a couple of dozen men against an army.

As the "Mountjoy" drew away from Larne Harbour her skipper and crew stood to attention, and made the welkin ring with three lusty cheers for "The King" and three more for "The Volunteers," which were heartily responded to by those on ashore.

http://www.libraryireland.com/articles/UVF/Larne-Gun-Running-1.php
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oldest Message in a Bottle

WHAT: 92 years 229 days
WHERE: Shetland, UK
WHEN: December 10, 2006

The oldest message in a bottle spent 92 years 229 days at sea. A bottom drift bottle, numbered 423B, was released at 60º 50'N 00º 38'W on 25 April 1914 and recovered by fisherman, Mark Anderson of Bixter, Shetland, UK, at 60º 50'N 00º 37'W on December 10, 2006.

http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records/modern_society/people_and_places/oldest_message_in_a_bottle.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac, the landing 1915 by George Lambert

The painting depicts the Australian soldiers of the covering force (3rd Infantry Brigade) climbing the seaward slope of Plugge's Plateau which overlooks the northern end of Anzac Cove. The view is to the north, towards the main range. The yellow pinnacle is "The Sphinx" and beyond is Walker's Ridge which leads to Russell's Top. The white bag that each soldier is carrying contains two days of rations which were issued specially for the landing.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anzac,_the_landing_1915.jpg

Foto's: http://www.flickr.com/photos/australian-war-memorial/sets/72157617151327132/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Campaign: Initial Landing, 25 April 1915 and Turkish Dispositions.

http://www.historyofwar.org/Maps/maps_gallipoli2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Adams Brothers - 8th Battalion AIF -kia 25th April 1915
Extract from the book "ANZAC - THE LANDING" Pen & Sword Ltd 2008

Two brothers from Mildura in Victoria also became casualties during the first day of the landing; Privates Frederick James Adams and Private Edgar Robert Colbeck Adams. Fred was born in Yorkshire, England and with his family immigrated to Australia when he was two. His young brother Edgar was born at Mildura. Fred became a fruit grower and his brother was about to enter the field of surveying and engineering when the war broke out. Joining 8/AIF in 1914 they were soon on their way to Egypt for training.

Private Fred Adam, 868, was killed on 25 April 1915 and was buried in Artillery Road West Cemetery (now lies in Shell Green Cemetery). He was 25 years old. In Ron Austin’s battalion history Cobbers in Khaki veteran Bill Groves of C Company remembers Fred: The shooting started and we got caught in the crossfire....[the battalion was then given orders to dig in] I was on the shovel and a fellow named Fred Adams was on the pick. He got shot through the forehead and he died instantly."

His 18 year old younger brother, Private Edgar Adams, 1127, was captured on 25 April 1915 and died whilst a Turkish prisoner of war. The circumstances around how he met his death are unknown, and it wasn’t until November 1915 that anyone knew he was a prisoner. Originally posted missing after the landing his fate was unknown until a member of 9/AIF found a bottle on 1 November washed up on Montaza Beach near Alexandria in Egypt. The bottle contained a message that read: "Am prisoner about 2 miles from where we landed between the dried lake and the other - E.R.C. Adams 8 AIF."

If Adams was held as a prisoner he did not appear on any of the POW lists provided by authorities, although we know today that these lists are inaccurate. The message is today preserved by the AWM. Edgar is commemorated on the Lone Pine Memorial and his date of death put on or about 25 April 1915.

Fellow Victorian, Private Fred Symonds, 5/AIF mentioned in his diary entry for 20 May 1915 remarks: Heard the other day that Fred and Rolun Adams, of Mildura, whom I know well, were killed and missing respectively since the first Sunday, so looks like both dead. Terribly hard for their parents, as they are the only two boys in the family. I feel set up over it, as they were such decent chaps."

http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=180766336685&topic=43599
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sergeant Edward Larkin, No 321

During the Gallipoli campaign 8,709 Australians were killed. One of the casualties was Sergeant Edward Larkin, No 321. Sgt Larkin was killed in action on 25th April 1915.

Prior to enlisting Edward Larkin was the Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Willoughby in the New South Wales Parliament. Previously he been a policeman but had resigned from the police force to become the first secretary of the New South Wales Rugby League from 1909 until 1913. As a youth he had represented New South Wales and Australia in rugby union.

Private Edward LARKIN, No 321, enlisted on 17th August 1914 in the 1st Battalion AIF and was promoted to sergeant on 22nd August. He embarked aboard the Afric on 18th October 1914. Sergeant Larkin was popular with the men of the AIF and regarded as a ‘good sport’. Private Cavill in his book Imperishable Anzacs remembers him attending a Sports Day in Mena, Egypt in March 1915, preparing for a donkey race. ‘Sergeant (Teddie) Larkin, M.P., was trotting about the ground with a bunch of lucerne, suspended on his stick in front of the donkey’s nose’.

Sergeant Larkin’s actions during 25th April 1915, Gallipoli landing were recorded in official army records as having performed ‘acts of conspicuous gallantry and valuable service, which testified to his devotion to duty towards King and Country’. Private Cavill in Imperishable Anzacs also remembers him as a hero: ‘Wounded and dying he lay, yet when the stretcher bearers came to carry him in, he waved them on, saying ‘There’s plenty worse than me out there.’ Later they found him – dead.’

http://fffaif.org.au/?p=8363
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Boats carrying troops to shore, 25 April 1915

Gallipoli, Anzac Beach, 25 April 1915
Boats carrying troops to shore on the morning of the Anzac Cove landing. General Bridges is in foreground.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/australian-war-memorial/3461455575/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ANZAC medal, dated 25 April 1915, the date the ANZAC forces first landed at Gallipoli.



http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/53049/medal-anzac-25-april-1915-australia-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stop Press! Statement, 25 April, 1916 by Patrick Pearse
The Article was published in the Irish War News, on Tuesday, April 25, 1916.

The Irish Republic was proclaimed in Dublin on Easter Monday, 24th April, at 12 noon. Simultaneously with the issue of the proclamation of the Provisional Government the Dublin division of the Army of the Republic, including the Irish Volunteers, Citizen Army, Hibernian Rifles, and other bodies, occupied dominating points in the city. The G.P.O. was seized at 12 noon, the Castle was attacked at the same moment, and shortly afterwards the Four Courts were occupied. The Irish troops hold the City Hall and dominate the Castle. Attacks were immediately commenced by the British forces, and were everywhere repulsed. At the moment of writing this report (9.30 am. Tuesday) the Republican forces hold all their positions and the British forces have nowhere broken through. There has been heavy and continuous fighting for nearly 48 hours, the casualties of the enemy being much more numerous than those on the Republican side. The Republican forces everywhere are fighting with splendid gallantry. The populace of Dublin are plainly with the Republic, and the officers and men are everywhere cheered as they march through the Street. The whole centre of the city is in the hands of the Republic, whose flag flies from the G.P.O.

Commandant General P. H. Pearce is Commanding in Chief of the Army of the Republic and is President of the Provisional Government.

Commandant General James Connolly is commanding the Dublin districts. Communication with the country is largely cut, but reports to hand show that the country is rising, and bodies of men from Kildare and Fingal have already reported in Dublin.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Stop_Press!_Statement,_25_April,_1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

London Times 25 April 1916

The following is a transcript of an item that appeared in the London Times on 25 April 1916. The village of Harefield in Middlesex was the site of a
large ANZAC hospital and thel churchyard contains in excess of 100 ANZAC graves

Colin Harris - Yeading, Middlesex, England

FOR AN IDEAL - THE VILLAGE FUNERAL OF A FALLEN ANZAC
(From a Correspondent)

Two long lines of blue figures moved with slow tread behind the hearse, showing that free-swinging movement peculiar to the Australian troops. But some were on crutches, and some moved with a cruel limp, yet marching bravely nevertheless - a relic of the first splendid fighting force who had gone forth from Australia and landed a year ago on that rocky peninsula.

Behind the row of wounded came the staff of the hospital in khaki and bringing up the rear hurried the village of Harefield - shaky
perambulators being whisked along, cyclists, old women bobbing as they went, mill girls in gay hats, and last of all some lumbering farm carts. To which, if either stopped to think, must this spectacle have seemed more strange - to the villagers, these tall heroes of Australia, seemingly at home in their typical English village? Or to these men, this funeral in English surroundings amidst English village people? But the war has brought stranger things to pass than this spectacle. Nothing seems impossible now and even an Australian soldier's death in a quiet English village is accepted as natural.

Through the village the cortege moved, headed by a military band; past the Elizabethan almshouses, looking out so cosily to the western sun. It
passed on down to the old church, which lies in a hollow between green meadows and tall elm trees now touched with a film of greyish green. Such a glorious April afternoon as it was! The fruit blossom in a neighbouring field smiled in the sunshine after the last heavy shower. There was a feeling of spring warmth - spring loveliness over everything.

As the procession moved on through the meadow up to the old church it
looked like some cleverly arranged pageant - some historical drama re-acted. The priest, his white surplice blown in the wind, coming forward to receive the coffin borne on the shoulders of four stlwart Australians - his return to the church at the head of the procession; the blending of the khaki figures against the khaki shade of plaster on the church tower; the blue of the wounded and the red and grey of the sisters - all seemed unreal.

Then the quiet words in the church, and the moment of anxiety when the
coffin was again lifted, a little waveringly out of the dim interior into
the laughng sunshine without. Even when the coffin was laid in the earth,
and the rifles rang out once - twice - thrice - it was difficult to realize what it all meant. Then the bugle sounded the Last Post. The notes rose clear, hopeful, on the still air. They struck a chord between the scene here in this English country churchyard and the country over the seas. One felt that these notes, dying away on the spring air , would re-echo far off, over there, in Australia. They answered the question why these men standing round with bare heads were here, in this English churchyard, and not in distant Australia. They explained why this young soldier was being laid to rest in the brown soil miles away from the land which had given
him birth. These men were here because of an ideal; and for it they had given up their homes, their health, their lives.

For these men had heard that England, the country few of them had seen,
yet for which all had an instinctive love, was in danger. And so they had come from the other end of the world , and this man was being laid to rest on this fair April afternoon in a quiet English churchyard, in the very soil, and among the very things for which he had died.

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/AUS-VIC/2004-04/1082871521
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NZ's first Anzac cross to get historic listing


Tinui ANZAC Memorial Cross, 25 April 1916

One of New Zealand's earliest memorials to Anzac Day could receive the Historic Places Trust's highest recognition.

The Tinui Memorial Cross in the Wairarapa was one of the first places in New Zealand where locals gathered to commemorate the inaugural Anzac Day on April 25, 1916.

The trust proposes that the site is listed as a Category I historic place - Category I status is given to places of "special or outstanding historical or cultural heritage significance or value".

The memorial cross is on private farmland overlooking Tinui, about 50km northeast of Masterton.

"The Tinui Anzac Memorial Cross site is a dramatically solemn place. That has been reflected in the community erecting the cross to mark its respect for those involved in the Gallipoli campaign, the determination to continue the tradition when the cross needed replacing nearly 50 years later and the yearly pilgrimage to commemorate each Anzac Day," trust historian Karen Astwood said.

The cross was originally constructed from timber but was replaced with an aluminium equivalent in 1965.

http://www.3news.co.nz/NZs-first-Anzac-cross-to-get-historic-listing/tabid/423/articleID/194616/Default.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac Day at Petone Railway Station, 25 April 1916.



http://www.rsa.org.nz/remem/anzac_hist.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Telegram: Died of Wounds

Telegram sent sent to William Binning's family reportingthat he had dies of wounds.
2nd Lieutenant William B. Binning (1896 - 1916), Scottish Rifles 9th Div. Machine Gun Corps, 28th Bn.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/8541?CISOBOX=1&REC=1
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac Day 2011

This 'Anzac Day Kit' has been compiled over a number of years by various staff members of the Parliamentary Library, and is updated annually.

Mooie PDF, met véél doorklikmogelijkheden... http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/anzac/anzac2011.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bombardment of Lowestoft 1916

Foto's op http://www.lowestoftonline.com/community/index.php?topic=16745.0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pfalz E.I, 25 April 1916

http://www.flickr.com/photos/drakegoodman/3027804865/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac Day, 25 April 1917, Belubula School
From the collection of the State Library of New South Wales

http://www.flickr.com/photos/statelibraryofnsw/3406396190/

Meer foto's over Anzac Day: http://www.flickr.com/photos/statelibraryofnsw/sets/72157616245472296/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 21:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

English Channel, England. 25 April 1917. The escorting destroyer HMS Phoenix coming alongside Troopship Ballarat after the troopship had been torpedoed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HMS_Phoenix_%26_troopship_Ballarat_1917_AWM_H13735.jpeg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Richthofen: "Der rote Kampfflieger"

Kapitel 42 - Das Anti-Richthofen-Geschwader (25. April 1917)

Die Engländer hatten sich einen famosen Witz ausgedacht, nämlich mich zu fangen oder abzuschießen. Zu diesem Zwecke hatten sie tatsächlich ein besonderes Geschwader aufgestellt, das in dem Raum flog, in dem wir uns meistens ’rumtrieben. Wir erkannten es daran, daß es hauptsächlich gegen unsere roten Flugzeuge offensiv wurde.

Ich muß bemerken, daß wir unsere ganze Jagdstaffel rot angemalt hatten, da den Brüdern doch allmählich klar geworden war, daß ich in dieser knallroten Kiste säße. So waren wir jetzt alle rot, und die Engländer machten recht große Augen, wie sie statt der einen ein ganzes Dutzend solcher Kisten sahen. Das hielt sie aber nicht ab, den Versuch zu machen, uns zu attackieren. Es ist mir ja viel lieber, die Kundschaft kommt zu mir, als daß ich zu ihr hingehen muß.

Wir flogen an die Front, in der Hoffnung, unsere Gegner zu finden. Nach etwa zwanzig Minuten kamen die ersten an und attackierten uns tatsächlich. Das war uns schon seit langer Zeit nicht mehr passiert. Die Engländer hatten ihren berühmten Offensivgeist doch etwas eingeschränkt, da er ihnen wohl etwas zu teuer zu stehen gekommen war. Es waren drei Spad-Einsitzer, die sich infolge ihrer guten Maschinen uns sehr überlegen glaubten. Es flogen zusammen: Wolff, mein Bruder und ich. Drei gegen drei, das paßte also ganz genau. Gleich zu Anfang wurde aus dem Angriff eine Verteidigung. Schon hatten wir überhand. Ich kriegte meinen Gegner vor und konnte noch schnell sehen, wie mein Bruder und Wolff sich jeder einen dieser Burschen vorbanden. Es begann der übliche Tanz, man kreist umeinander. Der gute Wind kam uns zu Hilfe. Er trieb uns Kämpfende von der Front weg, Richtung Deutschland.

Meiner war der erste, der stürzte. Ich hatte ihm wohl den Motor zerschossen. Jedenfalls entschloß er sich, bei uns zu landen. Pardon kenne ich nicht mehr, deshalb attackierte ich ihn noch ein zweites Mal, worauf das Flugzeug in meiner Geschoßgarbe auseinanderklappte. Die Flächen fielen wie ein Blatt Papier, jede einzeln, und der Rumpf sauste wie ein Stein brennend in die Tiefe. Er fiel in einen Sumpf. Man konnte ihn nicht mehr ausgraben. Ich habe nie erfahren, wer es war, mit dem ich gekämpft habe. Er war verschwunden. Bloß noch die letzten Reste des Schwanzes verbrannten und zeigten die Stätte, wo er sich selbst sein Grab gegraben hatte.

Gleichzeitig mit mir hatten Wolff und mein Bruder ihre Gegner angegriffen und nicht weit von dem meinigen zur Landung gezwungen.

Wir flogen sehr vergnügt nach Hause und meinten: »Hoffentlich kommt recht oft das Anti-Richthofen-Geschwader.«

http://www.lexikus.de/Der-rote-Kampfflieger/Kapitel-42-Das-Anti-Richthofen-Geschwader-(25-April-1917)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australians at War

25 April 1918 - Australians drove Germans from Villers-Bretonneux, France.

'The ships come back with honoured brave but none came back with our Dave'
[Inscription written by his family for the gravestone in France of Private D E Arnold, 55th Battalion, First AIF. Private Arnold was killed on 16 April 1918, age 20].

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-at-war-1901-2000/1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Th. Rothstein: "Prince Lichnowsky’s Memorandum"
Source: The Call, 25 April 1918

Diplomats are a dangerous set of people. In 1915 the Germans, while ransacking the archives at Antwerp, found among the papers a huge set of reports transmitted by the Belgian Ministers in Berlin, Paris and London to their chief at Brussels between 1905 and July 1914, in which the policy pursued in those years by the Entente Powers against Germany was traced with the utmost candidness and condemned in most un­diplomatic terms as inimical to the peace of the world and to Belgium in particular. The Ger­mans, elated at the discovery of such impartial evidence of the Entente’s guilt, collected the papers and issued them at the popular price of sixpence. Now we have retaliated by publishing at the same price the text of the much-talked-of Prince Lichnowsky’s Memorandum which con­tains equally impartial evidence of Germany’s guilt and exonerates this country from all responsibility for the war.

The document is certainly interesting both historically and psychologically. It was written by the Prince in self-defence, in order to refute the campaign of the Pan-German patriots against the old Chancellor, Bethmann Hollweg, and his agents for the policy of “understanding” they had pursued towards this country before the war. That policy the said patriots regarded and still regard as extremely futile and even mischievous, since Great Britain had been fully determined to have a war with Germany and had merely been duping German diplomacy by a show of concilia­tion, in order to gain time. This explains the par­ticular tone and method of argument adopted by the Prince in his Memorandum. As is invariably the case in polemical discussions, he started with the laudable endeavour to write dispassionately and impartially, and imperceptibly ended by covering Great Britain and, in particular, Sir Edward Grey, her Foreign Secretary, with encomiums and depicting them as innocent lambs incapable of any deceit. To the National War Aims Committee this, of course, is quite a pleasant line of argument, but to the historian it is perfectly useless. One little example will show it. In 1904 Great Britain and France concluded the famous Morocco-Egyptian agreement which was the basis of the Entente. Its terms were pub­lished, and apart from the recognition of the re­spective special rights of the two contracting parties in the two countries they contained nothing. The public at the time did not suspect that there were in addition some secret clauses attached to the Convention by which provision was made for a protectorate of France over Morocco in the teeth of the international conven­tion of Madrid, of 1881, by which the independence and integrity of Morocco had been solemnly guaranteed “in the name of the Holy Trinity.” These clauses were only revealed in 1911, during the Agadir crisis. Yet in 1913 Prince Lichnowsky accepts Sir Edward Grey’s assurance that “England has no secret treaties, and it is contrary to her existing principles that she should conceal binding agreements!” What is more, Prince Lichnowsky quotes this assurance in his Memorandum as evidence of Great Britain’s virtues, knowing well from the revelations made by Sir Edward Grey himself at the outbreak of the war that he had involved Great Britain in a “binding agreement” with France one year before he had given the Prince that assurance, and had concealed it from the nation for the space of two years!

The cardinal error of Prince Lichnowsky’s Memorandum is that it entirely ignores the European situation as a whole and concentrates upon individuals and their isolated acts. The Kaiser may be as black and Sir Edward Grey may be as white as the Prince wants them to be, but their acts cannot be understood outside the general frame of European policy during the ten years preceding the war. What was that frame? For eight years out of the ten it was made up of a series of systematic endeavours on the part of British diplomacy to form a continental alliance against Germany, of which France and Russia were to be the main pillars in the West and East respectively. On at least two occasions, during the Bosnian crisis of 1938 and the Agadir crisis of 1911, British diplomacy, to say the least, was prepared to make war and only found herself baulked in her intentions by her Allies. After the Agadir crisis, however, a marked change in the official British policy set in owing, no doubt, to the discovery that Great Britain was paying much too high a price to her Allies, especially to Russia, for their problematic support, and that it would be much wiser to come to terms with Germany. Lord Haldane was sent to Berlin, Berlin responded by sending first Baron Marschal von Bieberstein and, then Prince Lichnowsky, the friendly co-operation between the diplomats of the two countries during the Balkan crisis fol­lowed, and then the whole was crowned by the conclusion of the African and Mesopotamian treaties. Neither Great Britain nor Germany wanted war any more and Europe began to breathe freely. If another couple of years had been allowed to pass, the friendship and financial co-operation between the two countries would have grown so close that war would have become altogether impossible, because without Great Britain her Allies would never have dared to pick any European quarrel, and Germany, on her part, would have ceased to have any interest in courting the favour of Austria.

But it is just because the situation had become considerably eased that Russia and France grew restless. We know now for certain that as early as February, 1914, the Russian Government had drawn up a complete plan of military action for the conquest of the Straits as part of a general European war, and we further know that when M. Poincaré went to Petrograd in the middle of July the Allied diplomacy was already in posses­sion of the terms which Austria was going to demand from Serbia. The diplomats of these two countries had undoubtedly made up their minds not to allow any opportunity to slip ere it became too late, in view of the growing friend­ship between Great Britain and Germany, and the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia was just such an opportunity. What was the position of this country? Sir Edward Grey knew that both by his agreement with France and on the general principle of balance of power this country would be obliged to take part in a European war should one break out; but just because of that and because this country had no longer any quarrel with Germany, he did not want that war to break out, and did his best to prevent it. But his best, confronted with the best of the Franco-Russian diplomacy, was not of a very high quality: he lacked both subtleness and courage, and he was outmanoeuvred by the Russians and the French at every step. He was, moreover, fighting with his right hand tied by the agreement with France, and weighed down by the whole diplomatic heritage of 1904-1912. And lastly, he was not alone in the manipulation of the diplomatic machinery. All the time there was a semi and unofficial diplomacy going on behind his back carried on by men who were nominally his subordi­nates, but who far exceeded him in dexterity and experience. While he was making frantic efforts to avoid the bitter cup and even to push it aside, those men, by their promises, were encouraging the Russian and French diplomats to push the matter to a crisis so as to confront Sir Edward Grey with accomplished facts. And they succeeded, while he lamentably failed.

Prince Lichnowsky did not see all that. While clearly aware of the double diplomacy of his own country and of the diplomatic developments which had preceded the outbreak of the war on the Ger­man side, he shows himself blind to the exactly parallel phenomenon on the British and, generally, the Entente side, the blindness being due to the peculiar circumstances in which he penned his Memorandum.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rothstein/1918/04/lichowsky.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary, 1914-1915 written by Edward George Godfrey

Diary written by Private (later Lance-Cpl), Edward George Godfrey (1886-1918), King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. He was killed on 25 April 1918 near Ypres.

Editor's Comment: Lance Corporal 23408 Edward George Godfrey, 9th (Service) Bn. King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, was killed in action 25th April 1918 and is buried in La Clytte Military Cemetery. The 1st Bn., part of the 21st Division, was taking part in the second Battle of Kemmel.

Leesvoer! http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/db/showfile?CISOROOT=/gwa&CISOPTR=4742&filename=4749.pdf
(via http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/4742?CISOBOX=1&REC=1 )
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ann MacPherson and Eric McLean on their wedding day, April 25, 1918

Studio portrait of ex-Prisoner of War (POW) 3060 Private (Pte) Eric Ernest McLean, 16th Battalion, from Digby, Victoria and his wife Ann, nee MacPherson.

Pte McLean enlisted on 23 July 1915 at the age of 18 and embarked for overseas on 14 September 1915 aboard HMAT Ballarat. After serving at Gallipoli, he also served on the Western Front where he was wounded and captured at Bullecourt, France, on 11 April 1917. He received a gun shot wound to the right leg which was amputated above the knee whilst in German POW Camp Reserve Lazarett [hospital] at Hannover, Germany. Pte McLean was transferred to Holland on 13 January 1918, arrived in London on 20 January 1918 and was admitted to King Georges Hospital. On 25 April 1918 he was married and arrived back in Australia on 17 November 1918.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/australian-war-memorial/4028102899/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 25 Apr 2018 9:25, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grand Parade in Boston, 4/25/1919

On April 25, 1919 the men of the 26th “Yankee” Division participated in a hero’s homecoming parade in Boston. The painted helmet markings worn by the men helped distinguish the various units for the onlookers. The Boston Globe even published a Helmet Insignia reference chart for parade watchers.

Meer foto's op http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2010/04/25/grand-parade-in-boston-4251919/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 25 Apr 2018 9:24, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Slag aan de Leie van april 1918 eindigt op de Kemmelberg
Door Eric R.J. Wils

Op 9 april 1918 opende het Duitse leger het tweede voorjaarsoffensief aan de
Leie onder de codenaam ‘Georgette’. Vrij eenvoudig doorbraken de Duitsers
ten zuiden van Armentières de Britse linie die ter plaatse werd verdedigd door
een onervaren Portugese divisie. De volgende dag werd de aanval ten noorden
van Armentières geopend en moesten de Britten wijken. Franse divisies
werden naar het noorden gestuurd om de gaten te helpen dichten. Het
slotakkoord van de Slag aan de Leie vond plaats tussen 25-29 april met de
Duitse aanval op de Kemmelberg die werd verdedigd door Franse troepen.
Opnieuw sneuvelden er weer poilus in de Westhoek. Over hun strijd tegen de
Duitsers gaat dit verhaal.

Lees verder op https://www.ssew.nl/sites/default/files/de_slag_aan_de_leie_eindigt_op_de_kemmelberg_website.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2011 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 Austro-Hungarian Krone/korona (1918) issued by the Hungarian Soviet Republic on 25 April 1919

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_money_of_the_Hungarian_korona
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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