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21 mei

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mei 2006 7:21    Onderwerp: 21 mei Reageer met quote

May 21

1911 Second Moroccan Crisis

Six years after the First Moroccan Crisis, during which Kaiser Wilhelm’s sensational appearance in Morocco provoked international outrage and led to a strengthening of the bonds between Britain and France against Germany, French troops occupy the Moroccan city of Fez on May 21, 1911, sparking German wrath and a second Moroccan Crisis.

In March 1911, French authorities claimed, rebel tribes staged an uprising in Morocco, endangering one of the country’s capital cities, Fez. The sultan appealed to France for help restoring order, which led the French to send their troops to Fez on May 21. Germany, however, wary of French power in Africa, believed the French had fomented the tribal revolt to create an excuse to occupy Morocco. The German foreign secretary, Alfred von Kiderlen-Wachter, neglected to consult key personnel, including the chiefs of the armed forces, before sending a naval cruiser, the Panther, to anchor in the harbor of Agadir on Morocco’s Atlantic coast, asserting Germany’s claims of French aggression on July 1 in an attempt to encourage resistance against the French among the native population.

Though, as in the First Moroccan Crisis, Germany had counted on France’s isolation and eventual submission, this did not prove to be the case, as Britain once again backed France, its partner in the Entente Cordiale of 1904. David Lloyd George, Britain’s chancellor of the exchequer, made this clear in a public address in London at a banquet at the Mansion House on July 21. After Russia too gave its support to France, though somewhat ambiguously, and Austria-Hungary failed to lend Germany even its diplomatic support, the Germans were forced to back down. In the ensuing negotiations, concluding November 4, Germany reluctantly agreed to recognize the French protectorate over Morocco in return for territorial concessions—which they deemed inadequate—in other regions of Africa.

Meanwhile, military talks began between the British and French, and it was decided that their two navies would divide responsibilities, with the French taking control of the Mediterranean and the British the North Sea and the English Channel. As the two countries moved from friendship to alliance—counting Russia as well on their side—in the wake of the Second Moroccan Crisis, a powerful Germany found itself increasingly isolated, with only tenuous support from its fellow Triple Alliance members, Austria-Hungary and Italy. As Helmuth von Moltke, chief of the German general staff, wrote to the German chancellor, Theobald Bethmann von Hollweg in a memorandum dated December 2, 1912: “All sides are preparing for European War, which all sides expect sooner or later.”
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mei 2006 7:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Erfolgreiches Vordringen am "Toten Mann" - 1346 Franzosen gefangengenommen

Großes Hauptquartier, 21. Mai.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Auf den Süd- und Südwesthängen des "Toten Mann" wurden nach geschickter Artillerievorbereitung unsere Linien vorgeschoben. 31 Offiziere, 1315 Mann wurden als Gefangene eingebracht, 16 Maschinengewehre und 8 Geschütze sind außer anderem Material erbeutet. Schwächere feindliche Gegenstöße blieben ergebnislos.
Rechts der Maas ist, wie nachträglich gemeldet wird, in der Nacht zum 20. Mai im Caillettewalde ein französischer Handgranatenangriff abgewiesen worden. Gestern gab es hier keine Infanterietätigkeit, das beiderseitige Artilleriefeuer erreichte aber zeitweise sehr große Heftigkeit.
Kleinere Unternehmungen, so westlich von Beaumont und südlich von Gondrexon, waren erfolgreich.
Bei Ostende stürzte ein feindliches Flugzeug im Feuer unserer Abwehrgeschütze ins Meer. Vier weitere wurden im Luftkampf abgeschossen, zwei von diesen in unseren Linien bei Lorgies (nördlich von La Bassée) und südlich von Châuteau-Salins, die beiden anderen jenseits der feindlichen Front am Bourruswalde (westlich der Maas) und über der Côte östlich von Verdun.
Unsere Fliegergeschwader haben nachts Dünkirchen erneut ausgiebig mit Bomben belegt.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Die Lage ist im allgemeinen unverändert. Behinderungen, die durch erhebliche Überschwemmungen im Vardartal eingetreten waren, sind beseitigt.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Siegreicher Angriff der k. u. k. Truppen bei Lafraun

Wien, 21. Mai.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts von Belang.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Kämpfe an der Südtiroler Front nahmen an Ausdehnung zu, da unsere Truppen auch auf der Hochfläche von Lafraun zum Angriffe schritten. - Der Gipfel des Armenterrarückens ist in unserem Besitz. Auf der Hochfläche von Lafraun drangen unsere Truppen in die erste, hartnäckig verteidigte feindliche Stellung ein. Die aus Tiroler Kaiserjägern und der Linzer Infanterie Truppendivision bestehende Kampftruppe Seiner k. u. k. Hoheit des Feldmarschalleutnants Erzherzog Karl Franz Josef erweiterte ihren Erfolg. Die Cima Laghi und - nordöstlich dieses Gipfels - die Cima di Mesole sind genommen. Auch vom Borcolapaß ist der Feind verjagt. Südlich des Passes fielen drei weitere 28-cm-Haubitzen in unsere Hände. Vom Col Santo her dringen unsere Truppen gegen den Pasubio vor. Im Brandtal ist Langeben (Anghebeni) von uns besetzt. - Gestern wurden über 3000 Italiener, darunter 84 Offiziere, gefangengenommen, 25 Geschütze und 8 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)


Wilson über Amerikas Friedensmission

US-Präsident Woodrow Wilson
US-Präsident Woodrow Wilson

New York, 21. Mai. (Durch Funkspruch vom Vertreter des W. T. B.)
Wilson hielt am Sonnabend in Charlette (Nordkarolina) zur Feier des 141. Jahrestages der Unterzeichnung der Unabhängigkeitserklärung zu Mecklenburg (Nordkarolina) vor hunderttausend Zuhörern eine Rede, in der er sagte, die Zeit sei für die Vereinigten Staaten gekommen, ihre Dienste zur Herbeiführung des Friedens zwischen den kriegführenden Ländern Europas anzubieten.
Wilson fuhr fort: "Europa hat sich in den Krieg verbissen wie wir in den Frieden, um zu sehen, was aus diesen Dingen entsteht, wenn sie in heiße Berührung miteinander geraten. Was Sie auf der andern Seite vor sich gehen sehen, ist ein furchtbarer Prozeß, durch den ein Kampf der Elemente in einem Gottesurteil in eine Beiordnung und Zusammenarbeit der Elemente umgewandelt werden dürfte. Ein interessanter Umstand in dieser Richtung ist, daß die kriegerischen Prozesse stillstehen. Diese heißen Dinge, die miteinander in Berührung stehen, machen keine großen Fortschritte aufeinander zu. Wenn ihr nicht überwältigen könnt, so müßt ihr beratschlagen. Hier in Amerika haben wir versucht, ein Beispiel dafür aufzustellen, wie die ganze Welt auf der Grundlage von Freiheit, Zusammenarbeit und Frieden zusammengebracht werden kann. Dieser große Versuch, den wir in Amerika durchgemacht haben, ist eine Art von prophetischem Muster für das Menschengeschlecht. Was wollt ihr tun mit eurer Macht? Seid ihr im Begriffe, sie in Gewalt zu verwandeln oder in den Frieden und die Rettung der Gesellschaft."
Wilson schloß: "Ich würde mich gern dem Gedanken hingeben, daß der Geist dieser Stunde seinen Ausdruck fände in unserer Vorstellung, daß wir dasselbe heilige Symbol des Rates, des Preises, der Nachgiebigkeit und des rechtlichen Urteils vor den Nationen der Welt aufrichten und wir sie so an die Stelle der heiligen Schrift erinnern: Nach dem Wind, nach dem Erdbeben, nach dem Feuer kommt die stille, sanfte Stimme der Menschlichkeit." 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dead in front of the Turk's lines, 21 May 1915

http://www.flickr.com/photos/statelibraryqueensland/4041506650/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra

Telegram. Stavka. 21 May, 1916.

Hearty thanks for dear letters. To-day is Georgie's* birthday. It is again very warm. Both kiss you and the girls tenderly.

Nicky

* "Georgie's birthday", - the birthday of King George V.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/may16.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The German attack at Vimy Ridge, 21 May 1916

The British front was extended by 20 miles in March 1916 to relieve the French Tenth Army for operations at Verdun. The new line - consisting, as the incoming units quickly found, of poorly dug and maintained, filthy trenches with few strongpoints or dugouts, containing many unburied bodies - ran from Loos down to Ransart, including Vimy Ridge. Even if the trenches had been in good condition, the Vimy Ridge sector was a difficult one for the defenders, as the enemy looked westwards down a long unbroken gentle slope from the summit of the ridge over the front lines and across the approach routes and artillery positions. British observers were unable to see the enemy artillery and supply routes on the far side of the summit, as the slope drops steeply towards Douai. But it had not mattered unduly, for this had been a quiet sector since the awful fighting of September and October 1915 had died down. Here the French and Germans had since both operated a 'live and let live' approach.

On taking over the French lines, the British immediately began the job of clearing away the immense amount of debris and rubbish left behind and removing bodies where they could. They also quickly ended the 'live and let live' era, commencing a policy of disruptive artillery fire and trench raiding. Soon enough it was discovered that the enemy had been taking advantage of the French lack of hostility to push on with deep mining of the area. It would, from a military viewpoint, have made sense to withdraw some 3-4000 yards to create a stronger defensive line, and this was indeed considered by Third Army commander Sir Edmund Allenby and Commander-in-Chief Sir Douglas Haig. To do so was however politically impossible, the French having lost many thousands of men in crawling up the slope in 1915.

Third Army deployed a number of Royal Engineers Tunnelling Companies to combat the German mining nuisance. This underground clash developed into a desperate struggle, with both sides blowing mines to destroy enemy infantry positions and camouflet charges to destroy the opposition's mining activity. There was much above-ground fighting as a result, as each side tried to gain control of the resultant craters. Gradually, the British miners gained the upper hand, causing the enemy to consider a large scale attack with the intention of capturing the mine shafts.

In early May, German artillery and trench mortar fire -a natural response to British aggression - began to intensify. Front line trenches were very badly damaged, and communication trenches also became targets. All the signs were that an infantry attack could be expected. But aerial observation revealed nothing of significance. Five British divisions were ordered to move from First, Second and Third Armies to add to the build up of strength under Fourth Army, for the forthcoming Somme offensive. This meant some shuffling of Divisions and some adjustment of the areas under command of Armies and Corps. On the night 19-20 May 1916, this added up to a considerable change in the area of Berthonval (south of Souchez, facing Vimy Ridge). It passed from the command of Third Army to First, and from XVII Corps (Julian Byng) to IV Corps (Henry Wilson).

IV Corps had two Divisions holding their sector of the front, 47th (London) and 23rd, with 2nd Division in Corps Reserve near Bruay. The London Division held the Carency and Berthonval sectors with 141 and 140 Brigades, with 142 Brigade in Divisional Reserve. Also under temporary orders of the Division was 7th Brigade, of 25th Division.

At 5am on 21 May, the enemy bombardment on the Berthonval sector intensified. It continued unbroken to 11am, when there was a pause which lasted until 3pm. At this time, a very heavy shell and mortar fire fell on the small front - already heavily cratered - occupied by 1/7 and 1/8 Londons (140th Brigade), 1/20 Londons (141st) and 10/Cheshire (7th). This bombardment was deep, falling not only on the front trenches but back to the Divisional artillery positions too, as far as some 8 miles from the trenches. The shellfire included some tear gas. It was without doubt the heaviest concentrated shelling of the war so far: the enemy had arrayed 80 batteries on an 1800 yard front, all out of sight on the reverse slope of the Ridge. 70,000 shells fell in 4 hours, flattening trenches and cutting all communications; in the dry conditions dust also obscured all vision. British artillery replied but it had little effect on slowing the shellfire.

At 7.45pm, the blowing of a German mine and the lifting of the barrage onto the British support lines signalled the infantry attack. The crossed the smashed 140th Brigade front line almost unhindered and only stopped when they approached their own barrage. Many men of the 1/7 and 1/8 Londons were captured, still in their dugouts. Reinforcements were hurriedly organised in Zouave Valley, including the RE Field Companies of the 47th (London) Division. To each side, success was more limited as the 1/20 Londons and 10/Cheshire organised flank defences. Here, only the outpost line and the important Broadmarsh Crater were lost. 99th Brigade of 2nd Division was ordered up from Corps Reserve, and small local counter attacks were made by nearer units, but to no effect. The enemy advance, having captured their objectives of the British mine craters, halted, and under continued bombardment, the German infantry dug in. A small counter attack by units of 140th and 141st Brigades took place at 2am on 22nd May, but did not manage to change the situation except on the right, where the original support lines of 7th Brigade were recaptured by 8/Loyal North Lancashires.

Although Henry Wilson was all for mounting small local counter attacks while the enemy was still consolidating, Haig ruled that full preparations were to be made and a defensible line should be gained and re-established. The counter attack, to follow a short bombardment from hurriedly reinforced artillery, was to be made by 7th Brigade, 99th Brigade and 142nd Brigade. But it seemed the enemy was on the alert, for at 8pm on 23rd May (25 minutes before the British infantry attack was due, and after the bombardment had begun) they opened heavy shellfire. It fell on the assembly positions, particularly of 99th Brigade; the 1/Royal Berkshire lost 100 men before the assault should have begun. To make matters worse, German machine guns opened exactly on time, too. Confusion reigned in 99th Brigade. The Berkshires signalled to the 22/Royal Fusiliers that they could not attack, and the latter sent runners to halt their own Companies. This message did not get to B Company, which advanced on its own and was wiped out, along with the attached section of 226 Field Company RE. Elsewhere, 3/Worcesters of 7th Brigade recaptured their old support positions; on the left, 1/24 and 1/12 Londons got to their objective, only to be fought out of them again. 2nd Division relieved 47th (London) Division on the night of 25-26 May 1916.

The enemy remained on the defensive and after some debate it was decided by the British high command that the artillery that would be required to support a major effort to regain the former position would be better deployed on the Somme.

The losses to the British forces amounted to almost 2,500 between 21 and 24 May in this sector. 47th (London) Division lost 1,571 men; 7th Brigade of 25th Division 637 and 2nd Division 267. The German losses were reported to be 1,344.

The lesson that had begun over a year ago at Neuve Chapelle was being reinforced. It was quite possible to break into the enemy's positions, given sufficient artillery and good observation, but enemy counter attacks could be expected, within a few days. It applied just as much to German attacks as to British or French ones. The reputation of Sir Henry Wilson suffered a reverse as a result of his handling of IV Corps. He remained in command of the Corps, on the now quiet again Vimy front, while others less senior were in the ascendant on the Somme.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat14.htm#vimy
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Great Atlanta fire of 1917

Extent of the fireThe Great Atlanta Fire of 1917 began just after noon on Monday, May 21 and was finally extinguished by 10 PM. Destroyed were 300 acres (much of the Fourth Ward), including nearly 2,000 homes, businesses and churches, and 10,000 people were displaced. There was only one fatality, a woman who suffered a heart attack after her home burnt to the ground. Losses totalled $5.5 million.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Atlanta_fire_of_1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Action of 21 May 1918

The Action of 21 May 1918 was a naval engagement of the First World War fought between an American armed yacht and a German submarine in waters off Spain, in the Atlantic Ocean.

Background - In May of 1918, the Great War had been raging for four years and the Germans were making every attempt possible to sink enemy shipping, which fueled the war in Europe. On May 24, 1918, the fight was still at hand when USS Christabel, under Lieutenant H. B. Riebe, sighted a distinctive oil slick while escorting the slow British steamer Danse north from La Pallice to Quiberon Bay. Unknown at the time, a German submarine was nearby, commanded by Captain Lieutenant Wilhelm Kisewetter.

The Danse was about eight miles behind the main convoy of allied merchant ships, making about seven and a half knots with the Christabel off her port bow. The North Atlantic was smooth, weather was clear and there was no wind.

Action - Once the allied convoy was within two miles of He de Yeu, the well-defined oil slick was sighted in between the American warship and the British steamer, off Danse's port bow. The Christabel cruised over to the slick for better observation but saw nothing to indicate a German submarine's presence. The convoy continued on for a little while when at 5 :20 pm a wake from SM UC-56 was suddenly spotted by the officer-of-the-deck and a lookout, about 600 yards distant off the port quarter.

The Christabel at this time being was about 300 yards from the port bow of the Danse. Christabel headed for it, making all possible speed, which was around ten and a half knots, whereupon the wake disappeared and a number of oil slicks were seen. The U-boat had apparently submerged. The American commanding officer ordered his ship to follow this oil as long as possible and at 5:24 pm, believing that his ship was just ahead of the submarine, Christabel's crew dropped a depth charge, but nothing resulted although the charge exploded.

The action was over for now and the allied vessels continued northward. At 7:00 pm the convoy changed course, following the contour of the Spanish coast and was making about nine knots for almost two hours when she encountered the German U-boat once again. This time at 8:52 pm, Christabel was astern, making about eleven knots to catch up with the convoy. The German submarine was sighted by lookouts who witnessed a periscope roughly 200 yards off the starboard beam.

Her commander was quickly notified and Christabel turned into the U-boat's direction when the periscope disappeared under the water. At 8:55 p. m. a depth charge was dropped which detonated ten seconds after fire. A second charge was dropped a few moments later. No secondary explosion was heard after the explosion of the first charge but after the sound of the second depth charge a third, "very violent", explosion was heard which threw up a large water column between the stern of Christabel.

An "enormous" amount of debris from the damaged submarine was seen, mixed in with the water column of the third explosion. The Christabel was then ordered to turn and cruised in the vicinity of UC-56's position when she was engaged. There the United States Navy auxiliary cruiser noticed a quantity of thick, black oil and splintered pieces of wood. There were very large oil bubbles rising to the surface, no doubt belonging to SM UC-56.

Sometime during the dropping of the depth charges, a number of charges which were set and live aboard the Christabel, were shaken lose and Ensign Daniel Augustus Joseph Sullivan quickly reacted by jumping on top of them and securing the explosives before they could possibly detonate. Sullivan would later be decorated with a Medal of Honor for "extraordinary heroism" in this combat.

Aftermath - Nothing further was heard of this submarine but it surfaced after the engagement and was not capable of submerging again due to battle damage. On May 24, 1918, when the German U-boat arrived at Santander, Spain in a severely damaged condition, after a dangerous three day voyage straight from the allied convoy to the nearest port. The German crew of UC-56' was interned by neutral Spain and the Germans reported to Spanish authorities that their submarine had been seriously damaged by USS Christabel and they had no choice but to take refuge in a neutral port.

Sources indicate that the Germans scuttled their U-boat off Santander to prevent her capture by the Spanish but this is disputed. It was originally thought that the American armed yacht sank the German submarine so a traditional white star was painted on Christabel's smoke stack which represented a U-boat kill. Though the American ship did not actually sink the German vessel, Christabel was still responsible for protecting her convoy, inflicting serious damage on an enemy submarine which resulted in internment and possible scuttling.

No allied vessels were damaged as the German submarine was spotted and attacked before it could line up for an attack. No German casualties have been confirmed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_21_May_1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1: Experiences of an English Soldier

William Henry Bonser Lamin - Born in August 1887 in Awsworth Notts, to Henry and Sarah Lamin. Elder Sisters Catherine (Kate), Mary Esther and Sarah Anne(Annie) and Elder brother John (Jack). Educated at Awsworth Board School, just outside Ilkeston, Derbyshire, England. I served with honour in the 9th Battalion York & Lancaster Regiment seeing front line action in Flanders and Northern Italy from the end of 1916 to January 1920.

Letter to Jack, 21st May 1918

32507/ 9th Batt York & Lancs
C Company
12 Platoon L.G.S.
I.E.F.

Dear Jack
I have received your letter and books alright. The small book is very handy as it does not take up much room. I thank you very much for sending them. I have just had a letter from Kate and she is getting on alright. We are still in the same place only it is a bit warmer this time up, and not so quiet, but I am going on alright. You will see that we have a Y.M. up here but it is only a very small one. If you dont get a letter from me every week, keep writing as it is very hard at times to get letters away. I did not see any processions at Easter as we were in an out of the way place but there would be plenty no doubt. They go to church at all times here. I have seen them going at five in the morning and bells ringing at three. Every body here seems to go to church regular. we see soom strange sights out here, but the scenery is very pretty. I guess Willie would fancy himself when writing to you. I will write again as soon as possible. I am please that you are both getting on alright and keeping well.

With best love
Harry

http://wwar1.blogspot.com/2008/05/letter-to-jack-21st-may-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin - Draft Of A Telegram To The Petrograd Workers

May 21, 1918[1]

The Soviet system can be upheld, the victory of the toilers and exploited over the landowners and capitalists can be upheld and consolidated only by the stern, iron rule of the class-conscious workers. Only such a system can attract and rally around it all the toiling people, all the poor.

Comrades, workers, remember that the revolution is in a critical situation! Remember that you alone can save the revolution, nobody else can.

What we need is tens of thousands of picked, politically advanced workers, loyal to the cause of socialism, incapable of succumbing to bribery and the temptations of pilfering, and capable of creating an iron force against the kulaks, profiteers, racketeers, bribe-takers and disorganisers.

That is what we urgently and insistently need.

Failing that, famine, unemployment and the destruction of the revolution are inevitable.

The strength of the workers and their salvation lie in organisation. Everybody knows that. Today what we need is a special kind of organisation of the workers, the organisation of the iron rule of the workers in order to vanquish the bourgeoisie. Comrades, workers, the cause of the revolution, the salvation of the revolution, is in your hands!

Time is short: an intolerably difficult May will be followed by an even more difficult June and July, and perhaps even part of August.

[1] This was written by Lenin at a meeting of the Council of People's Commissars on May 20, 1918. It formed the basis of the final text of an appeal telegraphed to the Petrograd Party Committee with the following instruction attached: “Publish the following appeal at all mills and factories and take steps for the immediate organisation of enrolment in the food detachments”. On May 22, 1918, this appeal was published over the signature of Lenin and A. D. Tsyurupa in the newspaper Petrogrodskaya Pravda No. 103, and on May 29, in Izvestia VtsIK No. 107 and in other newspapers.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/may/22.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

41 Casualties Reported in Overseas Army; 7 Commissioned Officers on Day's List

Washington, May 21. - The War Department today gave out a list of 41 casualties in the American army abroad, bringing the grand total to 6,061. The department announced today that the total number of deaths previously reported from disease should be reduced by two on account of repetition. The day's list contained the names of 8 killed in action, 2 died of disease, 1 died of wounds, 7 died of accidents, 18 wounded severely, 8 slightly wounded, and 2 missing in action.

Seven commissioned officers are included. Captain James N. Hall of the Aviation Corps and Lieutenant Philip W. Hunter are reported missing in action. Lieutenants Cyril M. Angell and William K. B. Emerson were killed in action. Lieutenants Harry C. Colburn, Alfred R. Metzger, and Philip Robertson were killed by accident.

http://distantcousin.com/Military/WWI/NYTCasualties/1918/May/21.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2010 22:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nellie’s Story
By Liz Walton

89 years ago, on 9th May, 1919 a young girl from Jersey serving with Queen
Mary’s Army Auxiliary Corps (QMAAC) was murdered in woods near an army
camp in Bedfordshire. The crime has never been solved.
Nellie Rault was born in 1898, the daughter of
Jacques Rault, a saddler of 4 Weston Villas,
St Helier, Jersey, and his wife Anne
Elizabeth. The 1901 Jersey census shows
Nellie Florence Ruby Rault age 3 living at
Gordon House, St Aubin’s Road along with
her mother, Anne Elizabeth Rault, married,
age 32, tailoress, listed as head of household,
Annie Frances Rault, age 11, Adelena Maud
Rault, age 8, and May Emeline Rault, age 5,
daughters, all born in St Helier, Jersey. Anne
Rault married John W. Bewhay, of Clifton
Cottage, St Aubins Road, St Helier at some
time between 1901 and 1919. According to
the 1901 Channel Islands census he was a
widower age 45, born in St Martin, and his
occupation was plasterer. The only other
Bewhay on that census is George, age 19,
born in St Helier, who was with the Devonshire Regiment in St Peter’s
Barracks. 3/20602 Private Bewhay, a nephew of John W Bewhay, was killed
in action at the Somme on 1st July, 1916 (Editor’s Note: He is buried in the
Devonshire Cemetery near Mametz).

In 1917, 19 year old Nellie joined the newly formed Women’s Auxiliary Army
Corps (WAAC), after having served in the Women’s Legion. The Women’s
Legion was raised by Lady Londonderry in 1915, initially to provide cooks for
the New Army. Its members transferred to the WAAC on its formation.
WAACs (as the ladies were known) did not have full military status but they
wore uniform, were officially part of the British Army and worked under the
War Office. In April 1917, 20425 Worker Nellie Rault was posted to Haynes
Park Royal Engineers Signals Service camp, located in the grounds of a
stately home in Bedfordshire.

Nellie worked as a cook in the Officer’s Mess and was described as being a
cheerful, respectable girl. She was less than 5 ft tall, dark and “good looking”,
“a sturdily built young woman of a bright and happy disposition, and a great
favourite with all with whom she came into contact”. She was said to be a
“home loving girl”,1 who kept in close contact with all of her sisters and visited
her family in Jersey regularly. Her last visit was at Christmas in 1918. She
returned to Haynes Park on New Year’s Day 1919, having recently signed up
for a further year with what was by then the QMAAC.

Four months after her return to England, Nellie Rault was murdered in
Wilstead Wood, Beds. She was last seen alive at about 3.30 pm on Friday, 9th
May but was not missed until roll call at 9.30 the next morning. On the
following day search parties were organised but her body was not found until
the afternoon of Monday, 12th May. She had been stabbed several times in
the chest and back, and attempts had been made to hide the body under
bundles of cut undergrowth in woodland about 150 yards outside the camp
gates.

Nellie’s funeral took place on Wednesday, 14th May at Haynes Parish Church,
with full military honours. Her coffin went to the church on a Royal Engineers
cable wagon, covered with the Union flag and topped with huge cross of
flowers from her colleagues. The lengthy procession was led by the RE
Regimental Band. Her mother in Jersey had been informed of the tragedy by
telegram but was not able to attend, presumably because of the time scale.
The chief mourners were her uncle, Mr Tarbet and Miss Hickson who was in
charge of the QMAAC contingent at Haynes Park. The Jersey Evening Post of
May, 1919 features a letter which Mrs Bewhay received from Queen Mary,
stating that:

“The Queen has heard from the headquarters of the Queen Mary’s Army
Auxiliary Corps of your daughter’s fine record of good behaviour and splendid
work since her enrolment, and Her Majesty cannot help hoping that the
knowledge that your daughter in her short life was able to render such
honourable service to the Corps may be some consolation to you in your
bereavement.”

The inquest into Nellie’s death opened on Wednesday, 21st May and over a
period of four days evidence was heard from work colleagues and local
residents, as well as specialist witnesses such as the doctor who performed
the post mortem. Meanwhile CSM Montague Cecil Keith Hepburn, of the
Royal Engineers, Haynes Park had been arrested on Tuesday, 13th May,
charged with her alleged murder and remanded in custody. He attended the
inquest but declined to give evidence at any stage. The Coroner, in his
summing up, noted that the crime was not premeditated and that he did not
want the jury to be influenced by the fact that Hepburn had been arrested by
the police. He also mentioned Hepburn’s popularity in the camp, and his “long
and honourable career” in the army. The official wording of the final verdict
was that Nellie had been “…brutally murdered by being stabbed to the heart
by some person or persons unknown”.

CSM Hepburn had been out with Nellie on
previous occasions and they had danced
together at the YMCA Hut on the evening
before she died. He had also arranged to meet
her on the day of her death. He was described
as “a well set up man of somewhat taciturn
appearance… wearing the ribbons of the
Military Medal and the 1914-18 Star”, “on his
right arm he wears four chevrons”.2 14149
Sergeant Montague Hepburn, 2nd (HQ) Signals
Company, Royal Engineers, had had a
distinguished military career. His Medal Index
card shows that he had been awarded the
standard trio of Service Medals, plus the Oak
Leaf Clasp (Mentioned in Dispatches3 ) and
Rose which means that he had been under fire
as early as 1914. He had also been awarded
the Decoration Militaire avec Croix de Guerre
by the Belgian authorities4.

The 1891 census has Hepburn living with his parents Walter, a commercial
clerk, and Alice, at 13 Garfield Road, Battersea in London. By 1901, when he
was 11 years old he was an inmate of the West London Poor Law School at
Ashford, in Staines, Middlesex. No parents are listed, and his place of birth is
given as unknown. Children brought up in Poor Law schools were usually
either paupers or orphans, and usually went into domestic service or the
Armed Forces on leaving school. Hepburn was to spend his entire adult life in
the Army.

When charged by the police with Nellie’s murder, Hepburn is reported to have
said “I can say that I am innocent - quite innocent. A mistake has been made.”
The trial evidence was lengthy, confused and often conflicting and much was
made of whether Hepburn was wearing puttees or leggings, whether two
schoolboys could have heard the attack (one of them was the son of an old
Regular Army colleague of Hepburn’s), whether Hepburn had travelled on a
particular lorry into Bedford and exactly who had or had not seen Hepburn at
various places and times.

After two formal remands the Bedford Divisional Court assembled on Friday
for a magisterial hearing against Hepburn, who was charged with murdering
Nellie Rault “feloniously, wilfully and with malice aforethought.” However
instead of following the expected course, the Assistant Director of Public
Prosecutions, Mr Sims, made a statement to the effect that “The Director of
Public Prosecutions (DPP) has carefully considered the evidence thus far
obtained in the case and has arrived at the conclusion that the best interests
of justice would not be served by immediately proceeding further with this
inquiry”. Directions had been given for further police investigations but in the
meantime Hepburn was discharged and the case dismissed.

The CID was called in on 7th June, but officers were unhappy that it had been
left so late as the inquest had concluded and the body been buried by then.
However an enquiry took place under Superintendent Wensley, who reported
to the Director of Public Prosecutions in July, 1919. The DPP’s response to
this stated that “…upon the evidence available it is not probable that Hepburn
would be convicted of wilful murder if he were to be charged with this
offence.” However the case notes go on to say that “I regret to have been
obliged to come to this decision because I entertain a strong personal opinion
as to the identity of the person who committed the murder”. Hepburn’s alibis,
his only real defence, were also totally discredited.

National and local newspapers in Jersey and Bedfordshire had made much of
the murder and subsequent trial, and interest was rekindled on 10th February,
1924, when the News of the World carried a “cool, calculated and detailed
confession” of Nellie’s murder. This was reported to come from an
anonymous writer who called himself “Frenchy”. The Montreal Police had also
received letters from a Mr P Peter, c/o the Montreal Tramways, which stated
that he knew who had killed Nellie from what he had seen in Haynes Park
Wood, and that the person involved was currently in Montreal. These letters
were sent on to the CID in London. The “confession” letter in the News of the
World received much public attention because the facts in it tied in with what
was known about Nellie’s death.

The writer said he was a married man with a wife in America, and was an
American army deserter who had been working at Shorts Brothers Aircraft
factory at Cardington in Bedfordshire at the time of Nellie’s death. However
none of the people from Shorts whom the police interviewed could identify
“Frenchy”, though a letter to the News of the World, which was passed on to
the CID, named him as Leroy Morey of Illinois. A Corporal Atkins of the RE
was also investigated after allegations were made against him, and there
were further enquiries in Scotland.

Despite all this no-one was charged with Nellie’s murder, and who killed her
and why remains unknown nearly ninety years on. Nellie is buried in St Mary’s
Churchyard, Haynes, near where the camp used to be. A stone cross with the
words “In loving memory of 20425 Member Nellie Rault, WL & QMAAC, age
21, died May 9th 1919. Erected by her fellow workers in QMAAC, Officers,
WO, NCOs and men of Haynes Park Signal Depot, RE. “In the midst of life we
are in death” marks her grave. This is one of three headstones maintained in
perpetuity here by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, who
recognised that Nellie was a casualty of war.

Hepburn continued with his military career until his death in 1943, at the age
of 54. By this time he had been promoted to Captain (QM) with the Royal
Corps of Signals. He had served in India in the 1920s, and had been awarded
the Indian General Service medal, with clasps for service in Waziristan from
1919 to 1921 and 1921 to 1924, and Mahsud from1919 to1920. He died
during the Second World War is and is buried in Streatham Park Cemetery,
London, where his grave bears a standard CWGC headstone.

Notes
• Amptill & District News is available at the Bedfordshire & Luton Archive & Records Service, Bedford.
• The Metropolitan Police files are available at the National Archive, Kew.
• Jersey Evening Post archive is available at the Jersey Public Library, St Helier.

http://www.greatwarci.net/women/jersey/nr/pdf/nellie-rault.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mei 2010 10:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het woord zomertijd
donderdag 6 mei 2010 door Ewoud Sanders

Sinds wanneer kennen we eigenlijk het woord zomertijd?

Op 1 mei 1916 voerde Nederland, een dag na Duitsland, de zomertijd in. Daar was natuurlijk heel wat aan voorafgegaan. Ooit waren er in Nederland grote regionale tijdverschillen, maar in de negentiende eeuw was daar – met de komst van de spoorwegen en de telegrafie – verandering in gekomen. In de telegraafwet van 1852 was bepaald dat de landelijke telegraafdienst de klokken op haar kantoren naar “den middelbaren tijd van Amsterdam” moesten regelen en in 1866 was iets vergelijkbaars afgesproken voor de spoorwegdiensten. Pas in 1908 kreeg dit z’n beslag in een wet. Toen werd gedecreteerd: “De wettelijke tijd in Nederland is de middelbare zonnetijd van Amsterdam.” Overigens liep die Amsterdamse tijd twintig minuten voor op de West-Europese tijd (Greenwich Mean Time).

Acht jaar later, in 1916, werd dus het besluit genomen om de klok in de zomer landelijk een uur vooruit te draaien. In 1924 nam Van Dale zomertijd voor het eerst in deze nieuwe betekenis op ( naast het aloude “het warme seizoen”), met in de definitie meteen de belangrijkste reden voor invoering: “bijzondere regeling van den tijd gedurende den zomer, om dien te vervroegen en zoodoende kunstlicht ’s avonds te besparen”.

Was de zomertijd indertijd een nieuw idee? Nee, maar ook niet zo oud, want het eerste serieuze voorstel om de zomertijd in te voeren was pas in 1907 gedaan door William Willet. Deze Brit had een pamflet uitgegeven getiteld Waste of Daylight (‘Verspilling van daglicht’), dat begint met de woorden: “Iedereen waardeert de lange lichte avonden.”

Hoewel Willet veel steun kreeg voor zijn idee, voerde Engeland de zomertijd pas op 21 mei 1916 in, als derde land in Europa, na Duitsland en Nederland. Inmiddels passen wereldwijd ongeveer zeventig landen tweemaal per jaar de klok aan.

De zomertijd is bij ons niet één keer, maar twee keer ingevoerd: hij was van kracht tussen 1916 en 1945 en vervolgens weer vanaf 1977. Hoewel de zomertijd nu alweer ruim dertig jaar wordt toegepast, zorgt hij nog steeds voor verwarring. Dat was de eerste keer niet anders. “Die ‘zomertijd’, waarmee we nu Maandag beginnen”, schreef de Leeuwarder Courant op 29 april 1916, “blijkt voor velen nog een ondoorgrondelijk mysterie te zijn. Schrikbeelden van de ingewikkeldste tijdsverwarringen haalt men zich voor den geest.”

Zomertijd was in 1916 geen nieuw woord. In de betekenis ‘tijd dat het zomer is, het warme seizoen’ is het al zeker sinds de zestiende eeuw in gebruik. Ook het woord wintertijd is al heel oud, getuige een dichtregel van Constantijn Huygens uit 1657: “Men siet geen Vyer [= vuur] of het verblijdt, / In Somer en in Winter-tijd.” In de betekenis “tijdregeling waarbij de klok gedurende de winter gelijkloopt met de middelbare zonnetijd” (aldus de definitie in de grote Van Dale) is dit woord overigens een zogenoemd retroniem: een aanduiding voor iets wat eerst lange tijd gewoon was maar door de opkomst van iets anders bijzonder is geworden. Vergelijk een woord als scharrelvlees voor wat vroeger, voor de komst van de bio-industrie, gewoon vlees heette.

Tegenwoordig loopt de zomertijd van de laatste zondag van maart en hij eindigt op de laatste zondag van oktober. Om de verschillen tussen zomer- en wintertijd te onthouden (‘gaat de klok nu voor- of achteruit?’) zijn diverse ezelsbruggetjes verzonnen. Zo zegt men over de wintertijd: ‘Je wint-er-tijd mee’ (want de eerste dag duurt 25 uur). Of: in het vóórjaar gaat de klok een uur vóóruit.

Of er werkelijk energie wordt bespaard door de zomer- en wintertijd, is al decennia omstreden. In 1916 was men daar in ieder geval nog van overtuigd. Deskundigen berekenden toen dat er alleen al 91.800 ton minder steenkool hoefde te worden verstookt. En daar kwam dan nog een verlaagde afname van gas, petroleum en elektriciteit bij.

http://weblogs.nrc.nl/woordhoek/2010/05/06/het-woord-zomertijd/
Zie ook http://www.meesterbrein.com/view.php/waarom-is-zomertijd-wintertijd-bedacht.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mei 2010 10:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De veenbrand van 1917 in Zuidoost-Drenthe
door Marten Mulder

De brandstofschaarste, die ontstond omdat Duitsland geen steenkool meer leverde nu dit land in oorlog was (WO I), betekende een gouden tijd voor de verveners. Voor de industrie viel men terug op turf, die daarom aanzienlijk in prijs steeg. Het spreekt voor zich, dat de arbeiders, van wie velen een kommervol bestaan leidden, wilden delen in de enorme winsten die werden gemaakt. Hun politieke bewustwording en de enorme verschillen in inkomen tussen de arbeiders en de verveners leidden in 1917, met name in Valthermond, tot een van de heftigste stakingen in de Drentse veenkoloniën. De grootste veenbrand in de geschiedenis van de Drentse veenkoloniën maakte echter een einde aan deze staking.

Op 21 mei 1917 ontstaan op de Zuiderdwarsplaats, woedde hij al snel in Valthermond, Valtherveen en Exloërveen. Honderden hectares turf, bruggen, schepen en meer dan honderd huizen werden een prooi van het vuur. Een groter drama echter was de dood van 16 mensen tengevolge van deze grote veenbrand, die dagenlang aanhield en tot in de verre omtrek alles verkoolde. Men kan zich de radeloosheid voorstellen van de mensen, die probeerden het vege lijf en nog wat schamele bezittingen te redden. Als men al verzekerd was, dan was het vaak veel te laag.
Voor zover de schepen zelf niet prooi van het vuur waren geworden, waren ze volgeladen met huisraad, dat was gered uit de brandende puinhopen.

Oorzaken van de brand zouden onder andere geweest zijn het niet voldoende doven van een koffievuurtje door de veenarbeiders en het verspreiden van vonken door een locomotief van een baggermachine. In elk geval braken op meerdere plaatsen in het veen branden uit. Van de zijde van de locale overheden werden verwijten gemaakt in de richting van de stakende veenarbeiders. Was ieder gewoon aan het werk geweest, dan zou een brand van deze omvang niet mogelijk zijn geweest. Brandweereenheden uit de regio, bijgestaan door militaire eenheden, kregen hulp uit andere delen van het land.

Lees verder op http://www.dodenakkers.nl/artikelen/rampen/260-veenbrand.html
Zie ook http://www.historisch-emmen.nl/historie/veen-krotten-branden/vkb30.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mei 2010 10:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdrag van Versailles

De herstelbetalingen - In het VvV was de hoogte van de aan het Duitse Rijk opgelegde herstelbetalingen niet exact vermeld. Door een speciale commissie werd het bedrag tot 21 mei 1921 vastgesteld; tot die datum moest het Rijk 20 miljard goudmark afbetalen, en daarnaast nog allerlei zaken uitleveren als schepen, machines, steenkolen enz. Op een conferentie te Londen in mrt. 1921 werd een som van 226 miljard goudmark genoemd. De Duitse vertegenwoordiging wees dit enorme bedrag af, waarop als sanctie door de geallieerden Duisburg en Düsseldorf werden bezet. Op 5 mei 1921 stelden de geallieerden het totaal aan herstelbetalingen vast op 132 miljard goudmark, wat onder druk van een Londens ultimatum van dezelfde dag (bezetting van het Roergebied) door de Rijksdag (220 tegen 172 stemmen) noodgedwongen werd geaccepteerd. Volgens de Londense eis moest Duitsland 30 jaar lang jaarlijks 2 miljard goudmark betalen alsmede 26% van de waarde van zijn export. Niet verdisconteerd waren de bedragen verbonden aan het verlies van Duits grondgebied en Duitse leveringen van materiële aard op grond van het VvV. Het Duitse Rijk kon aan deze eisen niet voldoen; het kwam in 1923 tot openlijk verzet tegen de Franse bezetting van het Roergebied en er ontstond een enorme inflatie.

Van de eigenste Wiki! Lees verder op http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.be/wiki/index.php/Verdrag_van_Versailles#De_herstelbetalingen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mei 2010 10:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdrag van Trianon

Een van de vijf in voorsteden van Parijs gesloten verdragen die na de Eerste Wereldoorlog de oorlogstoestand tussen de Entente en de Centrale Mogendheden formeel beëindigden, was het in paleis Le Grand Trianon te Versailles op 4 juni 1920 gesloten Verdrag van Trianon met Hongarije, dat echter eerst van kracht werd na de ratificatie door Frankrijk op 26 juli 1921.
De verdragssluiting werd vertraagd doordat het bewind van Károlyi (graaf Michael Károlyi, 1875-1955, door Karl I op 31 okt. 1918 tot premier benoemd) en later dat van de communisten niet werd erkend. Eerst op 25 nov. 1919 nodigden de geallieerden de Hongaarse regering uit om de vredesvoorwaarden in ontvangst te nemen. Deze werden op 15 jan. 1920 aan de Hongaarse afvaardiging onder aanvoering van graaf Apponyi ter hand gesteld met het verzoek binnen 15 dagen te reageren. De Hongaren verlangden op 12 febr. handhaving van de bestaande grenzen en in verband daarmee een volksraadpleging in de gebieden die moesten worden afgestaan. Deze eis werd op 5 mei door de geallieerden verworpen, waarna Hongarije op 21 mei 1920 onder protest met het verdrag instemde en het op 4 juni in Trianon ondertekende.

Deze ook! Lees verder op http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Verdrag_van_Trianon
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Essex Weekly News of May 21 1915 - Ypres Special

The Essex Weekly News of May 21 1915 ran a special report on the action at YPRES, of which the following are extracts:

ESSEX YEOMANRY IN ACTION.
HEROIC CHARGE AT YPRES.
REPORTED HEAVY LOSSES.

Although no list of casualties in the Essex Yeomanry has been published officially, a number of letters received by relatives of men serving in the regiment go to show that they were engaged in severe fighting on Thursday, May 13th, and that the losses in killed, wounded and, missing are considerable.
One Correspondent, Trooper H. J. Tucker, writing to his father, who resides at Spelbrook, Bishops Stortford, states that when there was a roll call the casualties were found to be 168, and that included Col. Deacon, commanding, who is understood to be wounded and missing.
We have made an endeavour to compile a list based on information contained in private letters which have come to hand since Monday, and have taken every care possible in the difficult circumstances to ensure accuracy. The following names we obtained up to yesterday:-

(amongst those listed) Brock, Sergt., Rayne

After the list of names and any biographical notes the Weekly News dedicated two columns to reporting eye witness accounts. Again the following are extracts:

STORY OF DESPERATE FIGHTING.
HOW THE YEOMANRY MADE THE GERMANS RUN.

From the descriptions of the fighting written by those who took part in it to relatives and friends at home it is clearly evident that the Essex Yeomanry behaved in a very gallant manner. Officers and men alike distinguished themselves, behaving with all the cool and unflinching courage of their race. They made on May 13 a reputation for bravery of which the county has every reason to be proud, and their conduct is an inspiration to others.

THE STORY IN BRIEF.

It is possible from the early materials to obtain a general conception of the battle on this memorable day on which for the first time in the Great War a Territorial regiment belonging to Essex was under fire. The distinction, which deserves to become historic, will doubtless be cherished by the gallant Yeoman. Their conduct will enable every man now and hereafter to feel proud to serve in such a unit.

Leaving their horses in the rear the regiment were moved up to the firing line as infantry for the time being. On Wednesday night, May 12, they were employed in trench digging. The next day (Thursday, May 13) they occupied reserve trenches, being subjected for hours to a terrific bombardment by the German artillery. The British front-line trenches were smashed, and the reserve trenches occupied by the Yeomanry (who formed part of a British Brigade) became the foremost firing line.

THE ADVANCE OF THE BRITISH

In the afternoon, about half past two, orders were given for the British to advance. To do this the Essex Yeomanry had to charge across a space which was swept by rifles and machine guns. They managed to reach German trenches, driving the enemy out with the bayonet. Then they were counter-attacked, the captured trenches being heavily bombarded. It was at this period that most casualties occurred, and also later when the Yeomanry were ordered to retire, the object in view – to prevent a German advance – having been achieved.

“RAN LIKE HARES”

One account we received from a trustworthy source states that the Essex man charged to the fox-hunting cry and that the “Germans ran like hares” when they saw the British bayonets coming towards them.

VIVID ACCOUNT BY A DUNMOW TROOPER.

A vivid personal account of the battle is contained in a letter written last Sunday by Trooper Jack Mills to his father, Mr A. J. Mills, contractor, of Dunmow.

Trooper Mills is now in the Middlesex Hospital at Clacton, suffering from injuries caused by a shell. He is only 18 years of age, and he enlisted for the war upon the outbreak of hostilities. He belongs to the Dunmow Troop, C Squadron. “I am once more in England,” he begins, and proceeds:-

I was in the terrible battle of Ypres, where the Essex Yeomanry lost so many men. I was hit in the stomach by a piece of dirt thrown up by a shell at my feet. How I came out alive I can’t think! The men who were with us and have been all through the war from the retreat from Mons to Neuve Chapelle said the battle of Ypres was ten times worse than anything up till then.

STARTING FOR THE TRENCHES

I will try to give you a little account of the battle from the time we went into the trenches to the day I was sent away.

On the Tuesday we went from our billets to a place about four miles from Ypres. We marched 2½ miles, and spent Wednesday there in a dug-out. From the time we started we were shelled all the way.

On Wednesday evening we left our dug out and marched to the firing line to dig support trenches. To reach the line we had to march through Ypres, and as we passed through the city it was one mass of flames and was still being shelled. Dead horses and people lay all around in scores.

We reached our trenches and had so far only two wounded. We set to work digging, and had got fairly on the way when a German star shell gave us away. Instantly we knew what being under shell-fire was, but fortunately did not lose many men then.

We left those trenches and occupied trenches to the front line. It was then about midnight. We had some sleep until four o’clock, when the Germans commenced what our men described as “the most terrible bombardment during the war.” They started at four in the morning and did not leave off until dark.

During this time our front line trench was blown up and occupied by the Germans under their own shell-fire. Our trench then became the firing line, and we began to get shells.

ORDERED TO CHARGE

Our section were on the look out, and a shell burst overhead and down went a chap on either side of me. They shelled our trench until it was no longer possible to hold it, and we retired to the right. This was at mid-day. The Germans still came on, and as things looked bad we were ordered to fix bayonets and charge.

Now, we had 400 yards of perfectly open ground to charge over, and the cannon and machine guns mowed us down like nine-pins. Then the charge slackened, but not for many seconds. On we went again, and next minute Lieut. Holt fell, and Major Roddick also fell back dead.

The remainder of us reached the parapet of the first German trench, but the Germans did not wait for the bayonet; they fled to their second trench. As we began to climb over the parapet our Colonel (Col. Deacon) and several others fell, and I also got laid one.

German supports then came up, and finding we had only twenty men in the captured German trench we tried to hold on until our other men could come up. Soon, however, our number was reduced to twelve, and the order was passed along “Every man for himself! Get back if you can!”

SLOWLY RETIRED

Crawling on our stomachs and taking cover behind our dead comrades, we slowly retired. All the time it was raining hard, and for every spot of rain a shell fell.

I and another chap, got half-way back, when we came across a pal of mine, shot through the groin and in terrible pain. The Germans were slowly overtaking us, but we lifted him up, and as we did so he got a bullet through his foot. We half-dragged and half-carried him to our lines, and then the Red Cross took him away.

We reached our own trenches again, and managed to hold them until the 19th Durham supported us, and then with another charge we captured our first lines, which had been blown up in the morning. It is said that more lives are lost in “No man’s land” (a portion of the front before Ypres) than anywhere else. You get shelled on from all directions, and it is the perfect hell.

We went up to the trenches with 290 men, and at roll call on Friday there were only 78, but it is hoped that the others may have got with other regiments during the retirement.

However, we left the line in the same place we started, and we are not downhearted, except when we think of the fine fellows who fell that day for their country and their people at home.

Poor old Gowlett put his knee out again in the charge, but hung grimly on, and is now in hospital with me.

I don’t expect to be in hospital long, as the flesh was not pierced, but only bruised, and it shook me up a good deal.

http://www.essex-yeomanry.org.uk/in-the-news/109-essex-weekly-news-of-may-21-1915-ypres-special.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Driemastschoener de "Oceaan"

Hendrik Visser was stuurman op de ‘Oceaan’, een driemastschoener die met vracht de wereld over voer. Op 21 mei 1915 werd het schip ten noorden van Longships Lighthouse bij Landsend in de mist overvaren door het Engelse stoomschip Voltaire. Dat was net die ene keer dat Hendrik niet mee was.

http://www.artisartis.nl/?p=553
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Bellevue Times, 21 mei 1915

http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/BVT/1915/05/21/1/Ar00107.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De ‘Eerste Feministische Golf’, ±1870 - 1920.

Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog bezocht Aletta Jacobs, samen met andere strijdsters voor vrouwenkiesrecht, de regeringsleiders
van de oorlogvoerende landen om voor vrede te pleiten.
Op vrijdag 21 mei 1915 om 3 uur sprak zij met Von Jagow, de Duitse minister van buitenlandse zaken in zijn werkkamer.
Zij spraken over de mogelijkheid van vrede. Aletta schrijft hierover in haar reisverslag:

Op zijn droeve uiting dat deze oorlog een waarschuwend voorbeeld was voor de levende generatie, maar dat er na een
paar geslachten toch weer een oorlog zou uitbreken, omdat de militante (strijdlustige) natuur van de mannen hen tot
oorlogvoeren dreef, had ik gelegenheid op te merken, dat vóór die tijd de vrouwen de macht zouden verkregen hebben
om samen met de mannen de regering te leiden. Von Jagow antwoordde ”dat is de enige hoop voor de toekomst, dat
de zachtere gevoelens van de vrouwen uitdrukking kunnen vinden in de regeringskringen.”
Deze minister uitte ook nog zijn bevreemding, dat niet in alle landen de vrouwen gemeenschappelijk waren opgestaan
om zich tegen deze oorlog te verzetten
.

Bron: Reisverslag in het archief Aletta Jacobs, inventarisnummer 439, IIAV Amsterdam, http://www.devrouwbeslist.nl/verdieping/efg-opdracht.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hondentractie in het Nederlandse leger

(...) Toen op 1 Augustus 1914 Land- en Zeemacht mobiliseerden, ging men al spoedig over tot het
vorderen in den lande van de nodige trekhonden ten behoeve van deze tractienoviteit in het
leger.

Bij aanschrijving van het Departement van Oorlog van 21 Mei 1915, IIe Afdeling No. 150
werd een (ontwerp-) Voorschrift (No. 110) aan de betreffende onderdelen verstrekt, dat een
vrij uitgebreid richtsnoer was voor

"De Honden Tuigen en Karren der Infanterie Mitrailleurs".

Aan de verzorging der honden werd grote aandacht besteed. Alvorens de plaats in de
gelederen in te nemen, werd Castor, Nero of Alexander grondig gekeurd, kreeg als
"Rijkshond" een stamboeknummer en werd op een stamboekkaart van het betreffende
regiment infanterie ingeschreven.

Zijn signalement vermeldde geslacht, schofthoogte, kleur, lang- of kortstaart en eventueel
bijzondere kentekenen. De Administrateur der Brigade tekende de stukken en de hond
behoorde nu met het paard en de postduif tot de gemobiliseerde dieren in de landmacht. (...)

http://www.collectie.legermuseum.nl/sites/strategion/contents/i004545/arma11%20hondentractie%20in%20het%20nederlandse%20leger.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

D.R. McLean's ANZAC Letters - Letters from my grandfather to his family in New Zealand during WWI

France, 21st May 1916

Dear Mother,

We are now in the trenches and as the weather is fine are not having such a bad time. Except when there is a bit of shelling going on here things are reasonably quiet. There is a cuckoo that flies over our trenches night and morning giving its peculiar cry and in a hole next to our gun and dugout a cat with three kittens has taken up its abode. It lives on the mice and rats that are so plentiful here.

Tomorrow we go out for an eight day spell into a fairly large town that is close by. There we get hot baths and clean clothing. I have not come across Gordon since leaving Egypt. His brigade left from Port Said and although they are somewhere near us we do not know exactly where.

We have an orchard just behind us and the gooseberries and currants are just ripening. With you of course the fruit season will now be over. I hope you have done well.

I do not know whether this will pass the censor or not, but will close now with best regards to all from your affectionate son,

Rawei

http://drmcleansanzacletters.blogspot.com/2010/12/france-21st-may-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stad Brugge - Bericht aan de bevolking - 21 mei 1917

http://www.bruggeinaffiches.be/content/mappen.php?map=360c
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henri Bidou, A propos de Ballets, in: Le Journal des D'ebats, 21 mei 1917

Picasso heeft twee managers als kubistische constructies bedacht: ze bestaan uit
vlakken en geometrische constructies in een grillige schikking. Maar onder de buik van
één van hen komen twee menselijke beentjes, die weing verheven huppelen. En heel die
stellage, waarin de menselijke figuur slechts herkenbaar is aan een pijp en een trompet,
Pablo Picasso, Manager uit 'Parade' is van een nauwelijks schilderachtige lelijkheid. Een
paard, dat wordt gevormd door twee dansers en een vrij aardig hoofd, is niet echt een
nieuwe figuur; men heeft al honderdmaal deze circusuitvinding gezien en Engelse clowns
leggen er meer fantasie in. (...)

http://www.cultuurnetwerk.nl/producten_en_diensten/bronnenbundels/1989/1989_63.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

American Red Cross Parade, Birmingham, Alabama. Birmingham View Company., 05/21/1918

http://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/5506532018/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Russen in Rotterdam

Zo'n vijf duizend Russen, voor het grootste deel ontsnapt uit Duitse krijgsgevangenschap, streken vanaf 1915 neer in goedkope pensions in Rotterdam en Schiedam. De politie kreeg hierop veel klachten van burgers te behandelen over dronkenschap, tasjesroof en schennis der eerbaarheid.
Politieke tweespalt verscheurde de Russische kolonie sinds de oktoberrevolutie en de daarop volgende burgeroorlog in het vaderland. De in Den Haag uitgegeven krant Golos Rodiny was de stem van het behoudende kamp.
In Rotterdam werd, op 21 mei 1918, de eerste en enige Russische Sovjet in Nederland opgericht. Nog geen tien dagen later werden de leden ervan gevangen gezet.
Het Sowjet-Komité voor Russen in Nederland, in 1918 vanuit de Communistische Partij opgezet, hielp duizend sympathisanten van de Roden met geld de oostgrens over terug naar huis. De rest werd begin 1919 op kosten van de overheid per schip gerepatrieerd.

http://www.iisg.nl/collections/refugees/russian-nl.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 22:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Glasraam voor soldaat Dekeyne (Stuivekenskerke - WOI)

Beschrijving Relict - Spitsboogvormig venster met bovenaan een oculus en daaronder twee lancetvensters met gefigureerde glas-in-loodramen, waarvan één opgedragen aan een gesneuvelde militair. In het oculus staat een witte lelie met banderol 'Vader in uwe handen beveel ik mijnen geest'. In het rechtse lancetvenster tussen het gebladerte het Romeinse cijfer 'XIII', eronder de voorstelling van de kruisafneming 'Jezus wordt van het kruis afgedaan' onderaan op banderol, 'Memento Domine Familia Ars Harmel Billiouw' op een tweede banderol helemaal onderaan. In het linkse lancetvenster het Romeinse cijfer 'XIV ' temidden van het gebladerte, eronder de voorsteling van de graflegging met de Calvarieberg op de achtergrond 'Jezus wordt in het graf gelegd' op een banderol eronder. Helemaal onderaan 'Memento Domine Theo Dekeyne miles + pro patria XX -V - XVIII' eveneens op een banderol. H. 350 cm x Br. 191 cm

Historische Achtergrond - Glasraam opgedragen aan Theophile Charles Dekeyne, soldaat 2de klasse c.s. 1915. Hij behoorde tot de 1ste Compagnie van het 8ste Linieregiment en zou (anders dan vermeld op het glasraam) gestorven zijn op 21 mei 1918, om 2.30u in de morgen (dus niet 20 mei 1918). Hij werd op 23 mei 1918 begraven op de begraafplaats van Beveren aan de IJzer.

http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/445
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bornem in WOl - DAGBOEK PATER VAN DONINCK

Dinsdag 21 mei 1918 (dag 1381)
Bernardus is deze morgen, 9 uur, met de trein naar Sint-Niklaas op vacantie.
Leonardus ontving om 10 uur onverwacht bezoek van 2 nichten uit Wilrijk. Ze vertrokken om 4 uur over Temse.
Om 11 uur ontving ik een telegram het overlijden meldend mijner oudste zuster, 18 dezer. R.I.P.
Het telegram was uit Herentals verzonden 11 uur voormiddag den 18e. Werd te Mechelen gestempeld den 18e en is te Puurs waarschijnlijk wegens de Pinksterdagen blijven liggen. Lijkdienst vandaag 21. R.I.P.
Verleden nacht 1 ¼ - 1 ½ herhaaldelijk vliegergeronk en bomontploffingen. Men vertelt dat er te Willebroek en te Puurs mensen gedood zijn.

http://www.wo1bornem.be/dagboek-pater-van-doninck/detail/nws-580-van-maandag-20-mei-1918-tot-en-met-zondag-26-mei-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2011 22:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 mei 1918 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Theophiel De Keyne is op 3 oktober 1896 geboren in het Westhoekdorp Stuivekenskerke, nu een deelgemeente van Diksmuide. De ongehuwde zoon van Charles Louis en Eugenie Marie Dehouck is landbouwer van beroep. Hij treedt in 1915 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

Op 10 mei 1918 krijgt hij in Sint-Juliaan (Langemark) een geweerkogel in de rechterdij. Met diepe wonden in de dijbeenslagader wordt hij geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Beveren-aan-de-IJzer, waar hij op 21 mei 1918 om 2.30 uur 's nachts overlijdt.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 23 mei 1918 begraven op het kerkhof van Beveren-aan-de-IJzer, grafnummer 3140, en op 14 juli 1924 herbegraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van De Panne, grafnummer J - 118

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/21-mei-1918-1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mei 2019 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Militairen van Diest in de Groote Oorlog: CHUFFART Leon Hector Joseph

Geboorte datum: 24-08-1874
Geboorteplaats: Diest
Adres: Diest
Vader: Hector Joseph
Moeder: Paternotte Melanie
Burgerlijke stand: gehuwd met Huybrechts Elisabeth
Beroep: maker van chemische metalen
Grootte: 1m 695
Haarkleur: kastanjebruin

Militair:
Indiensttreding: 07-08-1914
Stamnummer: 131/62582 (14256)
Graad: Eerste Sergeant Majoor Oorlogsvrijwilliger
Eenheid: 1e Karabiniers
Datum overlijden: 21-05-1918
Ouderdom: 43 jaar
Oorzaak: longziekte
Plaats hospitaal: Cap Ferrat section Col de Caire Belgisch militair hospitaal
Plaats overlijden: Saint Jean Cap Ferrat
Begraafplaats: Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat (FR) gemeentelijke begraafplaats

http://groote-oorlog-diest.jouwweb.nl/chuffart-leon-hector
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