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13 november

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2006 15:53    Onderwerp: 13 november Reageer met quote

1916 : British statesman expresses criticism of war effort

On November 13, 1916, the British statesman Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, better known as the fifth Marquess of Lansdowne, writes a memorandum to the British cabinet questioning the direction of the Allied war effort in World War I.


Born in 1845, Lord Lansdowne held various positions in the British government over the course of his career, including governor-general of Canada, viceroy of India, secretary of state for war during the Boer Wars and foreign secretary. In this last position, Lansdowne signed an alliance agreement with Japan (1902) and in 1904 negotiated the Anglo-French "Entente Cordiale" with his French counterpart, Theophile Delcasse. Having switched his allegiance from the Liberal to the Conservative Party before becoming war secretary, Lansdowne became leader of the opposition party in the House of Lords after a Liberal victory in 1906.


In 1915, with the country at war, Lansdowne was named a minister in the newly formed coalition government of Prime Minister H.H. Asquith. By the following year, with the Allies locked in a bloody stalemate with Germany on the Western Front and reeling from a disastrous invasion of the Ottoman Empire, Lansdowne began to openly question the direction of the British war effort. "No one for a moment believes we are going to lose this war," he began his memo of November 13, 1916, "but what is our chance of winning it in such a manner, and within such limits of time, as will enable us to beat our enemy to the ground and impose upon him the kind of terms which we so freely discuss?"


Though he was immediately attacked by his colleagues in the cabinet--Sir William Robertson labeled him one of the "cranks, cowards, and philosophers, some of whom are afraid of their own skins being hurt"--Lansdowne was not alone in his pessimism. None other than David Lloyd George--the secretary of war, who would become prime minister the following year--admitted to a dinner companion less than a week later that he was "very depressed about the war." For his part, Lansdowne remained vocal about his misgivings. He was not given a post in the Conservative-dominated Lloyd George cabinet in 1917, but continued his work in the House of Lords.


In November 1917, Lansdowne published a letter in the Daily Telegraph reiterating his arguments for a negotiated peace. "We are not going to lose this war," Lansdowne repeated, "but its prolongation will spell ruin for the civilized world, and an infinite addition to the load of human suffering which already weighs upon it...We do not desire the annihilation of Germany as a great power ...We have no desire to deny Germany her place among the great commercial communities of the world."

Though he was again lambasted by his British critics, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was said to have been "impressed" with Lansdowne’s arguments. They came to nothing, however, and as became clear through post-war research, even if the British establishment had agreed to pursue peace negotiations, Germany in 1917 would never have accepted peace based on the antebellum status quo.

www.history.com
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2006 15:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

Erfolge der Marinetruppen in Flandern -
Neue Kämpfe bei Eydtkuhnen
Großes Hauptquartier, 13. November, vormittags.
Am Yser-Abschnitt bei Nieuport brachten unsere Marinetruppen dem Feinde schwerste Verluste bei und nahmen 700 Franzosen gefangen. Bei den gut fortschreitenden Angriffen bei Ypern wurden weitere 1100 Mann gefangengenommen.
Heftige französische Angriffe westlich und östlich Soissons wurden unter empfindlichen Verlusten für die Franzosen zurückgeschlagen.
An der ostpreußischen Grenze bei Eydtkuhnen und südlich davon, östlich des Seenabschnittes, haben sich erneute Kämpfe entwickelt; eine Entscheidung ist noch nicht gefallen.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)





Von den belgischen Truppen
Amsterdam, 13. November (Priv.-Tel., Ctr. Frkst )
Der "Telegraaf" meldet von der holländischen Grenze: Die belgischen Truppen, die an der Yser gekämpft haben, genießen nun eine Ruhepause, die sie dringend nötig haben. Ein Regiment Infanterie hat zwischen Nieuport und Dixmuiden in einer einzigen Nacht sieben Bajonettangriffe gemacht. Von 250 kehrten nur etwa 50 zurück und in anderen Abteilungen waren die Verluste noch stärker. Man kann annehmen, daß die Belgier allein an der Yser 10000 Tote und Verwundete hatten. Die leichter Verwundeten blieben in Frankreich, die Schwerverwundeten werden nach England gebracht, wo sie vor allem bei der Heilsarmee verpflegt werden Die meisten Offiziere tun auch ihre Pflicht, aber außerordentlich viele sind von ihnen gefallen, und König Albert ist sehr ungnädig gegen sie, die ungeschickt zu sein scheinen, ganz gleich, auf welcher Rangstufe sie sich befinden. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Tarnow von den Russen besetzt -
Die Kriegsgefangenen in Österreich-Ungarn
Wien, 13. November. (W. B.)
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Im Norden ereignete sich gestern an der Front unserer Armeen nichts von Bedeutung. In Tarnow, Jaslo und Krosno ist der Feind eingerückt.
Die Gesamtzahl der in der Monarchie internierten Kriegsgefangenen ist bis gestern auf 867 Offiziere und 92 727 Mann gestiegen.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 2)





Serbisches Hauptquartier verlegt
Wien, 13. November. (W. B.)
Zu dem Vordringen der österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen in Serbien melden die Blätter: Nach unserem großen Siege auf den Höhen von Kuliste wollten sich die Serben auf den Höhen von Kostajnik sammeln und sich neu gruppieren. Sie wurden jedoch von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen vor der Durchführung dieser Absicht zum Kampfe gezwungen. Kostainik wurde genommen, wodurch der Weg nach Krupanj frei wurde, das am 9. November trotz hartnäckiger Gegenoffensive siegreich erstürmt wurde. Der Feind zog sich in der Richtung auf den Plecska-Fluß zurück. Gleichzeitig sicherten sich unsere Truppen die vorzügliche Straße von Schabatz nach Loznica, parallel mit der gleichnamigen, gleichfalls besetzten Eisenbahnlinie. Infolge unserer energischen aufeinanderfolgenden Angriffe sind die Verluste der Serben sehr bedeutsam. Um Krupanj allein wurden 3000 Gefangene, darunter 40 Offiziere, gemacht, 8 Belagerungsgeschütze und 12 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.

Wien, 13. November. (W. B. Nichtamtlich )
Die "Reichspost" meldet aus Sofia: Nach aus Nisch eingetroffenen Nachrichten ist das serbische Hauptquartier in größter Eile von Valjewo nach Mladenowatz verlegt worden. 1


1915

Die Paßhöhen des Jastrebac genommen
Großes Hauptquartier, 13. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Vereinzelte russische Vorstöße wurden abgewiesen.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Die Verfolgung im Gebirge schreitet fort. Die Paßhöhen des Jastrebac (Berggruppe südöstlich von Krusevac) sind von unseren Truppen genommen.
Über 1100 Serben fielen gefangen in unsere Hand. Ein Geschütz wurde erbeutet.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die neue Schlacht bei Görz
Wien, 13. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Nordwestlich von Czartorysk wurde wieder ein feindlicher Angriff abgewiesen. Sonst haben nur Artilleriekämpfe stattgefunden.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die großen Kämpfe im Görzischen, die neuerdings den Charakter einer Schlacht annahmen, dauerten auch gestern fort. Wieder folgte an der ganzen bisherigen Kampffront Angriff auf Angriff; die verzweifelten Anstrengungen des Feindes scheiterten jedoch am zähen Widerstand unserer mit unübertrefflichem Heldenmut fechtenden Truppen. Auch der Tolmeiner Brückenkopf stand tagsüber unter starkem Artilleriefeuer. Ein Angriff auf unsere Stellung am Vrsic wurde abgeschlagen.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unsere Visegrader Gruppe hat die Vorstellungen des Gegners im unteren Limgebiete genommen.
Die über Ivanijica vorgehenden österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen haben die Höhen Vk. Livada und Crvena Gora erkämpft. Eine andere Gruppe hat nach Überwindung aller durch Schneefall, Kälte und hohes Gebirge gegebenen Schwierigkeiten im Raume zwischen dem Ibar- und Moravicatale die wichtigen Höhen Smrcak Trigonometer 1649 und Kasutica Trigonometer 1512 erstürmt und einige Gegenangriffe abgewiesen.
Die Armee des Generals v. Gallwitz erkämpfte die Paßhöhen im Jastrebacgebirge und machte 1100 Gefangene.
Die bulgarische Armee hat den Morawaübergang fortgesetzt.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)





Rücktritt Churchills

Winston Churchill

London, 13. November. (Meldung der Reuterschen Bureaus.)
Churchill hat in einem Brief an Asquith seinen Rücktritt angeboten


1916
Weitere Fortschritte an den rumänischen Grenzpässen
Großes Hauptquartier, 13. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Zwischen Ancre und Somme zeitweilig starker Artilleriekampf.
Unser Feuer zerstreute feindliche Infanterie im Vorgelände unserer Stellungen südlich von Warlencourt und wirkte gegen Ansammlungen in den englischen Gräben westlich von Eaucourt l´Abbaye. In Sailly-Saillisel halten wir den Ostrand. Beiderseits des Dorfes griffen die Franzosen nachmittags mit starken Kräften an, sie wurden abgewiesen.
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz:
Ein nördlich der Doller (Oberelsaß) nach Artillerievorbereitung erfolgender französischer Vorstoß scheiterte vollkommen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinz Leopold von Bayern:
Zwischen Meer und Karpathen keine wesentlichen Ereignisse.
Front des Generaloberst Erzherzogs Carl:
Im Görgenygebirge haben deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Bataillone den Bitca Arsurilor genommen. Dort, auf den Höhen östlich von Belbor und auf dem Ostufer der Putna versuchten die Russen in mehrmaligen Angriffen vergeblich, uns den errungenen Geländegewinn streitig zu machen.
Auch auf den Bergen zu beiden Seiten des Oitoz-Passes wurden feindliche Vorstöße zurückgewiesen.
Nordwestlich von Campolung ist Candesti von unseren Truppen genommen worden.
Südöstlich des Roten Turm-Passes und der Szurdukstraße sowie nördlich von Orsowa hatten rumänische Kräfte bei starken Gegenangriffen keinerlei Erfolg; sie büßten wieder neben blutigen Verlusten über 1000 Gefangene ein.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Längs der Donau gegen den linken Flügel unserer Stellung in der nördlichen Dobrudscha vorfühlende feindliche Abteilungen wurden vertrieben. Cernavoda ist vom linken Donauufer her erfolglos beschossen worden.
Mazedonische Front:
Inder Ebene von Monastir starkes Artilleriefeuer. Gegen verlustreiche Angriffe des Feindes bei Lazec und Kenali und nordöstlich von Brod an der Cerna sind die deutsch-bulgarischen Stellungen restlos behauptet worden.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff. 1)





Deutsche Fliegerangriffe auf Lunéville und Nancy
Erneuter feindlicher Fliegerangriff im Saar-Gebiet

Berlin, 13. November. (Amtlich.)
Feindliche Flugzeuge griffen am 10. November zwischen 9.30 und 10.30 abends Ortschaften und Fabrikanlagen im Saar-Gebiet an. Da die Bomben zum Teil auf freies Feld fielen, zum Teil überhaupt nicht explodierten, wurde nur geringer Sachschaden angerichtet, militärischer Sachschaden überhaupt nicht. Dagegen wurden verschiedene Wohnhäuser getroffen und dabei in Burbach ein Einwohner getötet, einer schwer und zwei leicht verletzt, in Dillingen zwei leicht verletzt. In Saargemünd wurde durch einen verirrten Flieger ein Haus zerstört und dabei zwei Einwohner getötet und sechs leicht verletzt. Ein Angriff auf lothringische Ortschaften und Fabrikanlagen, der am selben Tage kurz vor Mitternacht erfolgte, blieb gänzlich erfolglos. Noch in derselben Nacht warfen unsere Flugzeuggeschwader über 1000 kg Bomben auf Lunéville, Nancy und den Flugplatz Malzeville ab. An der Somme belegten unsere Bombengeschwader in derselben Nacht die Bahnhöfe, Munitionslager, Truppenunterkünfte und Flugplätze des Feindes mit nahezu 5000 kg Bomben. Noch lange war der Erfolg durch gewaltige Brände weithin sichtbar. 1)





Abermaliger Fliegerangriff auf das Saar-Gebiet
Berlin, 13. November. (Amtlich.)
In der Nacht vom 11. zum 12. November wiederholten die französischen Flugzeuge ihre Angriffe auf das Saar-Gebiet. Diesmal gelang es nur einem kleinen Teile von ihnen, bis zur Saar vorzustoßen. In Dillingen und Umgegend wurden einige Bomben abgeworfen, von denen eine einen Pferdestall, eine andere eine Waschküche traf. Dabei wurden 4 Personen schwer, 2 leicht verletzt. Getötet wurde niemand, der Sachschaden ist gering. Viele Bomben trafen die den Ort umgebenden Wiesen, wo sie in dem weichen Erdboden stecken blieben. Verschiedene Flugzeuge belegten die Orte Busendorf und Spittel mit Bomben. Dort wurde niemand verletzt, auch entstand kein Sachschaden. Endlich warf ein Flieger, der sich anscheinend über den Wolken verirrt hatte, in der Nähe von Neunkirchen einige Bomben aus eine Wiese. 1)





Baltischport von deutschen Torpedobooten beschossen
Berlin, 13. November. (Amtlich.)
In der Nacht vom 10. zum 11. November stießen deutsche Torpedobootsstreitkräfte auf einer Erkundungsfahrt in den Finnischen Meerbusen bis Baltischport vor und beschossen die Hafenanlagen dieses russischen Stützpunktes wirksam auf geringe Entfernung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Erfolgreicher Luftangriff auf Ravenna
Wien, 13. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Carl:
Im Bereich von Orsowa, an der Szurduk-Straße und südöstlich des Vörös Toronyer Passes rannte der Feind vergeblich gegen unsere Truppen an. Nordwestlich von Campolung warfen österreichisch-ungarische und deutsche Abteilungen die Rumänen aus dem zäh verteidigten Orte Candesti. Beiderseits von Soosmezö wurden mehrere rumänische Angriffe abgeschlagen. Im Abschnitt Tölgyes erstürmten österreichisch-ungarische und deutsche Truppen den Berg Bica Arsurilor nördlich von Hollo. Angriffe starker russischer Kräfte, die südöstlich von Tölgyes und bei Belbor unseren Kolonnen entgegengeworfen wurden, brachen zusammen.
Italienischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts von Belang.


Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.

Ereignisse zur See:
In der Nacht vom 12. auf den 13. belegten unsere Seeflugzeuge die Fabrikanlagen von Ponte Lagoscuro und die Bahnanlagen von Ravenna mit Bomben. Die Wirkung war verheerend. In ersterem Orte wurden Volltreffer in zwei Zuckerraffinerien, bei der Schwefelraffinerie, im Elektrizitätswerk und auf der Eisenbahnbrücke erzielt und mehrere Brände beobachtet. In Ravenna wurde das Bahnhofsgebäude voll getroffen. Unsere Flugzeuge sind unversehrt eingerückt.

Flottenkommando. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 13. November.
Heeresbericht vom 13. November:
Im Laufe des Vormittags des 11. Novembers warfen vier feindliche Flugzeuge Bomben auf Birelseba, die keinen Schaden verursachten; zwei Arbeiter wurden verletzt. Diese feindlichen Flugzeuge wurden durch die unsrigen vertrieben.
An der persischen und der Tigrisfront betätigen sich die Russen und die Engländer, da sie sehen, daß sie keinen militärischen Erfolg erzielen konnten, in Angriffen auf die unverteidigten Dörfer und Stämme und in schamloser Plünderung und Verheerung. Unsere Truppen werden die Räuber bestrafen.



1917
Italienische Panzerwerke erstürmt

Vizefeldwebel Buckler

Großes Hauptquartier, 13. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
In Flandern wehrten wir durch Feuer und im Gegenstoß starke Erkundungsabteilungen ab, die am frühen Morgen von den Belgiern im Yser-Gebiet, von den Engländern auf der Kampffront gegen unsere Stellungen vorgetrieben wurden.
Der Artilleriekampf blieb geringer als an den Vortagen. Am Abend verstärkte sich das Feuer bei Dixmuiden und in einigen Abschnitten des Hauptkampffeldes.
Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz:
Nördlich von Bruyeres brachte ein entschlossen durchgeführter Handstreich unserer Infanterie Gefangene und Maschinengewehre ein.
Auf dem östlichen Maasufer war die Artillerietätigkeit tagsüber lebhaft.
Leutnant Bongartz errang seinen 22., Vizefeldwebel Buckler seinen 25. Luftsieg.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Südlich von der Bahn Riga-Petersburg wiesen unsere Posten den Angriff einer russischen Streifabteilung ab.
Südöstlich von Gorodischtsche war ein Unternehmen deutscher und österreichisch-ungarischer Stoßtrupps erfolgreich.
An der mazedonischen Front schwoll der Artilleriekampf auf den Höhen östlich von Paralovo im Cerna-Bogen zu erheblicher Stärke an.
Italienische Front:
In den Sieben Gemeinden entrissen wir den Italienern den Monte Longara. Die im Gebirge zwischen dem Sugana- und Cismon-Tale vorgehenden Truppen erstürmten das Panzerwerk Leone auf dem Cima di Campo und die Panzerfeste Cima di Lana. Fonzaso ist in unserem Besitz. An der unteren Piave hat das Artilleriefeuer zugenommen.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)





Seegefecht an der flandrischen Küste
Berlin, 13. November. (Amtlich.)
Am 12. November kam es vor der flandrischen Küste zwischen unseren Torpedobooten und englischen Vorpostenstreitkräften zu einem kurzen Artilleriegefecht, wobei ein feindlicher Zerstörer getroffen wurde. Unsere Boote sind ohne Beschädigung eingelaufen. 1)





Die Luftangriffe auf deutsches Gebiet im Oktober
Berlin, 13. November. (Amtlich.)
Unsere Gegner benutzten die meist günstige Wetterlage im Oktober zu 19 größeren Angriffen auf das luxemburgisch-lothringische Industriegebiet und 14 Angriffen gegen die Städte Stuttgart, Trier, Koblenz, Dortmund, Tübingen, Frankfurt a. M., Pirmasens sowie mehrere Städtchen in der Pfalz, in Baden und im Rheingau. Bei den Angriffen auf die Industriegebiete an der Saar und Mosel blieb der angerichtete Schaden durchweg gering. Betriebsstörungen auch nur von kurzer Dauer wurden nicht ein einziges Mal hervorgerufen. Der lange Zeit vorher in der Auslandspresse angekündigte Massenangriff auf West- und Süddeutschland gelangte in der Nacht vom 2. zum 3. Oktober bei sehr günstiger Wetterlage zur Ausführung. Dem Angriff fielen 2 Tote und 15 Verletzte zum Opfer; im übrigen blieb er bis auf geringen Sachschaden völlig wirkungslos. Die anderen Angriffe auf das Heimatgebiet verursachten bis auf zwei leichte Beschädigungen an Bahngleisen keinerlei militärischen Schaden und nur unbedeutenden Schaden an Privathäusern. Durch die Angriffe wurden im ganzen 17 Personen getötet und 75 meist leicht verletzt, darunter 14 Kriegsgefangene. 12 der an diesen Angriffen beteiligten Flugzeuge wurden entweder brennend abgeschossen oder durch unsere Abwehrmaßnahmen zur Landung gezwungen; 1 feindliches Flugzeug, das sich völlig verirrt hatte, landete in der Schweiz und wurde interniert. Den wirksamen Maßnahmen unseres Heimatluftschutzes ist es zu danken, daß auch in diesem Monat die Hoffnung der Feinde auf die Zerstörung friedlicher deutscher Städte und die Vernichtung unserer Rüstungsindustrie vereitelt wurde. 1)


Zurück zur Seite:
Luftkrieg 1917



Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 13. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
In den Sieben Gemeinden wurden dem Feinde weitere Höhenstellungen entrissen. Östlich von Griano erstürmten österreichisch-ungarische Truppen das Panzerwerk Leone auf dem Cima di Campo. Gleichzeitig gelangte die Panzerfeste Cima di Lana gesprengt in unsere Hand. Mit dem Fall dieser beiden Werke ist in die stärkste Sperrgruppe der italienischen Grenzbefestigungen Bresche gelegt. Lamon und Fonzaso sind gewonnen. Die Truppen des Feldmarschalls Conrad haben in den letzten Tagen über 2500 Gefangene eingebracht. Im Cordevoletal wurde ein italienisches Regiment aufgerieben und zur Waffenstreckung gezwungen. Wir führten 1 Oberst, 4 Stabsoffiziere und 4000 Mann als Gefangene ab. An der unteren Piave stellenweise lebhaftere Kampftätigkeit.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Außer einem Stoßtruppunternehmen bei Gorodischtsche nichts von Belang.
Albanien:
Unverändert.

Der Chef des Generalstabes. 1)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 17:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 NOVEMBER 1918: GEALLIEERDEN BEZETTEN CONSTANTINOPEL

Op 13 November 1918, twee dagen na de wapenstilstand, bezetten geallieerde troepen de Ottomaanse hoofdstad Constantinopel. Een kleine vijf jaar zal de stad in geallieerde handen blijven.

Het Ottomaanse Rijk, dat in November 1914 de kant van het Duitse Rijk had gekozen, behoorde tot de verliezers van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. De Ottomanen werden in 1920 gedwongen om de vernederende vrede van Sèvres te tekenen, waardoor ze grote gebieden verloren. Mustafa Kemal Pasja, de nationalistische general die de Britten, Nieuw-Zeelanders en Australiërs in 1915 bij Gallipoli had verslagen, was het oneens met deze vrede. Hij begon een eigen regering in Ankara, die zich keerde tegen de buitenlandse bezetters en de sultan die dit allemaal maar toeliet.

Griekenland, dat Smyrna (het tegenwoordige Izmir) had bezet wilde grote delen van Anatolië veroveren, maar werd door Mustafa Kemal Pasja verslagen. De Turken rukten op naar Constantinopel, wat in Groot-Brittannië leidde tot de val van het kabinet van David Lloyd George. De Britten wilden geen oorlog met de Turken en besloten tot een nieuw vredesverdrag. Het verdrag van Lausanne van 24 juli 1923 bepaalde de nieuwe grenzen van Turkije.

De Grieken waren definitief uit Anatolië verdreven. De Britten en Fransen evacueerden Constantinopel. De laatste troepen vertrokken op 23 September de stad. Turkse troepen bezetten Constantinopel op 6 oktober. De stad ging verder onder de naam Istanbul. De nieuwe Turkse Republiek werd op 29 oktober uitgeroepen, met Ankara als de nieuwe hoofdstad.

De grenzen die Turkije in 1923 had zijn bijna precies dezelfde grenzen als het land nu heeft, met uitzondering van de grens met Noord-Syrië. In 1939 annexeerde Turkije de republiek Hatay.

https://jalta.nl/geschiedenis/13-november-1918-geallieerden-bezetten-constantinopel/

THE OCCUPATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE, 13 NOVEMBER 1918 – 23 SEPTEMBER 1923

Object description - British officer and sergeant discover in Constantinople dockyard wonderful old guns made of solid brass, used for firing old stone cannon balls. The mascot finds a new kennel. In the backgroud USS Hazelwood, HMS Sloop and minesweeper HMS Abidgton.

Coole foto! https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205249358
Nog meer foto's over 13 november 1918: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndmzjgjV1HQ
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 13 Nov 2018 8:34, in toaal 4 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 17:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 November 1914: William Jennings Bryan to Sir Cecil Spring-Rice

Letter from Sir Cecil Spring-Rice to Sir Arthur Nicolson, concerning William Jennings Bryan's Opinion of the Great War.

'Bryan spoke to me about peace as he always does. He sighs for the Nobel Prize, and besides that he is a really convinced peaceman. He has just given me a sword beaten into a ploughshare six inches long to serve as a paper-weight. It is adorned with quotations from Isaiah and himself. No one doubts his sincerity, but that is rather embarrassing for us at the present moment, because he is always at us with peace propositions. This time, he said he could not understand why we could not say what we were fighting for. The nation which continued war had as much responsibility as the country which began it. The United States was the one great Power which was outside the struggle, and it was their duty to do what they could to put an end to it. -- I felt rather cross and said that the United States were signatories to the Hague Convention, which had been grossly violated again and again without one word from the principal neutral nation. They were now out of court. They had done nothing to prevent the crime, and now they must not prevent the punishment. --

He said that all the Powers concerned had been disappointed in their ambitions. Germany had not taken Paris. France had not retaken Alsace, England had not cleared the seas of the German navy. The last month had made no appreciable difference in the relative positions of the armies, and there was now no prospect of an issue satisfactory to any Power. Why should they not make peace now, if they had to make peace a year hence after another year's fruitless struggle. It would be far wiser if each said what it was fighting for and asked the United States to help them in arriving at a peaceful conclusion. --

I asked him if he thought that under present circumstances Germany would give up Belgium and compensate her for her suffering. If not, how could the United States Government go on record as condoning a peace which would put the seal on the most disgraceful act of tyranny and oppression committed in modern times? I didn't believe there was a man in the country not a German or a Jew who could advocate such a cause. --

He got rather angry and said that if that was what we wanted, why did we not say so. He added, Who can tell who was really responsible for what had happened in Belgium or whether the treaty wasn't only a pretext?' I reminded him that he was a great admirer of Gladstone, who was like him, a great lover of peace, and that Gladstone had always maintained that if we had gone to war for Belgium in 1870, we should have gone to war for freedom and for public right and to save human happiness from being invaded by a tyrannous and lawless power, and that in such a war as that while the breath continued in his body he was ready to engage. This rather surprised him as he had read in the newspapers that Gladstone had always maintained that the Belgian Treaty was not binding."

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/bryrice.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 18:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anifer Erklärung, 12./13. November 1918
von Florian Sepp

König Ludwig III. (1845-1921, reg. 1912/13-1918), der sich angesichts der Revolution nach Schloss Anif bei Salzburg geflüchtet hatte, entband am 12. November 1918 die bayerischen Beamten, Offiziere und Soldaten vom dem auf ihn geleisteten Treueid. Die Regierung Eisner publizierte diese Erklärung am 13. November 1918 zusammen mit einer Erläuterung, in der sie vom "Thronverzicht" des Königs Kenntnis nahm. Tatsächlich aber haben weder der König noch Kronprinz Rupprecht (1869-1955) jemals auf ihren Thron verzichtet.

Lees verder op https://www.historisches-lexikon-bayerns.de/Lexikon/Anifer_Erkl%C3%A4rung,_12./13._November_1918
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The Manchester Regiment

21st (Service) Battalion (6th City)
Formed in Manchester on 13 November 1914 by the Lord Mayor and City. Moved to Morecambe in January 1915.
April 1915 : moved to Grantham and placed under command of 91st Brigade in 30th Division. Moved to Larkhill in September 1915.
Early November 1915 : landed at Boulogne.
20 December 1915 : Brigade transferred to 7th Division.
November 1917 : moved with Division to Italy.
13 September 1918 : left Division and returned to France. On arrival joined 7th Brigade in 25th Division.

http://www.1914-1918.net/mancs.htm
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Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

13 November 1915
Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, commander in chief of the British Army, visited the Australian positions on Anzac. He told the Australians:

The King asked me to tell you how splendidly he thinks you have done — you have done splendidly, better even than I thought you would.

Following this visit Kitchener recommended withdrawal of all British and Dominion troops from Gallipoli.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/november-1915.html

1915 BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI TIMELINE

13 November 1915 - Field Marshal Horatio Kitchener, British Secretary of State for War, visits Gallipoli.

22 November 1915 - Kitchener recommends evacuation of Anzac and Suvla.

http://www.ataturktoday.com/1915GallipoliCanakkale.htm

Thus to leave you–thus to part

At about 1.40 pm on 13 November 1915 a small boat arrived at North Beach. From it stepped Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, Commander in Chief of the British Army. He had come to Anzac to see the positions there for himself. As he walked up the pier with other generals, he was recognised and men came running from all over towards the pier where they surrounded the great man. Charles Bean watched Kitchener walk up from the pier:

The tall red cap [Kitchener] was rapidly closed in among them-but they kept a path and as the red cheeks turned and spoke to one man or another, they cheered him–they, the soldiers-no officers leading off or anything of that sort. It was a purely soldiers’ welcome. He said to them, ‘The King has asked me to tell you how splendidly he thinks you have done-you have done splendidly, better, even, than I thought you would.’
[Kevin Fewster, Frontline Gallipoli – C E W Bean’s diary from the trenches, Sydney, 1983, p.176]

Kitchener spent just over two hours at Anzac surveying the Turkish line from Australian trenches inland of the Sphinx and at Lone Pine. Two days later, after further consultation with senior commanders, he recommended to the British War Cabinet that Gallipoli–Anzac, Suvla and Helles–be evacuated. Without significant reinforcement and the bringing in of considerable artillery resources, little progress could, in his opinion, be made against the strengthening Turkish trenches. This was especially so at Anzac where a further surprise attack, such as had been conducted in August against Chunuk Bair and Kocacimentepe, was virtually impossible. Moreover, local commanders were extremely worried about the problems of supplying Gallipoli throughout the winter with its many severe storms.

Lees verder op http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/nbeach7.html
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Letter from Karl Abraham to Sigmund Freud, November 13, 1915

Allenstein, 13 November 1915

Dear Professor,

Your letter of the 7th1 took only three days to get here; the proofs followed yesterday. Many thanks for both. I am particularly glad that so far your sons have safely and honourably survived all dangers.

I have been able to breathe more freely for the last few days. For the past eight months I had the most exhausting job at this hospital, but I have now left the Surgical Department for good. I am at present organizing an observation ward for psychopathic soldiers and shall probably very shortly be doing only psychiatric and psychotherapeutic work, as has long been my wish. It is likely that I shall have to write a great many reports for the court, but I am sure I shall have time for analytical studies. In these few days, during which I have been busy with about a dozen patients, I have already made some interesting findings about the origin of paralyses in the war-wounded. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.052.0319a
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Women's Patrols

In the First World War it was decided to billet the soldiers in local towns and villages. Some people became concerned about the soldiers corrupting local girls. The Headmistresses' Association and the Federation of University Women suggested the formation of Woman's Patrols to stop local woman from becoming too friendly with the soldiers.

The War Office gave permission for these patrols to take place outside military camps. They were also very active in public parks and cinemas. After visiting 300 cinemas in three weeks, the Women's Patrol Committee recommended that lights were not dimmed between films.

Women's Patrols worked closely with the local police and the Women Police Volunteers. It is estimated that during the First World War over 2,000 patrols were established, including over 400 in London.

_-*-_

(1) Letter in The East Grinstead Observer from Charles Jenks of 34 Cantelupe Road (6th November, 1915)
I am writing to inform the council of the serious annoyance caused by inhabitants and visitors who use the public seats in the Mount Noddy Recreation Ground by the contemptible tactics of the Woman's Patrol. Having heard from various friends as well as from soldiers billeted at my house, of these women's actions, I went to the Mount Noddy Recreation Ground on Saturday evening from 9.30 pm to 10 pm. I saw two women make repeated journeys round the ground flashing electric torches on every seat as they passed. They also sat down on a seat adjacent to a couple who, as far as I could see were behaving in a perfectly correct manner. When this couple walked away the patrols directed a ray of light from a pocket torch on them, possibly with a view of finding out who they were. The council need to take steps to protect inhabitants and the exceedingly well-behaved troops quartered in the town from having this unjust slur cast upon their supposed behaviour.

(2) Letter signed 'One of the Annoyed' that appeared in The East Grinstead Observer (13th November, 1915)
Something must be done to stop these so- called "Ladies" from interfering with respectable girls and their friends. I'm not ashamed to admit that I made friends with several soldiers and I have found them to be perfect gentlemen. On two or three occasions one or two of these ladies spoke to me about the behaviour of the girls and soldiers in the town. These women seem to know all the girls in East Grinstead and Forest Row and all their business. They mentioned several things that I had done. They seem to know the exact place and time so I suppose they were watching me. I trust they will soon find something more useful to occupy their time.

(3) Unsigned letter in The East Grinstead Observer (13th November 1915)
It is about time something was done about ancient spinsters following soldiers about with their flash lights. I have seen a great deal of the soldiers who have been here and I consider that they have have been unfairly treated. Walking in the roads and fields accompanied by friends is no crime. What would these spinsters think if soldiers flashed a light upon them in their gardens or darkened drawing rooms?

(4) Letter in The East Grinstead Observer from M. Conner, 7 St. John's Road (20th November 1915)
I am not a member of a woman's patrol but I know several of these women and I admire their spirit and sacrifice. These women have an earnest desire for the welfare and morality of the girls. Preventative work is better than rescue work.

(5) Report by Women's Patrol during the war.
At a public house we watched three girls get into conversation with a sailor. Soon we beckoned to another and all five walked away. We followed until the girls, seeing us behind, turned sharply and left the men.

(6) Interview with a member of a Women's Patrol.
A special duty from the very first was to turn girls and lads out of the deep doorways and shop entrances. This is a job the police constable did not care to do, owing to the amount of abuse he got. But we never have any difficulty. Indeed the rule now is that as soon as we appear, out they come of their own accord, some sheepishly touching their caps with the remark: "All right, Miss." And yet we have not said a word.

(7) Helena Swanwick worked for the Women's International League during the First World War.
Sex before marriage was the natural female complement to the male frenzy of killing. If millions of men were to be killed in early manhood, or even boyhood, it behoved every young woman to secure a mate and replenish the population while there was yet time.

(8) Stephen McKenna, While I Remember (1921)
Anyone who lived in London during those feverish months had forced upon his notice a spectacle of debauchery which would have swelled the record of scandal if it had been made public but which is mercifully forgotten because it is incredible.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wpatrols.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Experiences of a Prisoner of War in Turkey : the Captain White story

(...) Early in February 1915, the Indian Government requested the support of an Australian air force unit for the Indian Army’s campaign in Mesopotamia. Forty five men, including White, were selected and the group was named the Mesopotamia Half Flight.

On 1 April White was promoted captain and adjutant of the Half Flight. The unit embarked for India on 20 April and after reaching Bombay were transferred to Basra (now part of present day Iraq).

On 13 November 1915 White and Captain Francis Yeats-Brown, 17th Indian Cavalry were taken prisoners of war. The following extract is from the official statement made by White on 31 December 1918 to the Administrative Headquarters, AIF describing what happened that day in the lead up to their capture: (The text remains as written.)

On 12th November, whilst at AZIZIEH, the, divisional Commander, Major General TOWNSHEND, ordered that the Telegraph lines in rear of the Turkish positions before BAGDAD be destroyed by Aeroplane, which was to land behind the enemy’s lines. Volunteers were asked for by the Flight Commander, and, with Captain F. YEATS-BROWN. 17th Indian Cavalry, (who was my observer), I volunteered for this task. I was flying a MAURICE-FARMAN Longhorn Aeroplane with a 70 h.p. Renault engine. Owing to the distance to be covered i had to carry tins of petrol and oil to fill up my tanks after landing for the return journey.

I left on 13th November 1915 and found that the telegraph lines ran along the main road from FELUDJAH to BAGDAD and not at some distance from it, as shewn in the Official maps. For this reason I had great difficulty in finding a place to land owing to the large number of Turkish troops of all arms that were marching along the road. I landed on a small patch of ground bounded by canals where the line was about 200 yards from the road, and where there appeared to be only Arabs and no regular troops about, but through trying to land as close as possible to the wires, and owing to the smallness of the patch of ground, I struck a telegraph pole after landing and broke the longeron and ribs of my lower left plane. Some Arabs opened fire from about 200 yards immediately I had landed and a cavalry man, whom I had passed over in landing, rode off for assistance to what we had mistaken for a deserted building, but was really a gendarmerie barracks. I filled my tanks and kept off the Arabs and Gendarmerie with the rifle which we carried in the aeroplane, while Capt-Yeats-Brown blew up the telegraph wires with guncotton. But the enemy had cover and were able to advance on us along the canal, and I was unable, not having a machine gun, to keep them off long enough to attempt temporary repairs, and though we started the engine, the aeroplane became entangled in the broken telegraph wires and we were quickly taken prisoners, although Capt. YEATS-BROWN attempted to taxi away at the last moment.

The Arabs struck White and Yeats-Brown with their rifle butts and because White had particularly exasperated them by shooting the rifle, struck him several times on the head. One blow delivered with an adze, left a particularly bad wound. Both prisoners were then taken to Baghdad where after three weeks in hospital, including a week’s solitary confinement for White, they were sent to Mosul. White was imprisoned at Mosul for two and a half months before being sent to Afion Kara Hissar the principal concentration camp of Australian prisoners of war in Turkey. He was imprisoned there for two years and three months. (...)

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/10/20/experiences-of-a-prisoner-of-war-in-turkey-the-captain-white-story/.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Ancre, 13-19 November 1916

The battle of the Ancre, 13-19 November 1916, was the final phase of the first battle of the Somme. It involved an attack on the German front line as it crossed the Ancre River, a sector of the front that had first been attacked on the first day of the battle without success. The attack along the Ancre had originally been planed for 15 October, as part of the battle of the Ancre Heights, but had been postponed repeatedly by bad weather. By November the original plan had been reducing in scope from an attempt to push the Germans back up to five miles along the Ancre to one to capture Beaucourt and push the Germans back at most two miles.

This was a strong sector of the German front. The first British objective involved an advance of 800 yards and would require the capture of at least three lines of trenches. The next target was the German second line, from Serre south to the Ancre. Finally it was hoped to capture Beaucourt, on the Ancre.

The attack would be launched by II Corps south of the river and V Corps to the north, with V Corps carrying out the main offensive. The attack immediately north of the river was to be carried out by the 63rd (R.N.) Division, under Major-General C. D. Shute. This was the first time they had taken part in an attack on the Western Front, and so extra care was taken to make sure everybody knew what was expected of them. Amongst their officers was Lieutenant-Colonel B. C. Freyberg, later to hold high command in the Second World War, who commanded the Hood Battalion (the Naval battalions were named after famous sailors – Hood, Drake, Nelson and Hawke). The division captured the German front line despite heavy German resistance.

Further north the attack made less progress, and so despite Freyberg’s optimism the attack on Beaucourt was delayed until the next day. 51st Division captured Beaumont Hamel, and 2nd Division managed to capture parts of Redan Ridge, but further north no progress was made.

The attack was renewed on 14 November. This time the 63rd Division was able to secure Beaucourt, which fell at 10.30am. The success at Beaucourt encouraged Gough to plan for a more ambitious offensive, but Haig ordered him to wait until after he could return from the Chantilly Conference of 15-16 November.

One final attack was made, on 18-19 November. This began in snow and sleet and descended into chaos. On the right of the line the 4th Canadian Division captured its first objectives, but elsewhere little was achieved.

The attack was a relative success. Beaumont Hamel and Beaucourt were captured, but Serre and the northern part of the German line remained untouched. Once again mud intervened to help the defenders, preventing the use of the few available tanks, and making all communication difficult. All the early successes on the Ancre achieved was the creation of a British held salient on the Ancre, which proved to be a very dangerous area to be posted over the winter of 1916-17.

Amongst the casualties on the Ancre was the writer H.H. Munro, better known as Saki, killed by a sniper’s bullet on 14 November during the attack on Beaumont Hamel.

Rickard, J (20 September 2007), Battle of the Ancre, 13-19 November 1916 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ancre.html
Zie ook http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_ancre_3.htm
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ancre

The War Diary for Ancre Attack on 13 November 1916
(written by H Lecky, Captain, 2nd in command on behalf of Lt Col E St G Smith)


Sir

In accordance with our BM 868 dated 15th Nov 1916, I have the honour to submit the following history of the action, as regards my Unit from zero hour on.

Before Zero. From the time the battalion entered their assembly places and up to zero, only three minor casualties occurred, one broken ankle, one shell shock and one other wound from shell fire.

Zero. At zero the battalion advanced and occupied our own front line and support trenches (Gordon and Roberts) as laid down. Very few casualties were sustained in doing so, the same being the case whilst in these trenches and up to zero + 46 minutes when we moved forward in four waves. During this time the enemy was bringing his barrage to bear on the ground we had left, Sunken Road, Carnlea and Buckingham Palace Rd. My Battalion HQ being in the latter place.

Zero + 46 min. The battalion advanced in four waves and met little opposition until within 20 yards of the German wires. The mist at this time was very thick and one could only see some 25 yards to the front and flank. At this point the Bosche machine Guns opened a heavy fire more especially in front of my 3 left companies. Also several machine guns were enfilading the line from our left Beaumont Hamel direction. Snipers were busy and were endeavouring to pick off the officers.

My left company commander reports that he was never in touch with the division on his left, nor saw any of them during the preliminary stages of the advance. The majority of the losses sustained were caused immediately in front of the enemy front wire, and especially in front of the strong post which was subsequently found to be a medical dugout, which extended underground from their front their front trench to their reserve trench and which had 4 entrances in each line. This dugout was capable of taking 1500 men, had electric plant installed, an ammunition store and was evidently used to reinforce the different lines as well as an Aid Station. The Bosches had machine guns covering each entrance and various snipers scattered around in between. Two of the entrances in the first line were subsequently bombed by two bombing parties led by 2nd Lts McMahon and Cox, and occupants surrendered. Both officers were wounded in the enterprise and a special report is being rendered about them.

This eased the pressure in the Front on my left, which had been partly held up, and batches of men, led by the few remaining officers and NCOs who collected men around them, went through. Time about 9am. My right company had pushed through with the first advance and carried on to the enemies second line. finding them more or less exposed. Small parties under NCOs were detached to advance and guard the left, and it was two of these parties which Father Thornton afterwards led, and which captured seven Bosches who informed them of the whereabouts of a German Battalion and its HQ, who apparently were taking shelter from our heavies and barrage. These two parties then advanced under Father Thornton and the remainder of the battalion + staff surrendered after some parleying and a little firing ( I append report of Sgt McCormack)

Battalion HQ. I moved forward with by battalion HQ at zero + 1.5 having previously sent an officer over with the first waves to select a suitable HQ in Bosche second line. I also informed by runner the signal section and OC 4th Bedfordshire Regt of the time and place that I was crossing our front parapet. We met no opposition until some 30 yards from the wire when we came into a heavy machine gun fire and fire from snipers. I here lost 2 officers of my HQ and several other ranks. I also came upon Lt Phillips with his section of 190 Brigade Machine Guns and odd Dubliners who were sheltering from the fire in shell holes. As far as I could see there was only one gap in the wire to our right front, and with the aid of Lt Phillips who brought a machine gun to bear in the direction we were being fired on from and also some men who I posted to keep the enemies snipers down, the whole party along with the machine gun section got through the gap ) I here lost Lt Bailey, my adjutant).

On getting into the Bosche front trench, I ordered 2nd Lt McMahon to organise a bombing party and to proceed to the left up the trench and bomb and snipe the Bosches who were holding up my left companies. This he did with ability, and afterwards I found out that 2nd Lt Cox had also on his own initiative gone forward against the strong point with a bombing party and some snipers. The actions of this latter officer I particularly wish to bring to notice, as besides shooting 3 snipers himself, he saved the lives of many of his comrades and permitted the advance on the left front, which was held up, by seizing 2 of the entrances to the Strong Post dugout, capturing the MGs there and the enemy party with them. Going forward again he was dangerously wounded in the head by a bomb flung by a Bosche who had previously surrendered.2nd Lt McMahon then sent a party down and occupied the Medical dugout, finding the German doctors and some wounded and unwounded German officers and men.

After sending off the bombing party under 2nd Lt McMahon. and trying to clear up the situation on my left hand, I proceeded with my HQ to the second enemy trench, and shortly afterwards got in touch with Major Wills of the 4th Beds Regt, and also Lt Col Cartwright and Lt Col Hutchinson commanding 1st and 2nd Royal Marines Light Infantry. I sent parties to my left and front to clear up the situation. There was a considerable MG enfilading fire coming in to us from my left and left rear. Also snipers all over the place.

Father Thornton had been with me up to this time, and he here left me and he went forward with a party of my men about 30 strong, who had joined us under Sgt McCormack and Sgt Priest. I had no officers left on my staff at that time, all having been killed or wounded, except 2nd Lt Cox who had gone off with the aforementioned bombing party. The patrols on my left came back to say they could not find any of our own troops towards that flank, but that Bosche snipers and MGs were enfilading the ground in that direction. Time about 9am.

Scattered parties of various Battalions now began to arrive, and I found a Strong Post on my left with 190th MG section and one Lewis gun. I saw Lt Col Cartwright and Major Wills again & orders came through to push forward every available man, so I sent forward all available, including 3 guns of the 190th MG Section + Lewis Gun, and got in touch with trench mortars who had arrived in Bosche front line + 188 MG Section, asking the latter to send me on a proportion of his guns, but he replied that he had orders not to go forward, but protect flanks and look out for counter attacks. The mist was still very thick and I could get no information concerning my left.

About 12 noon I fond my left safe, and men belonging to the left companies going forward. 2nd Lt Cox was carried in wounded and some of my men up the trench to the left reported that there was an entrance to a large dugout some distance up in that direction and that two German officers (medical) and others wished to surrender. I sent Lt Commander Sprang to take their surrender, he had preciously arrived at my HQ from the front with Father Thornton and his party + 400 prisoners and I detained him to act as my adjutant as he had no men of his own with him and could not find his own battalion. He did very excellent work while with me.

In the dugout which I made my battalion HQ, one of my runners brought up 12 prisoners absolutely cowed. Lt Commander Sprang informed me that he had been as far as the Beaucourt Road, and that Bosche MGs and snipers were busy there, but no other opposition and small parties off all units were on green line and Station Road. Much the same information I received from the Brigade. Shortly afterwards I received orders to proceed to Hamel with as many men as I could collect. The majority of my men had gone forward and 15 officers had become casualties . It was then dark. I collected what men I could and with the remnants of my staff reported to 190th Infantry Brigade HQ where where we were sent on to support the advance on Beaucourt. My party was used in carrying bombs and sandbags up to the red line. which had been captured by 1 HAC.

In the forenoon of 14th November I received orders to withdraw my men and reorganise on original assembly position and collect all men of 190 Infantry Brigade and occupy Roberts trench. Stragglers belonging to 188th and 189th brigades were to be sent back to their HQ. I according collected all men and occupied Roberts Trench until relieved on the morning of 16th Nov when I led my men back into shelters on the Englebelmer - Martinsart Road.

http://www.dublin-fusiliers.com/battaliions/10-batt/campaigns/1916-ancre.html

THE ROYAL MARINES ON THE ANCRE-13TH NOVEMBER 1916

Te lezen op http://www.royalnavaldivision.co.uk/ancre.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War diaries of the 92nd Infantry Brigade, including the 10th East Yorkshire Regiment, the Hull Commercials

13 November 1916 - 'Our carrying parties of 10 E York R with bombs sent forward. Report that 2nd line is taken and troops are advancing on 3rd line. Enemy inclined to surrender...'

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/wardiary_gallery_04.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1916

13 November 1916: different units, same day
Lieutenant, Temporary Captain Anthony Dorman MC, 30, died while serving with 13th (Service) Battalion, the East Yorkshire Regiment (4th Hull). His brother Arthur, 20, died as a Private with the 24th (Service) Battalion, the Royal Fusiliers (2nd Sportsmans). Sons of John Joseph and Emily Keziah Dorman, of Brooklands, Horeham Road, Sussex, neither has a known grave and both are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing. The brothers are also commemorated in the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Warbleton, East Sussex.

Also 13 November 1916
Alexander, 19, and George Henderson, 22, died while serving with 1/5th Battalion, the Seaforth Highlanders, in the attack on Beaumont Hamel. Sons of James and Ann Henderson, of West Dunnet, Caithness. Alexander lies in Mailly Wood Cemetery, but George has no known grave and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Action of El Mughar, 13 November 1917

The action of El Mughar, 13 November 1917, was part of the wider battle of Junction Station*, which saw the British capture the railway junction that linked the Turkish Seventh Army around Jerusalem with the Eighth Army on the coast.

The original plan had been for the infantry of XXI corps to capture the villages of El Mughar and Katrah, west of Junction Station. By early morning the 52nd Division had reached those positions, but had been unable to make progress. The same was true of the cavalry attack further north, which also came to a halt against strong Turkish positions.

At 2.30 pm it was decided to try a cavalry attack on the position at El Mughar. The Turkish position was a ridge than ran north from the Wadi Mughar, with the village of El Mughar at the southern end of the ridge. It was a well chosen position, and the Turks were well entrenched on the ridgeline, but barbed wire was in short supply, and the trenches at El Mughar were unwired.

The attack was made by two cavalry regiments – the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry and the Dorset Yeomanry, supported by the Berkshire Battery of the Royal Horse Artillery, six machine guns, with the Berkshire Yeomanry in reserve and help from a field artillery brigade of the 52nd Division.

The attack began at 3.00 pm. The attacking forces had to cross 3,000 yards of open ground, sloping up towards the ridgeline. After trotting for the first 2,000 yards, the cavalry galloped across the last 1,000 yards, and soon gained their objectives on top of the hill. The long uphill advance took its toll on the cavalry horses, preventing a pursuit down the eastern side of the hill.

Further south El Mughar village remained in Turkish hands. It was attacked by two battalions from the 52nd Division and the dismounted Berkshires. Fighting continued until 5 p.m. when the village was in British hands.

The victory at El Mughar helped to clear the way to Junction Station, which fell on the next day. The three cavalry regiments involved lost 16 dead and 114 wounded, as well as 265 horses (one third of the total). The heaviest losses amongst the horses were suffered by the Dorsets, after they dismounted, losing the advantage of speed. The Turks lost 400 dead and 1,100 captured.

The attack at El Mughar was only one of a series of cavalry charges that were a feature of the campaign in Palestine. The British army in Palestine had an overwhelming advantage in cavalry (mostly from Australia and New Zealand although the regiments that fought at El Mughar were all English). They were also helped by a general lack of barbed wire on the Turkish side, which allowed the cavalry to keep up the momentum of its charge right into the Turkish lines.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/action_el_mughar.html
*zie hieronder
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Junction Station, 13-14 November 1917

The battle of Junction Station, 13-14 November 1917, saw the British defeat a Turkish attempt to defend the line of the railway to Jerusalem. The centre of that line was Junction Station, where the line from Jerusalem joined the main north-south line. East of Junction Station the Turkish line ran almost alongside the railway, but ran through hilly country unsuitable for the British cavalry. West of Junction Station the line ran west to the villages of El Mughar and Katrah, on either side of the Wadi Jamus, and then turned north.

General Allenby decided to turn the Turkish right flank. XXI corps would attack south of Katrah, along the line of the main road from Gaza to Junction Station. On their left the Yeomanry and Anzac Cavalry Divisions would attack to their left, from El Mughar to the north.

The advance began at 7 a.m. on 13 November. After pushing back Turkish outposts, the advance became stuck at around 10 a.m. Both the 52nd Division, attacking Katrah and El Mughar, and the cavalry further north, came to a halt in front of strongly located defences.

The key to the British victory was a dramatic cavalry charge at El Mughar. At 2.30 pm it was decided to use the 6th Mounted Brigade to attack the Turkish lines on the ridge north of the village. Despite having to advance across 3,000 yards of open terrain, the cavalry successfully reached the ridge (Action of El Mughar), and their dismounted reserve captured the village itself.

To their right Katrah was eventually captured by the 52nd Division. The next day, 14 November, the 75th Division captured Junction Station, cutting the Turkish rail link to Jerusalem. By the end of the next day, the British had captured Ramleh and Ludd on the railway line north, and had advanced east to Latron.

The Turkish armies were now split in two. The Eighth Army, under Kress von Kressenstein, was on the coast, protecting the railway north, while the Seventh Army was isolated at Jerusalem. All supplies had to come over poor roads from Nablus, forty miles to the north, or from Amman, on the Hejaz Railway, fifth miles to the east. However, their position around Jerusalem was a strong one, protected by the difficult ground of the Judean Mountains. Allenby’s first attempt to capture Jerusalem, would grind to a halt in those hill (battle of Nebi Samwil).

Rickard, J (3 September 2007), Battle of Junction Station, 13-14 November 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_junction_station.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 November 1917 → Commons Sitting: PRINCE ALBERT OF SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN.

HC Deb 13 November 1917 vol 99 cc206-7 206

Major HUNT asked the Prime Minister whether, in view of the apprehension felt and expressed by people in this country, and especially amongst the soldiers, as to the correspondence with this country of Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein, who is employed on the Intelligence Department of the German Army in Berlin, he can give this House and the country the assurance that all letters to and from this prince are examined by the Censor?

Mr. MACPHERSON I would refer my hon. and gallant Friend to the answer which was given yesterday on this subject to the hon. Member for West Clare by my right hon. Friend the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

Major HUNT Did the right hon. Gentleman make it quite clear that all letters to and from this prince were examined by the Censor—it is not clear to me?

Mr. MACPHERSON My recollection is that he did make it quite clear that all the letters of Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein were treated in the same way as the letters of everyone else, and were controlled by the Censor

Commander WEDGWOOD Can we be certain that all letters are censored, because all letters are not carefully read?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/nov/13/prince-albert-of-schleswig-holstein
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paul Painlevé

Paul Painlevé (5 December 1863 – 29 October 1933) was a French mathematician and politician. He served twice as Prime Minister of the Third Republic: 12 September – 13 November 1917 and 17 April – 22 November 1925. (...)

Painlevé was a leading voice at the Rapallo conference that led to establishment of the Supreme Allied Council, a consultative body of allied powers that anticipated the unified Allied command finally established in the following year. He appointed Ferdinand Foch as French representative knowing that he was the natural Allied commander. On Painlevé's return to Paris he was defeated and resigned on 13 November 1917 to be succeeded by Georges Clemenceau. Foch was finally made commander in chief of all Allied armies on the Western and Italian fronts in May 1918.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Painlev%C3%A9
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Rothschilds as Recruiters for Buckinghamshire in the First World War

(...) The British Jewry Book of Honour lists three Rothschilds who had commissions in the regiment during the First World War. One of them, Major Evelyn Achille de Rothschild, was wounded on 13 November 1917 in the cavalry charge at El Mughar in the Palestine campaign and died four days later. His cousin Neil Primrose also fell. He was the son of Hannah Rothschild who, to the chagrin of both families, married the 5th Earl of Rosebery. Neil Primrose, Evelyn de Rothschild's cousin, also served in the Royal Bucks Hussars in Palestine. He was killed on 15 November 1917.

http://www.hellfire-corner.demon.co.uk/snillop.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to Colonel P. C. Joyce

[?Azrak], 13.11.17

Dear Joyce,

Please tell Feisul we rode to El Jefer, and found Zaal and the Abu Tayi afraid to come with us. Sherif Ali and Auda did their best to work them up, but they were not for it. The Abu Tayi have almost revolted against Auda, and I doubt whether we shall see much more good from them: they have seen too much good from us.

Thence we went to Bair, where we found Mifleh ibn Zebn. He with Fahad and Adhub ibn Zebn went with us, and did most splendidly. I think them three of the best Arab sheikhs I have met. Fahad was badly hit in the face in the train scrimmage, but will, I hope, recover.

From Bair we rode to Azrak where we met the Serahin. Sheikh Mifleh ibn Bali rode with us to the bridge, and did his best, but he and his tribe are not in it with the Beni Sakhr.

Emir Abd el Kader came with us to Azrak, where we made the plan of attack on the bridge at Tell el Shehab. He said he would come with us, and we had no idea anything was wrong, but the same day he rode off (without warning either Ali or myself or the Arabs with us) to Salkhad, where he is still sitting. Tell Feisul I think he was afraid: much talk, and little doing, in his way. Neither Ali nor myself gave him any offence.

Tell el Shehab is a splendid bridge to destroy, but those Serahin threw away all my explosive when the firing began, and so I can do nothing - If the Turks have not increased their guard we can do it later: but I am very sick at losing it so stupidly. The Bedu cannot take the bridge, but can reach it: the Indians can take it, but cannot reach it!

From Tell el Shehab we turned back to the Railway south of Deraa, and destroyed two locomotives. We must have killed about 100 Turks too. It was a most risky performance but came off all right. Little Ali is a very plucky youth, and came to my rescue on each occasion very dashingly. He will certainly get himself killed unless he continues to travel with a person as skilful and cautious as myself. Besides being in the thick of it when anything happens he keeps very good control of the Arabs on the march, and has been very decent to me - I think he is quite in the front rank of Sherifs - but he really must go easy with himself, or I will want a successor to travel with!

Please give Feisul (and Snagge) any extracts you like from the report to Clayton enclosed. Tell him the whole country of the Hauran fellahin is slipping towards him, and they only require arms, money and a shock to get all moving together. We can get no news of what happened at Gaza.

I think the attached might go to the Press. Ali deserves a mention, for he is a very uncommon youth. My personal requests in another paper.

Yours,

T. E. Lawrence

[Enclosed with the above] - On November the eleventh a detachment of the Northern Army of Sherif Feisul, under the command of Sherif Ali ibn Hussein el Harith, attacked the Railway and troop trains between Deraat and Amman. Two locomotives and some coaches were completely destroyed, and a bridge blown up. The Turks lost heavily in killed and wounded. The Arabs lost seven men.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/171113_joyce.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Hughes, speech quoted in the The Age (13th November 1917)

October 28, 1916, was a black day for Australia: it was a triumph for the unworthy, the selfish, and anti-British in our midst. It was a triumph for the insidious propaganda that had been actively at work in every Allied country since the war began. Our troops in the trenches were taunted by the enemy - "Australians, your comrades have deserted you." The defeat was interpreted by those sections amongst us who had led the campaign as proof that Australia was war weary, that their campaign of lies and poisonous propaganda had done its work sufficiently, and not only misled the electors on this one question, but had sapped their loyalty to the Empire.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWhughesW.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 Diary of Rowland Smith of the 30th Reinforcements NZMR

November 13th - All the other boys arrived and as soon as they were aboard we cast off and anchored in the harbour till 4 pm. Then we weighed anchor and started on our long journey across the ocean.
The weather was clear and fresh with a good breeze ahead and our old ship parted the waves some as she steamed out around Wellington Heads and headed out into the straight. Darkness followed and a sparkling sunset and the hills of dear old N.Z. faded – for how long providence was to decide.

New Zealand Mounted Rifles Wounded Machinegunner.

A dramatic photograph from the camera of machinegunner Trooper Rowland Smith. This image taken somewhere in Palestine 1918. No other information is written on the obverse of the photo but the puggaree hat band flashes show that the operation being carried out is involving a large contingent of the NZMR. The hat on the left sitting on the ground carries the patch colours of the Wellington Mounted Rifles, the two other troopers supporting the wounded machinegunner are both members of the Canterbury Mounted Rifles. Trooper Smith was himself a member of the Auckland Mounted Rifles Machinegun section.

Rowland arrived in Egypt from New Zealand with the 29th to 34th Reinforcements on the S.S. Tofua, his only written notes is a comprehensive Trip Diary that finnishes with his arrival at Camp in Egypt 27th December 1917. This places the events in the above photograph in the last year of the war. The NZMR Brigade was in action either in the Jordan Valley, Jericho or involved in the attacks around Es Salt or Amman in the last year of 1918.

http://www.nzmr.org/reinforcements.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Death of Queen Liliuokalani

Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii died November 11, 1917 — and she was quite a woman – a monarch and a composer on the ukulele (and other lesser instruments).

The event was marked on 13 November 1917 by the Evening Ledger in a most flippant way — with a poem.

For Liliuokalani

Queen Lil is dead.
Dead in Hawaii!
Low lies her head,
There in Hawaii.
Sorrowful cries
Doubtless arise
There where she lies
Dead in Hawaii.

Let tears be shed
Here in this country;
She’s just as dead
Here in this country.
Why should we not
Mourn her a lot?
Great chance we’re got
Here in this country!

Let us impound
Each ukulele!
Rob of its sound
Each ukulele.
Make the strings bust;
Rip ‘em and thrust
Mute in the dust
Each ukulele!


Farewell to thee.

http://reyalpeleluku.wordpress.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 13 November 1918, Page 3

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19181113.2.9
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 November 1918 → Commons Sitting → INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC.

BRITISH ARMY (ENGLAND AND FRANCE).


HC Deb 13 November 1918 vol 110 cc2656-8 2656

Viscount WOLMER asked the Under-Secretary of State for War (1) how many cases of influenza in the British Army in France and England were reported during the months of September and October, 1918; what hospital accommodation was there to cope with these cases; whether any fresh hospital accommodation was provided; if so, how many beds; (2) how many officers and men of the British Army died in England and 2657 France, respectively, from influenza or pneumonia during the months of September and October, 1918?

Mr. MACPHERSON I regret that the figures for the United Kingdom for the month of October are not yet available. The figures for September are:

Influenza—
Officers: 110 [admissions], nil [deaths]
Other Ranks: 2,791 [admissions], 18 [deaths]

Pneumonia—
Officers: 20 [admissions], nil [deaths]
Other Ranks: 361 [admissions], 75 [deaths]

I cannot give the figures in the detailed form desired in the case of France. In September there were 92 admissions to hospital on account of pneumonia and 24 deaths. The figures for October are: 2,702 admissions to hospital and 1,044 deaths due to pneumonia, and 24,894 admissions to hospital and 421 deaths due to influenza.

As regards hospital accommodation, on 1st September there were 96,000 vacant beds in hospitals in the United Kingdom, and since that date an additional 8,000 beds have been provided.

Viscount WOLMER Is the right hon. Gentleman taking steps to have the mortality statistics of the Army compared with the civilian statistics?

Mr. MACPHERSON I cannot say whether we are doing that now, but I will see that it is done.

Viscount WOLMER asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether he has received complaints in regard to the overcrowding of hospitals; and whether steps have been taken in all those hospitals in which influenza or pneumonia cases are numerous to reduce the number of inmates?

Mr. MACPHERSON No complaints have been received regarding overcrowding in hospitals. It is impossible in every case to reduce the number of inmates owing to the widespread and very extensive nature of the outbreak, and the fact that the hospitals are at present strained to the utmost by the arrival of wounded from overseas.

Viscount WOLMER asked the Under-Secretary of State for War how many cubic feet of air space per patient is considered necessary by the military authorities for patients in military hospitals suffering from influenza and pneumonia?

Mr. MACPHERSON At present 600 cubic feet of air space has been provided as a minimum in every hospital, and with adequate ventilation and efficient warming there is no evidence that this is insufficient for ordinary cases. It is recognised that cases of influenza and pneumonia require additional air space, and this is given whenever practicable.

Viscount WOLMER Will the right hon. Gentleman say how much extra allowance is given for influenza and pneumonia cases?

Mr. MACPHERSON I cannot say offhand, but I shall be delighted to make inquiries and inform my hon. Friend.

Colonel McCALMONT Is it not the case that in many districts where there has been this epidemic the figures have been very much lower for the troops than for the civilian population?

Mr. MACPHERSON That is so.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/nov/13/british-army-england-and-france
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Herbert Sulzbach*, diary entry (13th November, 1918)

We now keep meeting small or large parties of British or French prisoners moving west on their way home. What a splendid mood they must be in compared with us.

In spite of it all, we can be proud of the performance we put up, and we shall always be proud of it. Never before has a nation, a single army, had the whole world against it and stood its ground against such overwhelming odds; had it been the other way round, this heroic performance could never have been achieved by any other nation. We protected our homeland from her enemies - they never pushed as far as German territory.

* Herbert Sulzbach was born in Germany in 1894. He volunteered for the German Army in 1914 and served until 1918. He kept a diary during the First World War and this was published as With the German Guns, Fifty Months on the Western Front, 1914-1918 in 1935.
Sulzbach, who was Jewish, was forced to leave Germany in 1937. He moved to England and during the Second World War served in the British Army where he was involved in re-educating German prisoners. After the war Sulzbach worked for the German Embassy in London. Herbert Sulzbach died in 1985.
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWsulzbach.htm


http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWarmistice.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13-11-1918: feestelijke intrede van Albert en Elisabeth in Gent

(...) De komst van de koning en de koningin was al een dag eerder aangekondigd en Gent was in feeststemming. Na Brugge is dit de tweede provinciestad waar Albert en Elisabeth, vergezeld van kroonprins Leopold, hun plechtige intrede doen.

Om 11 uur vertrok de optocht in de Gebroeders De Smetstraat, door het stadscentrum, om te eindigen op de Kouter. Het was zonnig en zo schrijft de correspondent van de Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant: "Ook straalt een zon ... in de ogen der duizenden mensen, die reeds van zeer vroeg op straat zijn, allen getooid met de Belgische kleuren, allen met vrolijk gemoed ....."

Op de Kouter wachtte een zeer grote menigte het koningspaar en de kroonprins op. Het volk zit er in de bomen en op de daken, balkons en lantaarnpalen.

Als de stoet op de Kouter aankomt is er eerst "een ogenblik diepe stilte en dan breekt een gejubel los. Een indrukwekkende, onbeschrijflijke ovatie. Men wuift met zakdoeken, hoeden, petten, vlaggen, men weent en juicht, het regent bloemen uit de ramen", aldus nog de correspondent van NRC.

Ook de Belgische troepen die op de Kouter defileerden, werden toegejuicht. Een muziekkapel speelt "De Vlaamse leeuw" en de menigte zingt mee.

Daarna is het koninklijk gezelschap ontvangen op het stadhuis. Daar werden ze verwelkomd door waarnemend burgemeester Edward Anseele, de koning antwoordde in het Nederlands en feliciteerde de Gentenaars. "Liever dood dan Duits, dat was de stem van de Vlaamse bevolking. In naam van het land, in naam van het leger, bedank ik u allen voor uw moed en vaderlandsliefde", zei de vorst.

Ga voor de foto's naar https://www.vrt.be/vrtnws/nl/drafts/Wetenschap/13-11-1918-feestelijke-intrede-van-albert-en-elisabeth-in-gent/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 8:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hier gebeurde het… Sarphatistraat, 13 november 1918
Marius van Melle & Niels Wisman, 2002

Revolutie in de Sarphatistraat - De revolutie in Nederland ging in 1918 niet door, maar in de Amsterdamse Sarphatistraat vielen op 13 november wel vier dodelijke slachtoffers en een aantal ernstig gewonden. Soldaten openden vanuit de Cavaleriekazerne in de Sarphatistraat het vuur op de menigte. Het was de week waarin de Eerste Wereldoorlog ten einde liep, de Duitse keizer Wilhelm II naar Nederland vluchtte en Duitsland in het teken stond van de revolutie. Op 12 november had de sociaal-democratische leider Pieter Jelles Troelstra in het parlement de revolutie in Nederland aangekondigd. In Amsterdam belegden socialisten en communisten de ene protestvergadering na de andere. Vanuit de rest van het land werden militairen naar de hoofdstad gedirigeerd om een mogelijke revolutie de kop in te drukken.

Op die bewuste avond was er een rumoerige vergadering geweest in het gebouw van de Diamantbeurs op het Weesperplein. Er was gesproken door onder anderen Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis (de oude en zieke aartsvader van het Nederlandse socialisme), Henriëtte Roland Holst en David Wijnkoop, toen nog beiden behorend tot de linkervleugel van de Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij. Op initiatief van Wijnkoop werd besloten om naar de Oranje-Nassaukazerne te gaan (ook in de Sarphatistraat, iets voorbij de Muiderpoort), waar de artillerie gehuisvest was. Hier zou de vrijlating worden geëist van een kameraad die eerder die dag gearresteerd zou zijn. De anarchist Dirk Schilp herinnert het zich later zo: “We marcheerden dus in de richting van de Oranje-Nassaukazerne. En niet drie of vier man in elke rij, maar wel tien! Zo moeten ze zich ook in Moskou gevoeld hebben tijdens de revolutie.”

Ook de schrijver Maurits Dekker was er bij: “Ik liep betrekkelijk vooraan en kon zien dat in de Cavaleriekazerne in de Sarphatistraat gelegerde soldaten de ramen van de bovenverdieping openden en naar buiten keken, toen de stoet naderde. Uit de stoet werd de soldaten toegeroepen, dat zij naar beneden moesten komen, om zich bij de demonstratie aan te sluiten.” Dekker zag dat de poort van de kazerne verlicht was en dat het hek met een dikke ketting gesloten was. Ineens liep het mis. Ik weet alleen, dat het licht in de poort plotseling uit ging, dat ik dadelijk daarop een rij vuurstralen zag en kogels hoorde fluiten. Er werd gegild, een deel der demonstranten vluchtte, terwijl anderen zich op de grond wierpen. Ook ik had mij laten vallen. Er volgden nog een paar salvo’s en opnieuw hoorde ik het fluiten van de kogels.”

Schiet maar! - Waarom openden de soldaten het vuur? Het Algemeen Handelsblad kwam de volgende dag met het ooggetuigenverslag van de administrateur van de kazerne. Volgens hem duwde de menigte tegen het afgesloten hek en wilde een man met een bijl een van de schildwachten te lijf gaan. Andere ooggetuigen zeiden dat de man met bijl het op de ketting van het hek gemunt had. De administrateur maakte verder melding van een man die de borst ontblootte en riep “schiet maar”. Deze man zou zelf met een revolver op een schildwacht hebben geschoten en die hebben geraakt in de mouw. Daarop loste de wacht een salvo met wachtpatronen en kort daarop nog een. Tot zover het relaas vanuit de kazerne. Uit de verhalen van de demonstranten werd duidelijk dat er in ieder geval een oploop ontstond voor de Cavaleriekazerne, dat de betogers de soldaten opriepen zich bij hen aan te sluiten en dat er aan het hek gemorreld werd. Het blijft onzeker of het hek geforceerd werd.

Uit de vele ooggetuigenverslagen valt op te maken dat de kop van de stoet zich al ter hoogte van de Muiderpoort bevond toen de soldaten begonnen te vuren. Daar marcheerden naast een aantal met rode doeken uitgedoste soldaten ook de revolutionaire kopstukken Henriëtte Roland Holst en David Wijnkoop. Onder hun leiding liep een gedeelte van de stoet na het tumult door naar de Oranje-Nassaukazerne. Ter hoogte van de poort van de kazerne werd de sterk uitgedunde demonstratie tot staan gebracht door twintig soldaten met het geweer in de aanslag. Er ontstonden wat schermutselingen en Henriëtte Roland Holst sprak de soldaten heldhaftig toe. Ze kon de mannen niet overhalen zich bij de betogers aan te sluiten, maar de stoet kon uiteindelijk wel doorlopen. Van David Wijnkoop is later gezegd dat hij op dat moment weinig doortastend optrad en omwonenden om een glaasje water vroeg. Toen andere demonstranten Wijnkoop uitnodigden om ernst te maken met het bevrijden van de gevangen kameraad, bleek deze daar nu een stuk genuanceerder over te denken dan tijdens de vergadering in de Diamantbeurs. Over dat glaasje water is later nog veel geschreven, maar of Wijnkoop er nu wel of niet om gevraagd heeft, blijft onzeker. Feit is wel dat de demonstranten de kazerne verder ongemoeid lieten.

Een grijsroze stukje vislever - De volgende dag meldden de kranten dat bij het schietincident drie mensen werden gedood en zes ernstig gewond. Een vierde slachtoffer overleed later aan zijn verwondingen. Onder de doden was de man met de revolver. Het bleek de 17-jarige Jan van Putten te zijn, werkzaam op de afdeling expeditie van het Amsterdamse stadhuis. Tegen zijn moeder had hij die avond gezegd dat hij naar de bibliotheek ging. Hij werd getroffen in het hoofd en over zijn doorzeefde hoofddeksel is achteraf nog het nodige te doen geweest. Maurits Dekker verhaalt in zijn herinneringen hoe een man op de brug bij de Plantage Middenlaan hem onder een lantaanpaal iets liet zien: Een lichtbruine slappe hoed, in de gleuf waarvan een grijs-roze stukje vislever, zo groot als een walnoot lag. Een stuk van de hersens van mijn vriend, zei de man. Het hoofddeksel kwam later nog terecht bij Dirk Schilp, die het heeft over een doorzeefde pet. Schilp liet de pet een paar dagen later aan David Wijnkoop zien, maar die was helemaal niet geschokt. “Maar wat doe je gek? Dacht je dat er een revolutie gemaakt kon worden zonder bloed en tranen?”

Op 14 november was er in Amsterdam weinig meer te merken van de revolutionaire stemming. Dat gold overigens voor het hele land. Troelstra was op 13 november zelf al gaan twijfelen aan de door hem aangekondigde revolutie. Door confessionele partijen en vakbonden werden inmiddels voorbereidingen getroffen voor massabijeenkomsten tégen de revolutie en vóór de monarchie. Gezagsdragers die in het begin van de week nog twijfelden aan de toekomst van het bestaande bestel, begonnen hun zelfvertrouwen terug te krijgen. Achteraf gezien was die bloedige dertiende november in Amsterdam misschien wel een belangrijk keerpunt in de Nederlandse revolutie die niet doorging.

https://www.onsamsterdam.nl/component/content/article/15-dossiers/949-hier-gebeurde-het-sarphatistraat-13-november-1918
Zie ook hier: https://www.amsterdam.nl/stadsarchief/nieuws/revolutie/

Revolutiekoorts - Amsterdam 13 november 1918

Op woensdag 13 november 1918 maakte een korte schietpartij in de Amsterdamse Sarphatistraat een abrupt einde aan de (angst)droom van een rode revolutie in Nederland. Na vier jaar massaal bloedvergieten en vernietiging was die week de Eerste Wereldoorlog ten einde gekomen. Muitende militairen en stakende arbeiders overspoelden de straten van Berlijn, Wenen en Boedapest, zoals ze dat in het voorgaande jaar in Sint-Petersburg en Moskou hadden gedaan. Tronen wankelden en de oude machten leken één voor één ten prooi te vallen aan een onstuitbare opmars van de revolutionaire massa.

Ook Nederland beleefde in november 1918 een aantal spannende dagen. In de literatuur wordt deze episode gewoonlijk samengevat als ‘Troelstra’s vergissing’. Veel minder bekend is dat terwijl Troelstra in Rotterdam en Den Haag zijn vergissing beging, in Amsterdam daadwerkelijk revolutionaire arbeiders het leven lieten bij een gewapend treffen met het leger. Het onhandige optreden van de politiek leider van de SDAP heeft de gelijktijdige schermutseling van revolutionair-socialisten in Amsterdam volledig in de schaduw gesteld.

Revolutiekoorts draait de rollen om en geeft daarmee ook een alternatieve verklaring voor Troelstra’s vergissing. Wat gebeurde er precies op 13 november in Amsterdam? Wie waren daarbij betrokken? En hoe is het Amsterdamse verhaal in de vergetelheid geraakt?

https://geschiedenis-winkel.nl/revolutiekoorts-dennis-d-bos.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 8:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Maori group": 'Armistice Celebrations in Levin, Nov. 13. 1918'

This photograph taken by Leslie Adkin shows the people of Levin celebrating the Armistice. Declared on 11 November 1918, this marked the end of the hostilities in Europe.

In his diary entry for 13 November, Adkin noted: 'Peace celebrations + a lovely fine day for the rejoicings. Drove down to Levin about 10 am. Town full of people + a large number in fancy dress.'

https://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/908484
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 8:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Algemeen Handelsblad, 13 november 1917: Hulp voor het Armenische volk

In gevolge de circulaire van het Hoofd-Comité: "Hulp voor het Armenische volk", heeft zich hier ter stede een plaatselijke commissie gevormd bestaande uit dr. L. Heldring, voorzitter, S.P. van Eeghen, prof. mr. D.P.D. Fabius, dr. J. F. Hoekstra, ds. H. Koffijberg, dr. Ph. Kohnstamm, prof. mr. Paul Scholten, E. Sillem, mej. L. C. A. van Eeghen, 462 Heerengracht, secr.-penningm.

Deze commissie laat eerdaags de circulaire van het Hoofd-comité aan verschillende ingezetenen te zenden. Tot nu toe is aan giften gaarne ƒ 4676,30 ontvangen. Verdere giften worden in ontvangst genomen door de penningmeesteresse.

http://www.armeensegenocide.info/pers-nl/AH-13-11-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 8:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 november 1917 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Clement Baets is op 21 mei 1893 geboren in de Limburgse stad Halen. De ongehuwde zoon van Charles en Maria Catherina Debruyn treedt in 1913 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

Op 13 november 1917 slaat een obus in op een schuilplaats in Sint-Jacobskapelle. Hierbij wordt Clement Baets omstreeks 14 uur gedood door de opgelopen verwondingen aan het hoofd en de buik.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 15 november 1917 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Hoogstade, oorspronkelijk onder het grafnummer 854. Nu rust hij daar onder het grafnummer 716.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/13-november-1917-1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 8:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: 13 NOVEMBER 1917, FLOUR STOCKS RUNNING DANGEROUSLY LOW

Following a request by the States Food Control Committee, the Lieutenant Governor has telegrammed and written to the UK Government on the matter of flour supplies. The need to replenish local stocks is becoming urgent, General Wilson assured the Food Controller in London. If no flour is forthcoming, then ‘the island is threatened with a very serious shortage at an early date’.

Jersey presently consumes 80 tonnes of flour per week, most of which needs importing. While there is some local production of wheat, the island’s mills are unable to turn out more than 20 tonnes of flour weekly. What’s more, it’s very low quality, given the antiquated nature of the milling machinery.

To avoid a catastrophic situation, the States have maintained a policy of keeping one month’s supply of flour in protected storage. This is reducing, however, with no more than 120 tonnes expected left by early December.

Orders have been placed with several UK flour merchants, the Lieutenant Governor has explained to the British Government, but rail network congestion and a lack of available shipping is preventing its delivery to Jersey. Hopefully the powers that be in Whitehall can help expedite matters.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/13-november-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 8:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdun, 13 november 1916
Door Luuk Koelman

Even iets anders. Twee proefpagina’s die ik heb gemaakt voor een graphic novel over Verdun en de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Een pil van een stripboek moet het worden, vele honderden pagina’s dik. Uiterlijk 2014 (honderd jaar na het begin van de Grote Oorlog) moet mijn magnum opus af zijn. Daar kan die A.F.Th. nog een puntje aan zuigen!

Te bekijken op https://koelman.com/verdun-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 15:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 November 1915: Winston Churchill resigns from the British Cabinet...

... and goes to serve on the Western Front as an infantry officer with the Royal Scots Fusiliers.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/13-november-1915/

Winston Churchill’s World War Disaster
CHRISTOPHER KLEIN

A quarter-century before boldly leading Britain in World War II, Winston Churchill spearheaded a World War I military debacle—Gallipoli.

As 1914 staggered to its bloody conclusion, the “Great War” dissolved into a horrific grind along the 500 battle-scarred miles of the Western Front. Britain and France had suffered nearly a million casualties in the war’s first four months alone, and the deadly stalemate in the trenches increasingly frustrated Britain’s 40-year-old First Lord of the Admiralty who asked the prime minister, “Are there not other alternatives than sending our armies to chew barbed wire in Flanders?” That rising star of British politics, Winston Churchill, believed he had the solution for breaking the impasse—a second front.

Although the political head of the Royal Navy, the ambitious Churchill also fancied himself a military strategist. “I have it in me to be a successful soldier. I can visualize great movements and combinations,” he confided in a friend. The young minister proposed a bold stroke that would win the war. Abandoning his earlier plan to invade Germany from the Baltic Sea to the north, he now championed another proposal under consideration by the military to strike more than 1,000 miles to east. He proposed to thread his naval fleet through the needle of the Dardanelles, the narrow 38-mile strait that severed Europe and Asia in northwest Turkey, to seize Constantinople and gain control of the strategic waterways linking the Black Sea in the east to the Mediterranean Sea in the west. Churchill believed the invasion would give the British a clear sea route to their ally Russia and knock the fading Ottoman Empire, the “sick man of Europe” that had reluctantly joined the Central Powers in October 1914, out of the war, which would persuade one or all of the neutral states of Greece, Bulgaria and Romania to join the Allies.

Britain’s war cabinet backed the plan, which had been under consideration even before the Ottoman Empire joined the war. The first step would be an attack on the Gallipoli Peninsula on the northern side of the Dardanelles, an operation that Churchill, who now became the plan’s chief advocate, knew would be risky. “The price to be paid in taking Gallipoli would no doubt be heavy,” he wrote, “but there would be no more war with Turkey. A good army of 50,000 and sea-power—that is the end of the Turkish menace.”

The British War Office, however, refused to send as many troops as he wished, but Churchill sent in the fleet anyway. The attack on Gallipoli began on the morning of February 19, 1915, with long-range bombardment of the peninsula by British and French battleships. Despite initial success, the attack stalled as the weather grew worse and Allied minesweepers drew heavy fire. Under pressure from Churchill to continue the attack, the British naval commander in the region, Admiral Sackville Carden, suffered a nervous collapse and was replaced by Vice-Admiral John de Robeck. Days later on the morning of March 18, British and French battleships entered the straits and launched an attack. Again, the Allies had the upper hand in the initial hours until undetected mines sank three ships and severely damaged three others. With half of his fleet out of commission, de Robeck ordered a withdrawal. Churchill wanted his commander to press on, but de Robeck wanted to wait for army support forces, which were now being provided after all. As the fleet hesitated, it lost the advantage.

In the wake of the failed naval attack, the Allies launched a major land invasion of Gallipoli on April 25. The month-long delay allowed the Turks to rush reinforcements to the peninsula and boost their defenses, and the British, French and members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) could make little progress from their beachheads. The turquoise waters of the Aegean Sea turned crimson as the stiff Turkish resistance struck down the waves of Allied forces that washed ashore. The Battle of Gallipoli became a slaughter and quickly morphed into a stalemate just as bloody, just as pointless as that on the Western Front. In the first month after storming the peninsula, the Allies lost 45,000 men. The ill-fated Gallipoli Campaign lasted nine months before the evacuation of the last Allied troops in January 1916. Each side sustained 250,000 casualties with 46,000 Allied troops and 65,000 Turkish troops dead.

The invasion had been scuttled by incompetence and hesitancy by military commanders, but, fairly or unfairly, Churchill was the scapegoat. The Gallipoli disaster threw the government into crisis, and the Liberal prime minister was forced to bring the opposition Conservatives into a coalition government. As part of their agreement to share power, the Conservatives wanted Churchill, a renegade politician who had bolted their party a decade earlier, out from the Admiralty. In May 1915, Churchill was demoted to an obscure cabinet post.

“I am the victim of a political intrigue,” he lamented to a friend. “I am finished!” Displaying the steely determination that would serve him well in World War II, however, the marginalized Churchill did not slink from the fight. In November 1915, the statesman turned soldier. Churchill resigned from the government, picked up a gun and headed to the front lines in France as an infantry officer with the Royal Scots Fusiliers. After several brushes with death, he returned to politics in 1917 as the munitions minister in a new coalition government headed by Liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George.

Churchill, however, remained haunted by Gallipoli for decades. “Remember the Dardanelles,” his political opponents taunted when he stood up to speak in the House of Commons. When running for Parliament in 1923, hecklers called out, “What about the Dardanelles?” The “British Bulldog” embraced Gallipoli as a brilliant failure. “The Dardanelles might have saved millions of lives. Don’t imagine I am running away from the Dardanelles. I glory in it,” he responded.

Although many shared the views of a political insider who in 1931 speculated that “the ghosts of Gallipoli will always rise up to damn him anew,” Churchill became prime minister in 1940 with Britain once again embroiled in war. Upon taking office, he wrote, “All my past life had been a preparation for this hour and for this trial.” That included Gallipoli.

https://www.history.com/news/winston-churchills-world-war-disaster

Churchill resigns from cabinet

13 November 1915: The resignation of the First Lord of the Admiralty, deeply though it is to be regretted, is perfectly intelligible and very natural

We deeply regret the resignation of Mr. CHURCHILL. His absence from the counsels of the Government is a great national loss, for in our opinion - though we dare say that there are few now who share it - Mr. CHURCHILL had the best strategic eye in the Government.

That he has not been included in the new War Committee of the Cabinet is the occasion rather than the cause of his resignation. No doubt, even after all that has been said by members of the Government, he feels that his exclusion is a censure on the Dardanelles expedition, with which his name is associated in the popular mind.

Our own view, frequently expressed, is that though the expedition has been so mismanaged the strategical idea has been proved by what has happened since to have been not only sound but brilliantly prescient. There have been two opportunities of winning the war. One was last October, before the fall of Antwerp. The other was this spring, when a great effort by land and sea would have won through to Constantinople and saved us all our troubles in the East now. Mr. CHURCHILL saw them both at the time, and though his ideas were adopted, neither in Flanders nor in the East did they have anything like a fair chance.

Perhaps this thought is in his mind when he says in his letter that even when decisions of policy are rightly taken the speed and method of execution may determine their success. But bitterly though he must feel the attacks on his war policy, he would not have left the Government had he felt that he could do effectual service in it. He leaves it because he refuses to be responsible for a war policy over which as a mere member of the Cabinet not on the War Committee he has no control.

And if we are right in our estimate of the bent of Mr. CHURCHILL’s abilities, his resignation, deeply though it is to be regretted, is perfectly intelligible and very natural. In the North of England we think we understand Mr. CHURCHILL. His faults are known to us, but even if they were greater than they are they would be hidden by the occasional flash of his genius. And such illumination is not so common in the conduct of our affairs that we can afford its eclipse. Of the personal tragedy of Mr. CHURCHILL’s decision this is not the time to speak. For the whole air is heavy with such tragedies.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/nov/13/winston-churchill-resignation-first-lord-amiralty-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 15:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bunter Abend am 13. November 1915 – St. Veit an der Glan

Omschrijving - Zu Gunsten des Fonds für Witwen und Waisen des 3. Korps – Veranstaltet von der Stadtgemeinde und dem Offizierskorps der Garnison – Programm und Mitwirkende – „Kostüme und Ausstattung wurden vom Herrn Direktor Rosche des Klagenfurter Stadttheaters in liebenswürdiger Weise zur Verfügung gestellt“ - Kartenpreise – Erneute Vorstellung am 14. November zum ermäßigten Preis – Für die Stadtgemeinde: Dr. Karl Domenig – Für das Offizierskorps: Emil R. v. Schludermann

Poster... https://www.europeana.eu/portal/nl/record/9200290/BibliographicResource_3000073523046.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 15:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Staat van Beleg in Nieuwer-Amstel - 1915

Verklaring Staat van Beleg uit 13 november 1915. Zo is de Eerste Wereldoorlog in Nieuwer-Amstel begonnen.

Poster... http://www.amstelveenweb.com/fotodisp&fotodisp=35
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 15:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuws van het Godfried Bomans Genootschap

13 november 1914 - In Rotterdam overlijdt de sigarenfabrikant Godefridus Antonius Keunen, oom Frits, de peetoom van Godfried Bomans. Hij was getrouwd met Elisabeth Reijnard, een zus van Godfrieds moeder. Bomans dankt zijn voornaam aan deze oom. De naar Godefridus komt veelvuldig voor in de familie Keunen. Frits Keunen werd op 13 september 1853 in Bergeijk geboren.

https://www.facebook.com/godfriedbomansgenootschap/photos/a.567591119978123/910092679061297/?type=1&theater
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 15:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belgische vluchtelingen in de gemeente Bedum

(...) Ook aan de gemeente Bedum werd een aantal Belgische vluchtelingen toegewezen. Op dinsdag 13 november 1914 laat de Commissaris van Politie te Groningen de burgemeester van de gemeente Bedum weten dat Belgische vluchtelingen kunnen worden afgehaald te Groningen. De burgemeester bevestigt daarop de volgende dag: No. 259/14 november 1914/aan de Commissaris van Politie/….. dat door de gemeentepolitie van Bedum zijn afgehaald op maandag jl. 25 vluchtelingen, terwijl bovendien door particuliere ingezetenen van Bedum zijn afgehaald 14 personen…..

Op diezelfde woensdag ontvangt de burgemeester een regeringstelegram met de volgende inhoud: Morgen donderdag vertrekken van hier met trein van 1 uur 7 namiddag voor Uwe gemeente ongeveer 26 vluchtelingen – wil veldwachter zenden donderdagmorgen 8 uur of zo spoedig mogelijk daarna. Politiebureau Martinikerkhof/Commissaris der Koningin w.g. Geertsema.
Het totaal der Belgische vluchtelingen in de gemeente Bedum is dus 65 personen.

Kort daarop zendt de Commissaris der Koningin aan de burgemeester een dubbel stel persoonskaarten ter registratie van deze vluchtelingen; één stel dient aan hem ingevuld te worden geretourneerd terwijl het andere stel aan de Centrale Commissie in Amsterdam moet worden gezonden. De burgemeester schrijft: No. 265/19 oktober 1914/aan de Commissaris der Koningin/….. bevestigt de aankomst van de Belgische vluchtelingen en bevestigt de terugzending van de ingevulde personaliakaarten…..

De burgemeester reageert ook op een brief van de Commissaris der Koningin waarin gezinspeeld wordt op een eventueel spoedige terugkeer van de Belgen. De burgemeester informeert bij de Belgen hoe zij hierover denken en hij antwoordt: No. 266/20 oktober 1914/aan de Commissaris der Koningin/….. dat alle vluchtelingen in kennis zijn gesteld van het schrijven der Commissaris der Koningin. Allen wensen echter ten aanzien van terugkeer een afwachtende houding aan te nemen: de één uit vrees voor het leven, de ander voor mishandeling, een derde omdat hij meende geen voedsel te vinden….. (...)

Lees verder op https://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/vluchtelingen/opvang-in-bedum.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 15:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dagboeken en brieven over den oorlog 1914-1918 - Karel van de Woestijne

13 November (1914].
Het is een zoete najaars-ochtend, met slierten zilveren en gouden nevelen. Geen gerucht. De straten leêg haast, en alle bewegingen stil, als in watten gewikkeld.

Ik loop weêr de halte-Laeken voorbij. Daar staat een trein met gekwetsten. Natuurlijk altijd dezelfde menigte die staat toe te kijken, maar ditmaal zwijgend, zonder roeren, als onder een nieuwen, bevreemdenden indruk.

In den zoeten, den teederen, jongen en weemoedigen dag: die rood-bruine trein; slechts de kleurloosheid van een paar Duitsche soldaten, die er gedwee bij wachten.

Maar uit het neergelaten raampje van een coupé: het hoofd van een neger, een oneindig-triest negers-hoofd, witte ooge-bollen in het zéér donkere gelaat, en op de dikke lippen een onbeschrijfelijken glimlach van gelatenheid. Op het hoofd een roode fez. Over den schouder de wit-linnen strook van een draagband, waar de linkervoorarm in ligt. Een gewond, krijgsgevangen Senegalees...

Het volk kijkt schuw toe. Het is het medelijden niet als voor andere gekwetsten. Het is ook dezelfde, soms te drukke, belangstelling niet. De droeve neger, die als Franschman heeft gevochten, is een vreemde, een vreemde. En men ziet dat hij droef is tot in zijne ziel, maar het is of men die droefheid niet meê kon gevoelen, met iets als schaamte dat men het niet kan...

Heel den dag is de melancholie van dat zwarte gelaat op mij blijven wegen. Ik heb het drukke boulevard vermeden, ben gaan loopen, door den rozig-opblankenden dag, langs de Begijnhofkerk, en het plaatsje ervoor, waar de roerlooze kastanjelaars staan. Dat plaatsje, dat in zijne rechtlijnige vierhoekigheid zooveel ruischlooze stilte omsluit, ligt geen vijf minuten van het drukste deel der stad af: de Beurs. Ik hoor van hier de krantenventers huilen. Maar het is mij of ik had vermocht me-zelf uit de levende wereld te bannen, de afschuwelijklevende wereld. - Ik wandel om het pleintje, alleen met den klank van mijn stap. Uit een huis komt een priester die, ik weet niet waarom, mij groet... Ik wandel. Mijne melancholie gaat iets als bitterheid worden. Waarom?... De weemoed, dien ik zoo zeer heb bemind, wordt als bedruppeld met gal. Het is, of het niet mocht, thans weemoedig te zijn. Het mag misschien niet, thans het leven te ontvluchten...

Ik keer weêr naar huis. Een huisgenoot zegt, zelfgenoegzaam: ‘Ik begin lengerhand in mijne oude gewoonten te komen’. Ik antwoord, bits: ‘En als die oude gewoonten nu sléchte gewoonten waren?’

Pijnlijke stilte.

Dan hoor ik, in de naakte seringa van mijn tuintje, het krijschend bedel-gepiep van het roodborstje, dat mij ieder jaar den winter aankondigt. Er komt eene oneindige mistroostigheid in mij...

https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/woes002verz10_01/woes002verz10_01_0077.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2018 15:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meerle tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog - De dagboeken van burgemeester Lodewijk Van Nueten (1914-1918)

Vrijdag 13 november 1914
Ruw weder, regen en in den dag storm.

Van de morgen om 8 uren waren wij bezig de voorraad gereed te maken voor de wachten van het voetvolk, toen de overste van de Ulhanen mij kwam spreken over wat er moest geschieden. Hij was met drij Ulhanen en trokken de kamer in. Het eerste was klagen over de logis van drij huizen. Cees Adriaensen, Jan Martens en Sus Hendrickx en hij bevool mij daar te gaan zeggen dat het essen beter moest zijn. Sie habben drie malen spek geessen en alter speck. Das verdragen wir nicht. Er muss fleisch sijn. Bij vrustukken, brot, buter en kaase, koffie, mittagesse soupe, kartufels, ½ pond fleisch, eine flasche bier of wein, gemuse. Nich quarteulens, allein koffie mit brot und buter en iets darbij. Avondessen quarteufels mit fleisch, brot, butter en iets een flesch bier. Wir Duitschers essen gut. Ik bracht dat de menschen maar gering waren. Nein, nein, sie haben veel vee, sie haben van alles eieren, fleisch of een hunder. Das is gut, milk nicht. Er was noch een bij die wat fransch sprak. On ne nous tonne rien à Hoogstraeten pas avoine [hai?] aussi à Meerle. Ik antwoorde de menschen zijn goed maar niet veel moderne. Jaja, nich moderne. Toen begonnen wij dat de affiches moesten geplakt worden te Meerle, Meersel en Meer en ook naleven. Opgave toen dat er nog is, graan en malen. Ik vroeg of zegde dat malen bijna onmoglijk was. Ja ja malen seker, es steet daar op de affiche. Ik mus twee velo habben van mij om nach Meer te rijden. Sie mussen daar fur zorgen. Ik moest weeral toegeven. Toen smoorde ze goed sigaren, dronken eenige borrels elixir en het was middag. Ik liep om velo bij Havermans en Jan Van Dun. De secretaris hadt eenen beloofd maar hij was seffens plat. Ze kwamen niet af. Het weder was slecht. Wij konden de affichen niet in het kasken houden en bang dat ze zouden geheel verscheuren. Toen trok ik naar den Elsakker om die boeren wat te onderrichten en trof hun juist aan bij den mulder van Dun. Daar kwam er al eenen uit het akker, die hadt een haas geschoten. Nu trokken wij naar de boeren. Ik gaf ze wat raad en zegde hun wat er te doen was. De menschen waren bang. Ik zoude hun zoo veel helpen als ik kon. Alles op zijn best gesteld, maar er zijn Duitschers bij, hard, wreed en gezichten om U schrik aan te jagen. Het zijn onaangename menschen. Sie mussen besser pensioen habben, zegde ze meermaals tegen mij. J’etais aussi aimable possible, maar van hunnen kans pas la moindre amitie. Nu ken ik Ulanen, reken niet op toegeven en bescherming. Ze zijn zeker van moeijelijker omgang. Het zijn Saxerscher. De overste zag niets zo goed als Duitschland. Toonde mij schoenen, broek getten en nog eenen grooten mantel. Alles eerste klas, eene kloeken grosse mannen. Zij gelooven niet dat die Belgen zoo klein en fijn, niet goede soldaten. Duitschers kennen alles besser. Die Engelen (Engelschen) hebben drij dagen gewerkt aan die brug te Grobbendonck en niet gemaakt. De Duitschers drie stunden (uren) en alles was fertig (Duitsch stoeffen). Er zijn geen Engelsche te Grobbendonck geweest, maar ik luisterde maar. (Engelen is Engelsmannen). Wij spraken ook over de brug van Boom (die sullen wel maken). Over koolen vroeg ik of er geen koolen in Duitschland waren. Hoe hie, soo weel koolen. Er was van alles genoeg. Zelfs petroleum en salz. Ik luisterde, maar geloofde hem niet. ik nam toch veel attentie om stand wille. Nu heb ik mijnen buik vol en ben maar onrustig voor morgen. De burgemeester van Wuustwezel is nu gevlucht. Eene kas wapens die in de grond gestopt was, is gestolen en daar om is hij gevlucht naar Holland.

Vermeeren komt aan met 5 zakken bloem. Men krijgt niets meer. Die hadt hij onder de zemelen geladen en meer dan 6 keeren tegengehouden. Dus geen bloem meer. Alle dagen dichter bij den hongersnood. Wie kan zoo iets denken over 4 maanden.

Niets gehoord van het leger. Voormiddag geschut gehoord, maar het stormde en regende veel. Deze dag telt weeral voor eenen. Nu trachten wij te rusten als Gode belieft en wachten den dag van morgen af.

http://www.meerle14-18.be/2014/11/13/vrijdag-13-november-1914/
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